Militarism Militarism means that the army and military forces are given a high profile by the government. The growing European divide had led to an arms race between the main countries. The armies of both France and Germany had more than doubled between 1870 and 1914 and there was fierce competition between Britain and Germany for mastery of the seas The German, Von Schlieffen also drew up a plan of action that involved attacking France through Belgium if Russia made an attack on Germany.
Nationalism Nationalism means being a strong supporter of the rights and interests of ones country. Delegates from Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia (the winning allies) decided upon a new Europe that left both Germany and Italy as divided states. The settlement at the end of the Franco-Prussian war left France angry at the loss of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany and keen to regain their lost territory. Large areas of both Austria-Hungary and Serbia were home to differing nationalist groups, all of whom wanted freedom from the states in which they lived.
Problems in the Balkans (1906 – 1912) Many different ethnicities in the Balkans Wars to get Ottoman Empire out of Balkans Conflicts over land disputes Country borders do not take in Ethnic boundaries Serbia wants 1) economic independence from A.H. 2) Greater Serbia Nation Austria treats minority groups poorly
Flashpoint• Archduke Franz Ferdinands Assassination, 28 June 1914• The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, on 28 June 1914, set in train a series of diplomatic events that led inexorably to the outbreak of war in Europe at the end of July 1914.• Ferdinand - and his wife Sophie - were killed by Serb nationalist Gavrilo Princip while on a formal visit to Sarajevo. Princip shot Ferdinand at point blank range while the latter was travelling in his car from a town hall reception, having earlier that day already survived one assassination attempt
The First WarAustria gave Ultimatum to Serbia Sent an Ultimatum to Serbia on July 19th, delivered July 23rd Serbs given 48 hours to respond Austria demands a large part of Serbia Serbia agrees to ALL except 1 key element: Serbia refused to allow the involvement of Austria in the investigation of the assassination within Serbia as this threatened Serbia’s sovereignty
Allies Britain ( and its Empire ) France Russia Central Powers Belgium Germany Italy Austria Hungary USA( JOINED IN 1917) Ottoman-Turkey Serbia, Portugal Bulgaria Japanand other minor participants
Escalation to WarJuly 25th Austria breaks off relations with SerbiaJuly 28th A.H. declares war on SerbiaJuly 30th Czar issues mobilization orderAugust 1st Germans mobilize, declare war on RussiaAugust 3rd France declares war on Germany Germany invades BelgiumAugust 4th Great Britain declares war on Germany
Countdown to World War June 1914 Franz Duke Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne assassinated 28th July Austria Hungary declare war on Serbia. France and Russia back Serbia 30th July Britain and Russia mobilize forces 1st August Germany declares war on Russia 2nd August Germany invades Belgium, declares war on France 4th August Britain declares war on Germany
Americ a Joins the
The Sinkingof the Lusitania
In spite of America’s stern warning Germany continued use of submarines.America declared war against Germany on 6th April 1917. The central powers surrendered one by one Last to surrender was Germany.
November 11, 1918
The Big Four Leaders of World War I Woodrow Wilson (USA) David Lloyd George (England) Vittorio Orlando (Italy) Georges Clemenceau (France)
World War I Casualties10,000,000 9,000,000 Russia 8,000,000 Germany 7,000,000 Austria-Hungary 6,000,000 France 5,000,000 4,000,000 Great Britain 3,000,000 Italy 2,000,000 Turkey 1,000,000 US 0