WISP ASSIGNMENT 2 Done by: TohMengHwee Ong Su Chiang ValenLuo Loh Chong Hoe
Content page Historical treatment of Thai Muslims by the Thai state prior to 2000 Factors that triggered the flare-up Muslim insurgency Insurgency in Yala, Pattani and Narathiwat Social inequality in Thailand Prejudices leading to discrimination of Thai Muslim Social, economic, and political factors Comparison of Thailand and Singapore Solution addressed and obstacle
Historical treatment of Thai Muslims by the Thai state prior to 2000 By: TohMenghwee
Historical treatment of Thai Muslims by the Thai state prior to 2000 Treatment of Thai Muslims in Yala, Pattani and Narathiwat Background: Yala, Pattani and Narathiwat located in Southern Thailand Home of ethnic Malays in Thailand In the 18th century, the Thais captured the Malay-dominated provinces in the south Used the term Thai Muslim instead of calling them Malays. Muslims comprise the largest religious minority in Thailand, approximately 6% of the population
Historical treatment of Thai Muslims by the Thai state prior to 2000 Equal footing with Buddhism which weaken its dominant religious position in Thailand Felt challenged by the emergence of religious minorities Buddhism and the state had historically co-existed for 700 years Buddhism has enjoyed the state’s total patronage Events of 11 September 2001 and wars in Afghanistan and Iraq leads to: Increase in the general level of suspicion directed against Muslims Mosques in the north were being regularly searched by police
Historical treatment of Thai Muslims by the Thai state prior to 2000 Categorized them as ‘khaek’ or ‘guests‘, which implying that they were ‘outsiders’ and ‘minorities’ and finally as ‘separatist bandits’ During 2000, authorities responded with military force and legal action to separatist activity in the south
Factors that triggered the flare-up Muslim insurgencyBy: TohMenghwee
Factors that triggered the flare-up Muslim insurgency Free and accorded rights of their own culture and religion Local community leaders were abolished Minority in their states Language and culture differ Disrespect of Islam Allegations of police brutality Presence of culturally insensitive businesses such as bars, drug trafficking, and corruption
Insurgency in Yala, Pattani and Narathiwat Yala On 31 August 2006, 22 commercial banks were simultaneously bombed in Yala province, killing a retired military officer and wounding 24 people Pattani An imam was killed and four others were injured in shooting attacks in Pattani on Monday, 7 December 2009 Six soldiers targeted in the bombing of a Pattani teacher protection-unit on Wednesday, 9 December 2009 escaped unharmed as the bomb apparently intended for them exploded without causing injuries.
Insurgency in Yala, Pattani and Narathiwat Narathiwat A bomb hidden inside a motorcycle exploded in Bangnak market in Narathiwat on Monday, 7 December 2009, killing two people and injuring nine others. A number of insurgents in a pick-up truck opened fire at a police operational base at Suwo village in tambon Bare Tai in Narathiwat’sBacho district. Early in 2004, 20 schools in Thailand’s southern province of Narathiwat were torched by Muslim separatists, four soldiers were killed in an attack on an army camp.
Whats was not right with Thailand in 2000? Done By : Ong Su Chiang
Social inequality in Southern Thailand Pattani is the home of the ethnic Malays in Southern Thailand. In the 18th century after the Thais captured the Malay-dominated provinces in the south, social inequality has occurs in Southern Thailand and cause insurgency. The reasons for social inequality in Southern Thailand are : Thai Government Policies towards Malay-Muslims
Discourage of Malay identity
Unfair treatment of muslimsmalay
Militant law declared by P.M. ThaksinShinawatra
Regime implemented by Thaksin
Differences in belief and races
Causes Racism and conflict between the
Thai-Buddhist and Muslims Malay
Prejudices leading to discrimination of Thai Muslims Political factors and Human right issues causes: Insurgency towards the Thai government Attacking of monks collecting alms by insurgents School teachers, principals, and students killed and schools torched presumably because schools represent the Thai Government Government workers targets for assassination Buddhist villagers killed going about their routine work like rubber tapping Decreasing of Malay Muslims due to policy in Thai
Social, economic, and political factors By: TohMenghwee
Social, economic, and political factors Political factors: Thai Prime minister, Thaksin, dismantle the southern administration organization, replaced it with notoriously corrupted police force Discontentment over the abuses led to the growing violence during 2004 and 2005 In the 2005 general election, all but one of the eleven incumbent Muslim MPs who stood for election were voted out of office
Social, economic, and political factors Social factors: Cultural assimilation had been exploited by the Thai government in order to stabilize its power and rule over the politically active and culturally conscious of the northeast and south regions of the country. Muslims have lower levels of educational attainment compared to Buddhist Denial of educational, economic and employment opportunities to the Thai-Muslim minorities Thai-Muslim resistance never enjoyed the same level of institutionalization owing both to effective government policies, both castigatory and conciliatory in nature( particularly in the 1980s and 1990s) and rivalries between separatist groups.
Social, economic, and political factors Economics factors: Comprised only 2.4% of all working Muslims in the provinces, compared with 19.2% of all working Buddhists. Jobs in the Thai public sector are difficult to obtain for those Muslim students who do not ever fully accept the Thai language or the Thai education system
What about present day Singapore Done by: ValenLuo
What about Present Day Singapore Thailand & SingaporeSimilarities
Have different religions/races in both countries
Unbalance population in each group (Singapore has more Chinese than Malay/Indians; Thailand has more Buddhists than Muslims)
Has had riots due to prejudices between the majorities and minorities (Thai Buddhists VS Thai Muslims, Chinese Vs Malay)
Riots from both sides occurred due to lack of understanding among people
What about Present Day Singapore Thailand VS SingaporeDifferences Thailand
Still have riots due to the ongoing insurgency today
Thai Muslims are not given equal rights. There is no representative for the Thai Muslim in the government sector.
Thai Muslims does not have a say in the country. Does not enjoy any benefits as compare to Thai Buddhists.
Does not have campaign to promote understanding and equalities among Muslims and Buddhists
Does not have casualties due to riots ever since 1969
Minorities are not neglected, each race is given equal rights in the country.
Over the years there are Malay, Chinese and Indian as presidents. Singapore has various races working in the government sector. Minorities festivals (Hari Raya Puasa, Deepavali) are made Public Holidays and celebrated nationwide
Constantly promote peace and understanding among races
What might give rise to social divisions that cause ‘2061’ Race riots in the past
Singapore’s 1964 race riot occurred due to strain ties between PAP(Chinese party) and UMNO(Malay party) after election.
Indirectly gave citizens the impression that Chinese and Malays ‘ ties were not good
Causes tension and social instability
Gave rise to social division in 1964, where small misunderstanding among citizens can sparked off riots.
Riot in ‘2061’
Unhappiness among non-Chinese as Chinese culture has become the focus
Rumors about non-Chinese shut out of jobs when they are as competent as the Chinese
Social tensions increase
Government heavy-handed response to non-Chinese protesting groups causes many non-Chinese civilian casualties
Worsen the ties between Chinese and Non-Chinese
Compare Thailand & Singapore 1964/2061 Factors that causes social division
There is a sudden rise of social issues that causes a shift of focus on the majority group
Lack of understanding among citizens
Unfair treatment from the government
Rumors and misunderstanding are spreading around
When Minority group is being more sensitive while Majority group is being less sensitive to the response/actions/impression they are sending out
Conclusion: If the factors are left unchecked, tension will build up over time. We have to constantly promote understanding in the country to ensure everyone is given a right to say, and there is equality among the people to avoid social division.
Solution addressed and Obstacle Done by: Loh Chong Hoe
Solution addressed and Obstacle Firstly, Peace-Building in the Three Southern Border Provinces of Thailand had been carried out throughout the years Peace-Building Command
Established on 4th October 2004
Consist of the military, the police, civil servants, and the general public
Stressed peaceful means as a major policy
Focus on intelligence work and get rid of social conditions that may lead to the unrest.
Urge local villagers to build up peace in their own communities, with the help and support of officials
Royal Speeches 28 February 2005, President of the Privy Council General made the speech at the Convention Centre, in Bangkok Speakers includes the Minister of Defence, academics, and senior officials responsible for security and peace-building. Attended by representatives of the public and private sectors, members of the civil society, religious leaders, and the media. Speech stressed on understanding, accessibility, and development in the country
The National Reconciliation Commission 28 March 2005, the Prime Minister issued an order appointing the National Reconciliation Commission(NRC) to help ease problems Responsible for suggesting policies, measures, mechanisms, and methods to create resolution and bring peace Educate the public on the bad effects of violence and hatred and the need to use peaceful means to stop violence Promote social justice with respect for social and cultural diversity . Focus attention on various problems, such as education, religious and cultural studies, and development
Educational Development 9 July 2005, the Prime Minister stated that the lack of general education in the three southern border provinces Good upbringing will lead the children to different thinking and not discriminate Observed a model of an instant school buildings, which is designed in a easily assembled style Accommodate more than 20 schoolchildren Takes only five to six hours to assemble the building Consists of a blackboard, a fan, computers, and lights. Each of the provinces would receive five school buildings of this style
A State of Emergency Law Government impose a state of emergency law to deal with the unrest in the three southern border provinces on 15 July 2005 Facilitate operations by officials in terms of arresting suspects and making requests for searching. Can be enforce only when there is an emergency situation. The law might edge personal rights and freedom but it is for the sake of peace and happiness of the people and national security The new law would last 3 months but might be renewed, if necessary. Believed that most people would understand the necessity of the new law and could accept it.
Views and Obstacles There are some good solutions implemented by the Thailand’s government to maintain peace within the Three Southern Border Provinces. I will choose the “ Educational Development” and “A State of Emergency Law” solutions if prejudices and discrimination are to occur in Singapore. For “ Educational Development”, children can be educated the right way since young but the only problem face is that they may be taught differently at home Thus, “A State of Emergency Law” may be a better choice as we knew they Singaporeans are “scared” of the government and majority of us won’t commit against the law. Even though the minority may try to cause problems but I bet our security won’t disappoint us.