Minor components of cpo

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Minor components of cpo

  1. 1. GROUP MEMBERS: Ong Hui Jin 152161 Norshafidah Bt Abu Shafian 151897 Siti Nor Rafidah Bt Mohd Ali Jinnah 152025 Hazwani Bt Mokhtar 151802 Mohd Nasrudin B. Rahiman 152090
  2. 2. Fatty Acids Glyceride composition ( % )Diglyceride 6.32Triglyceride 93.60
  3. 3. Triunsaturated Composition ( %) OOO 3.90 OOL 1.22 M- Myristic (C 14 : 0) P- Palmitic (C 16 : 0)Monosaturated Composition ( %) S- Stearic (C 18 : 0) PLO 10.02 O- Oleic (C 18 : 0) POO 21.39 L- Linoleic (C 18 : 2) OOS 2.78
  4. 4. Disaturated Composition ( % ) MPL 3.03 PPL 9.37 PPO 27.39 M- Myristic (C 14 : 0) POS 5.29 SOS 1.36 P- Palmitic (C 16 : 0) S- Stearic (C 18 : 0)Trisaturated Composition ( % ) O- Oleic (C 18 : 0) MMM 0.76 MMP 2.38 L-Linoleic (C 18 : 2) PPP 4.81
  5. 5.  Some minor components in CPO bring undesirable effects to oil E.g: phospholipids (surface active agent: disperse impurities in oil) Remove by refining to produce good quality of refined oil
  6. 6. Minor components Amount Structure (ppm)Carotenoids 500-700Tocopherols& tocotrienols 600-1000Sterols 326-527Ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q10) 10-80Squalene 200-500Phospholipids 5-130Triterpene alcohols 40-80Aliphatic alcohols 100-200 R-OHAliphatic hydrocarbon 50
  7. 7. Carotenoids Composition(%)ẞ- carotene 56.0α-carotene 35.1phytoene 1.3lycopene 1.3γ- carotene 0.8Neurosporene 0.3phytofluene 0.1
  8. 8. Minor components Amount (%)SterolsCholesterol 4.1Campesterol 22.8Stigmasterol 11.3ẞ- sitosterol 57.5PhosphatidesPhosphatidylcholine 36Phosphatidylethanolamine 24phosphatidylinositol 33Phosphatidyglycerol 9Diphosphatidyglycerol 4Phosphatidic acid 3Monoglycerides (MGs) ~ <1Diglycerides (DGs) ~2-7Free fatty acids (FFAs) e.g myristic, ~2-5palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic
  9. 9. PhosphatidylethanolaminePhosphatidylcholine Phosphatidyglycerolphosphatidylinositol Phosphatidic acidDiphosphatidyglycerol(Cardiolipin)
  10. 10. MINOR CONSTITUENTS OF PALM OIL BENEFICIAL EFFECT • human body uses carotenoids as Vitamin A. • enhance immune function by a variety of mechanisms & can improve cardiovascular health. CAROTENOIDS • acting as biological antioxidants, protecting cells & tissues from the damaging effect of free radicals. • Natural vitamin E exists in eight different forms or isomers,four tocopherols & four tocotrienols. • Tocotrienols in Vitamin E have been found to have antioxidant & anticancer activities. • preventing skin aging, preventing fat oxidation & TOCOPHEROLS & reducing blood pressure. TOCOTRIENOLS • palm tocotrienols have the ability to reverse blockage of the carotid artery & platelet aggregation. • Tocotrienol-rich fraction of palm oil is capable of protecting brain against oxidative damage & thereby from the ensuing adverse alterations that accompany aging.
  11. 11. MINOR CONSTITUENTS OF PALM OIL BENEFICIAL EFFECTFatty acid • focus of attention in determining its nutritional adequacy in relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factorsMonoglycerides • used as emulsifiers in foodsMineral oil • medicinal uses • use in the kitchen is to saturate the cutting board and other wood items to make them water resistant
  12. 12. Types of fatty acidSaturated - 50%unsaturated – 50%Saturated :44.0% Palmitic acid5.0% stearic acid1.0% myristic acidUnsaturated :39.0% oleic acid11.0% linoleic acid
  13. 13. Fractionation : a physical method using the crystallization properties of triglycerides to separate a mixture into: low melting liquid fraction high melting liquid fractionComponents consists : palm olein (liquid oil) palm stearin (solid form)
  14. 14. Palm olein (liquid) Palm stearin (solid)Fatty acid composition : Fatty acid composition : 45% saturated fat 60% saturated fat 55% unsaturated fat 40% unsaturated fatThe main saturated fatty acid : The main saturated fatty acid : 40% palmitic acid 54% palmitic acid 5% stearic acid 5% stearic acid 1% myristic acidThe unsaturated fatty acid : The unsaturated fatty acid : 43%oleic acid(monounsaturates) 33%oleic acid(monounsaturates) 12% linoleic acid(polyunsturates) 7%linoleic acid(polyunsturates)

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