Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Apple 1 manual & warranty 1976
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Apple 1 manual & warranty 1976

198
views

Published on

An orgianl Apple 1 manual and warranty issued by the Byte Shop in Palo Alto 1976. Sharing this document in respect of the origins of focus on user needs in computing.

An orgianl Apple 1 manual and warranty issued by the Byte Shop in Palo Alto 1976. Sharing this document in respect of the origins of focus on user needs in computing.

Published in: Technology, Business

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
198
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. SPECIFICATIONS MICROPROCESSOR: MOS TECHNOLOGY 6502 Microprocessor Clock Frequency: 1.023 MHz Effective Cycle Frequency: (Including Ref r e sh Waits) 0.960 MHz VIDEO OUTPUT: Composite positive video, 75 ohms, l e v e l adjustable between z e r o a n d -15Vpp. Line Rate: F r a m e Rate: Format: 40 c h a r a c t e r s / l i n e , 24 lines; with automatic scrolling Display Memory: Dynamic shift r e g i s t e r s (1K x 7) C h a r a c t e r Matrix: RAM MEMORY: 16-pin, 4K Dynamic, type 4096 (2104) On-board RAM Capacity: POWER S U P P L E S : Input Power Requirements: Recommended T r a n s f o r m e r s : 8K bytes (4K supplied) @ 3 amps, +/- 1 2 Volts @0.5 amp and -5 Volts @ 0.5 a m p s +5 Volts 8 t o 10 Volts AC (RMS) @ 3 a m p s , 26 t o 28 Volts AC (RMS) Center-Tapped, Stancor # P-8380 o r T r i a d F31-X Stancor # P-8667 o r T r i a d F40-X A P P L E COMPUTER COMPANY 770 Welch Road, Suite 154 P a l o Alto, California 94304 Phone: (415) 326-4248 1A.
  • 2. The Apple Computer i s a complete micro'~,ocessor system, consisting of a Mos Technology 2 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r and support hardware, inJral video display electronics, dynamic m e m o r y and r e f r e s h hardware, and fully regulated power supplies. It contains resident s y s t e m monitor software, enabling the u s e r , via the keyboard and display, t o write, examine, debug, and run p r o g r a m s efficiently; thus being a n educational tool f o r the learning of m i c r o p r o c e s s o r programming, and a n aid in the development of software. plied), although static m e m o r y m a y a l s o be used. All refreshing of dynamic memory,' including a l l " off board" expansion memory, i s done automatically. The e n t i r e s y s t e m timing, including the m i c r o p r o c e s s o r clock and a l l video signals, originates in a single c r y s t a l oscillator. The integral video display section and the keyboard interface r e n d e r s unnecessary the need f o r a n external teletype. The display section cont a i n s i t s ownmemory, leaving a l l of RAM for u s e r p r o g r a m s , and the outputformat i s 40 c h a r a c t e r s / line, 24 lines /page, with auto scrolling. Almost any ASCII encoded keyboard will interface directly with the Apple system. This manual i s divided into t h r e e Sections: The board h a s sockets f o r upto 8K bytes of the 16 pin, 4K type, RAM, and the system i s fully expandable t o 65K via the edge connector. The system u s e s dynamic m e m o r y (4K bytes sup- - F u r t h e r , the printed circuit board contains a "breadboard area", in which the u s e r can add additional " on board " h a r d w a r e ( f o r example, e x t r a P I A f s , ACIAfs, EROMfs, and s o on). - Section I GETTING THE SYSTEM RUNNING. Section I1 USING THE SYSTEM MONITOR. (listing included) Section I11 EXPANDING THE SYSTEM. P l e a s e r e a d s e c t i o n I thoroughly, before attempting t o "power-up" your system, and study 1 Section I 1 carefully before attempting t o expand your system. In addition to this manual, Apple "Tech Notes" a r e available which contain example s of expansion hardware and technique s . * SECTION I GETTING THE SYSTEM RUNNING The Apple Computer i s fully assembled, tested, and burned in. The only external devices n e c e s s a r y f o r operation of the s y s t e m are: An ASCII encoded keyboard, a video display monitor, and AC power s o u r c e s of 8 to 10 Volts (RMS) @ 3 a m p s and 28Volts (RMS)@1 amp. The following three a r t i c l e s describe the attachment of these devices in detail. Keyboard: Any ASCII encoded keyboard, with positive DATA outputs, interfaces directly with the Apple s y s t e m via a "DIP" connector. If your keyboard h a s negative logic DATA outputs ( r a r e ) , you can install i n v e r t e r s (7404) in the breadboard a r e a . The strobe can be either positive o r negative, of long o r s h o r t duration. The "DIP" keyboard connector (B4) h a s inputs f o r seven DATA lines, one 87 ST ROBE line, and two normally-open pushbutton switches, used f o r RESET ( e n t e r monitor), and CLEAR SCREEN ( s e e schematic diagram, sheet 3 of 3 , f o r exact circuitry). T h i s keyboard con- nector a l s o supplies t h r e e voltages, (+5V, +12V, and-12V) of which one o r m o r e m a y be n e c e s s a r y to operate the keyboard. P i n 15 of the keyboard connector (B4) m u s t be tied t o +5V (pin 16) f o r normal operation. NOTE: The s y s t e m monitor accepts only upperc a s e alpha (A-F, R). It i s therefore convenient, though i t ' s not essential, tohave a keyboard equipped with upperc a s e a l p h a l o c k (usuallyintheelectronics). E i t h e r of the following suggested c i r c u i t s m a y be used t o provide alpha lock capability, if needed, and can be built in the breadboard a r e a . Bp-wB Vcc(+S) 1 FROM KBD l5 14 00 1 3 T O KBD CONNECTOR 184)
  • 3. Display: The Apple Computer outputs a composite video signal (composite of sync and video information) which can be applied t o any standard raster-scan type video display monitor. The output l e v e l is adjustable with the potentiometer located n e a r the video output Molex connector, J 2 . T h e additional two outside pins on the Molex connector supply $5 andi-12 volts, to be used in future Apple a c c e s s o r i e s . The composite video signal can a l s o be modulated a t the p r o p e r RFfrequency, with a n inexpensive commercially available device , and applied to the antenna t e r m i n a l s of a home television r e c e i v e r . Since the c h a r a c t e r f o r m a t i s 40 c h a r a c t e r s / l i n e , all television r e c e i v e r s will have the n e c e s s a r y bandwidth t o display the e n t i r e 40 c h a r a c t e r s . Two l a r g e manufacturers of video display monitors, which connect directly with the Apple Computer, a r e Motorola and Ball. The mating four-pin Molex connector i s provided. - AC P o w e r Sources: Two incoming AC power s o u r c e s a r e required f o r operation: 8 t o 10 VAC (RMS) a t 3 amps, and 28VAC (RMS) Center-Tapped a t 1amp. These AC supplies enter the s y s t e m a t the Molex connector, J l . The 8 to10 volts AC provides the raw AC f o r the + volt supply, while the 28 VCT sup5 plies the r a w AC f o r the +12 and -12 volt supplies, and t h e -5V supply is derived f r o m the -1 2V regulated output. I The board, a s supplied, requires no m o r e than 1 . 5 a m p s DC f r o m the t5V supply, while the regulator is capable of supplying 3 amps. The remaining 1.5 amps DC f r o m the t5V supply i s available f o r u s e r h a r d w a r e expansion (provided ratings a r e employed). r c e of the raw AC voltages a r e two commercially available trans, Stancor P / N P-8380 o r equivalent ( 8 t o at 3 amps), and Stancor P I N P-8667 o r , . Simply w i r e the equivalent ( 28VCT a t 1 a m p ) secondaries to the mating six-pin Molex connector supplied, and w i r e the p r i m a r i e s i n parallel, as shown in the schematic diagram (power s u p d section, Dwg. No. 00101, s h e e t 3 of 3. - & TEST PROGRAM After attaching the keyboard, display, and AC power sources, you can t r y a simple p r o g r a m to t e s t if your s y s t e m and the attachments a r e functioning together properly. While i t does not t e s t many possible a r e a s of the m i c r o p r o c e s s o r system, the t e s t p r o g r a m will t e s t f o r the c o r r e c t attachment of the keyboard, display, and power supplies. FIRST: Hit the RESET button t o e n t e r the s y s t e m monitor. A backslash should be displayed, and the c u r s o r should drop t o the next line. SECOND: 4Y 0 : A9 b 0 b AA b 20 b E F b FF b TypeE 8 b 8A b 4C b'2 b i b - ( R E ~ ) ( 0 i s a z e r o , NOT a n alpha "0"; b m e a n s blank o r space; and (RET) h i t the "return" key on the keyboard) THIRD: Type0 A (RET) ( T h i s should print out, on the display, p r o g r a m you have just entered. ) . FOURTH: R (RET) Type( R means run the p r o g r a m . ) THE PROGRAM SHOULD THEN PRINT OUT ON THE DISPLAY A CONTINUOUS STREAM OF ASCII CHARACTERS. TO STOP THE PROGRAM AND RETURN TO THE SYSTEM MONITOR, HIT THE "RESET" BUTTON. TO RUN AGAIN, TYPE : R (RET).
  • 4. ifhmetic mode. FF09 FFgC I i l ! 8D 11 D0 8D 13 D0 FF0F C9 D F FFll F0 1 3 F F 1 3 C9 9B F F 1 5 F0 03 FF17 C8 F F 1 8 10 0F F F l A A9 DC F F l C 20 E F FF FFlF A9 8D F F 2 1 2 1 E F FF 4 F F 2 4 A0 01 F F 2 6 88 F F 2 7 30 F 6 F F Z ~AD 11 DQ FFZC 10 F B FFZE AD 1 0 D 0 F F 3 1 99 00 02 F F 3 4 20 E F FF F F 3 7 C9 8 D I F F 3 9 D0 D4 F F 3 B A0 FF F F 3 D A9 00 F F 3 F AA F F 4 0 4A F F 4 1 85 2B FF43 C8 F F 4 4 B9 09 02 F F 4 7 C9 8D F F 4 9 F0 D4 F F 4 B C9 AE F F 4 D 90 F 4 F F 4 F F g F0 F F 5 1 C9 BA F F 5 3 F0 E B F F 5 5 C9 D2 F F 5 7 F0 3B F F 5 9 86 28 F F 5 B 86 29 F F 5 D 84 2A F F 5 F B9 (40 02 F F 6 2 49 B0 F F 6 4 C9 0A F F 6 6 90 06 F F 6 8 69 88 F F ~ A C9 F A NOTCR ESCAPE GETLINE BACKSPACE NEXTCHAR SETSTOR SETMODE BLSKIP NEXT ITEM M a s k f o r DSP d a t a d i r e c t i o n r e g i s t e r . S e t i t up. KBD and DSP c o n t r o l r e g i s t e r mask. Enable i n t e r r u p t s , s e t CAI, CB1, f o r positive edge s e n s e / o u t p u t m o d e . LDY #$7F STY DSP LDA #$A7 STA KBD C R STA DSP C R C M P #$DF BEQ BACKSPACE C M P #$9B BEQ ESCAPE INY B P L NEXTCHAR LDA #$DC * J S R ECHO LDA #$8D JSR ECHO LDY #$a1 DEY BMI GETLINE LDA KBD CR B P L NEXTCHAR LDA KBD STA IN, Y JSR ECHO C M P #$8D BNE NOTCR LDY #$FF LDA #$a0 TAX ASL STA MODE INY LDA IN, Y 11 11 I t , Output it. CR. Output it. Initiallize text index. Back up text index. Beyond s t a r t of l i n e , r e i n i t i a l i z e . Key r e a d y ? Loop until ready. L o a d c h a r a c t e r . B7 should b e '1 I . Add t o t e x t buffer. Display c h a r a c t e r . CR? No. R e s e t t e x t index. F o r XAM mode. - C M P #$8D BEQ GETLINE C M P #$AE BCC BLSKIP BEQ SETMODE NEXTHEX-. C M P #$D2 BEQ RUN STX L STX H STY YSAV LDA IN, Y EOR #$I30 C M P #$@A BCC DIG ADC #$88 C.MP #$FA BCC NOTHEX ? Yes. ESC ? Yes. Advance text index. Auto ESC if > 127. 'Advance t e x t index. Get character. CR? Skip d e l i m i t e r . Yes, s e t STOR mode. "R"? Yes, run u s e r prbgram M a p digits t o $@ -9. . Hex l e t t e r ? No, c h a r a c t e r not hzx. H e x digit .to MSD of Shift count.
  • 5. 6502 HEX MONITOR LISTING (continued) FF75 FF77 FF79 FF7A FF7C FF7D FF7F FF81 FF83 FF85 FF87 FF89 FF8B FF8D FF8F FF91 FF94 FF97 FF99 FF9B FF9D FF9F FFAl d ~ ~ L%IX; i FFAB FFAD FFBQ FFB2 FFB5 FFB7 FFBA FFBC FFBF FFCl FFC4 FFC7 FFC8 FFCA FFCC FFCE FFDQ FFD2 FFD4 FFD6 FED8 FFDA FFDC FFDD FFDE FFDF FFE0 FFEl FFE4 FFE5 FFE7 FFE9 26 28 26 29 CA Db F 8 C8 DQ E Q C4 2A F d 97 24 2B 50 1 0 A5 28 81 26 E 6 26 DQ B5 E 6 27 4C 44 FF 6C 24 00 30 2B A2 02 B5 27 95 25 95 23 CA A 2 7 D0 F $fi, A5 25 20 DC FF A5 24 20 DC FF A9 BA 20 E F FF A9 A0 20 E F FF A1 24 20 DC FF 86 2B A5 24 ,C5 28 A5 25 E 5 29 B0 C l E 6 24 D0 02 E 6 25 A5 24 29 07 10 C8 48 4A 4A 4A 4A 20E5FF 68 29 0F 09 B0 C9 BA ROL L ROL H DEX BNE HEXSHIFT INY BNE NEXTHEX CPY YSAV BEQ ESCAPE BIT MODE BVC NOTSTOR LDA L STA (STL, X) INC STL BNE NEXTITEM INC STH TONEXTITEM J M P NEXTITEM JMP (XAML) RUN NOTSTOR BMI XAMNEXT LDX #$02 SETADR LDA L-1 ,X STA STL-1, X STA XAML-1, X DEX BNE SETADR BNE PRDATA NXTPRNT LDA #$8D JSR ECHO LDA XAMH JSR PRBYTE LDA XAML JSR PRBYTE LDA #$BA JSR ECHO PRDATA LDA #$A0 JSR ECHO LDA (XAML, X) JSR PRBYTE XAMNEXT STX MODE LDA XAML CMP L LDA XAMH SBC H BCS TONEXTITEM INC XAML BNE MOD8CHK INC XAMH MODBCHK LDA XAML AND #$07 B P L NXTPRNT PRBYTE PHA LSR LSR LSR LSR JSR PRHEX P LA PRHE X AND #$@F ORA #$BQ CMP #$BA Rotate into LSD. Rotate into MSD's. Done 4 shXts? No, loop. Advence text index. Always taken. Check next c h a r a c t e r f o r he, Check if L , H empty ( n o h e x digits). Yes, generate ESC sequence. T e s t MODE byte. B6 = 0 f o r STOR, 1 f o r XAM and BLOCK XAM LSD's of h e x data. S t o r e a t c u r r e n t ' s t o r e index'. Increment s t o r e index. Get next item. (no c a r r y ) . Add c a r r y t o ' s t o r e index' high o r d e r . Get next command i t e m . Run a t c u r r e n t XAM index. B7 = 0 f o r XAM, 1 f o r BLOCK XAM. Byte count. Copy h e x data t o ' s t o r e index'. And t o 'XAM index'. Next of 2 bytes. Loop u n l e s s X = 0. NE m e a n s no a d d r e s s t o print. CR. Output it. 'Examine index'high-order byte. Output i t in h e x f o r m a t . Low-order 'examine index' byte. Output it in h e x f o r m a t . ,I:,# Output it. Blank. Output i t . Get data byte a t 'examine index'. Output it in hex f o r m a t . 0-C MODE (XAM mode). Compare 'examine index' t o h e x data. Not l e s s , s o no m o r e data t o output. I n c r e m e n t 'examine index'. Check low-order 'examine index' byte F o r MOD 8' 0 Always taken. Save A f o r LSD. MSD t o LSD position. Output hex digit. R e s t o r e A. Mask LSD f o r h e x print. Add "0". Digit?
  • 6. HARDWARE NOTES Page 0 Variables XAML XAMH STL STH L H YSAV MODE 24 25 26 27 28 29 2A 2B Other Variables IN KBD KBDCR DSP D S P CR 200-27F Doll DQ13
  • 7. SECTION I11 HOW TO EXPAND THE A P P L E SYSTEM The Apple s y s t e m can be expanded to include m o r e m e m o r y and I 0 devices, via a 44-pin edge connector. The s y s t e m i s fully expandable to 65K, with the entire data and a d d r e s s busses, clocks, control signals ( i. e. IRQ, NMI, DMA, RDY, etc.), and power s o u r c e s available a t the connector. All a d d r e s s lines a r e T T L buffered, and data lines can drive ten equivalent capacitive loads (one T T L load and 130pf) without external buffers. All clock signals a r e T T L . The Apple s y s t e m runs a t approximately 1 MHz ( s e e spec sheet) and i s fully compatible with 6800/6500 style timing. DMA: T h r e e power s o u r c e s a r e available a t the edge connector: f 5 volts regulated, and raw DC (approximately +/- 14V) f o r the +12'V, -12V, and -5V supplies. If +12V, -12V, o r -5V supplies a r e required, EXTERNAL REGULATORS MUST BE USED. An e x c e s s of 1.5 a m p s f r o m the "onboardu regulated f5V supply i s available f o r expansion (assuming suitable t r a n s f o r m e r ratings a r e employed). E x e r c i s e g r e a t c a r e in the handling of the raw DC, a s no short-circuit protection i s provided. SOFTWARE CONSIDERATIONS: The sequences listedbelow a r e the routines used to r e a d the keyboard o r output to the display, The Apple s y s t e m h a s full DMA capabli F o r DMA, the DMA control line t r i - s t a t e s , a d d r e s s buss, thus allowing external devices t, control the buss. Consult MOS TECHNOLOGY 6502 Hardware Manual f o r details. ( F o r DMA use, the solder jumper on the board, m a r k e d "DMA", m u s t be broken. ) F o r the 6502 m i c r o p r o c e s s o r , the RDY line i s used to halt the p r o c e s s o r f o r single stepping, o r slow ROM applications. Refer t o Apple "Tech Notes" f o r examples. Read Key f r o m KBD: LDA KBD CR (D011) LDA KBD DATA ( D Q l o ) Output to Display: BIT DSP (D012) STA DSP (Do12) REFRESH: F o u r out of e v e r y 65 clock cycles i s dedicated t o m e m o r y refresh. A t the s t a r t of a ref r e s h cycle (150 n s a f t e r leading edge of 01), R F goes low, and remains low f o r one clock cycle. $42 i s inhibited during a r e f r e s h cycle, and the p r o c e s s o r i s held in 01 ( i t ' s inactive state). Dynamic m e m o r i e s , which m u s t clock during r e f r e s h cycles, should derive t h e i r clock f r o m 00, which i s equivalent t o 02, except that i t continues during a r e f r e s h cycle. Devices, such a s PIA1s, will not be affected by a r e f r e s h cycle, since they r e a c t t o 02 only. Refer t o Apple "TechNotesl' f o r a variety of inte riacing examples - . PIA Internal Registers: KBD Data I3010 High o r d e r bit equals 1. KBD Control Reg. D o l l High o r d e r bit indicates "key ready". Reading key c l e a r s flag. Rising edge of KBD s e t s flag. DSP DATA D012 Lower seven bits a r e data output, high o r d e r bit is display ready" input (1 equals ready, 0 equals busy) DSP Control Reg. D013 '
  • 8. RUN If m o r e than one s o u r c e f o r RDY u s e owen-collector gate 7401 (not '00) CS (Slow ROM a d d r e s s decoded) I I 1 , ' needed only f o r single INSTR mode STEP I -1, I Y p o S I N G L E lNSTRUCTlON SINGLE CYCLE SLOW ROM (NOTE: F e a t u r e s not needed may be omitted) SINGLE STEP FOR 6502 ADDRESS DISPLAY D0 Dl D2 D3 SYNC D5 Q5 100 ,.. SYNC I
  • 9. The Apple Computer Company hereby w a r r a n t s each of i t s products, and a l l components therein contained, to be f r e e f r o m defects in m a t e r i a l s a n d / o r workmanship f o r a period of thirty (30) days f r o m date of purchase. In the event of the occurrence of malfunction, o r other indication of f a i l u r e attributable directly to faulty workmanship a n d / o r mate rial, then, upon return of the product to the Apple Computer Company, a t 770 Welch Road, P a l o Alto, California, 94304 (postage prepaid), the Apple Computer Company will, a t i t s option, r e p a i r o r replace said products o r components the reof, t o what sve r extent Apple Computer Company shall deem n e c e s s a r y , to r e s t o r e said product to proper operating condition. All such r e p a i r s o r replacements shall be rendered by the Apple Computer Company, without charge t o the customer. 4 The responsibility for the failure of any Apple Computer product, o r component thereof, which, a t the discretion of the Apple Computer Company, shall have resulted e i t h e r directly o r indirectly f r o m accident, abuse, o r misapplication of the product, shall be assumed by the customer, andthe Apple Computer Company shall a s s u m e no liability a s a consequence of such events under the t e r m s of this warranty. While every effort, on the p a r t of Apple Computer Company, i s made to provide c l e a r and a c c u r a t e technical instruction on the use, implementation, and application of i t s products, the Apple Computer Company shall a s s u m e no liability in events which may a r i s e f r o m the application of such technical instruction, n o r shall the Apple Computer Company be held liable f o r the quality, interconnection, o r application of periferal products, which may have been recommended by Apple Computer Company, but which havenotbeensuppliedaspart oftheproduct. This warranty contains and embodies the l i m i t s of responsibility of the Apple Computer Company, with r e g a r d t o i t s products, and no other liability i s expressed, implied, o r should be assumed by the purchaser, and in no event shall the Apple Computer Company be held liable f o r the l o s s of time, effort, o r transportation costs, nor f o r l o s s of potential profits o r other consequentiallosses whichmight a r i s e f r o m the purchase, a s s e m bly, use, application, o r subsequent sale of the products of Apple Computer Company, n o r f r o m any instructions a n d / o r technical information thereto related. f d k C
  • 10. e ' a n p 111 m v $621 Union A%en+Qe Mf;3 1 2 514 $gsj @@4i137746g$

×