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Theories of I.R-1


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Lecture 1

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  • 2. Definitions of IR Political Dictionary. The discipline that studies interactions between and among states, and more broadly, the workings of the international system as a whole It can be conceived of either as a multidisciplinary field, gathering together the international aspects of politics, economics, history, law, and sociology, or as a meta-discipline, focusing on the systemic structures and patterns of interaction of the human species taken as a whole. The discipline acquired its own identity after World
  • 3. Encyclopedia Britannica Study of the relations of states with each other and with international organizations and certain sub-national entities (e.g., bureaucracies and political parties) It is related to a number of other academic disciplines, including political science, geography, history, economics, law, sociology, psychology, and philosophy
  • 4.  The field emerged at the beginning of the 20th century largely in the West and particularly in UK & the U.S. being influential at the global level The study of international relations has always been heavily influenced by normative considerations, such as the goal of reducing armed conflict and increasing international cooperation
  • 5. Columbian Encyclopedia IR is the study of the relations among states and other political and economic units in the international system Particular areas of study within the field of international relations include; diplomacy and diplomatic history, international law, international organizations, international finance and economics, and communications, among others
  • 6.  In addition, increased attention has been paid in recent years to developing a more scientific understanding of the international system as a whole
  • 7. Oxford Dictionary of Social Sciences The study of political relations between states or across state boundaries; one of the main subfields of political science Its principal subdivisions include; strategic studies, international organizations, and international political economy
  • 8.  Therefore, the IR is; Study of foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system, including ;  The roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs),  Non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and  Multinational corporations (MNCs) It is both an academic and public policy field
  • 9.  Itcan be either positive or normative as both seeks to analyze as well as formulate the foreign policy of particular states It is often considered a branch of political science
  • 10. History of IR Often traced back to the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 Development of modern state system Prior to this, the European medieval organization of political authority was based on a vaguely hierarchical religious order Westphalia instituted the legal concept of sovereignty
  • 11.  WP; rulers, or the legitimate sovereigns, had no internal equals within a defined territory and no external superiors as the ultimate authority within the territorys sovereign borders Classical Greek and Roman authority resembled the Westphalian system, but both lacked the notion of sovereignty Westphalia encouraged the rise of the independent nation-state, the institutionalization of diplomacy and armies
  • 12.  Exported to the Americas, Africa, and Asia via colonialism and the "standards of civilization” Contemporary international system was finally established through decolonization during the Cold War
  • 13. IR History IR as a distinct field of study entirely British-centered In 1919, the Chair in International Politics established at the University of Wales David Davies became the first academician position dedicated to IR IR Dept established in early 1920s at the London School of Economics
  • 14.  Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, offered first Ph.D degrees in IR The Committee on International Relations at the University of Chicago is the oldest graduate program in international relations in the United States of America, founded in 1928
  • 15. Concepts in International Relations Systemic Level Concepts. These are broad concepts those define and shape an international milieu, characterized by Anarchy Power. In IR Power is described as the degree of resources, capabilities, and influence and divided into two portions: the hard power relating primarily to coercive power, such as the use of force, and soft power commonly covering economics, diplomacy and cultural influence
  • 16.  Polarity. Polarity in International Relations refers to the arrangement of power within the international system. The concept arose from bipolarity during the Cold War The Balance of Power. A concept prevalent in Europe prior to the First World War, the thought being that by balancing power blocs it would create stability and prevent war. Theories of the balance of power gained prominence again during the Cold War
  • 17.  Interdependence. The current international system is characterized by growing interdependence; the mutual responsibility and dependency on others. Advocates of this point to growing globalization, particularly with international economic interaction. The role of international institutions, and widespread acceptance of a number of operating principles in the international system, reinforces ideas that relations are characterized by interdependence
  • 18.  Dependency. Dependency theory states that a set of Core states exploit a set of weaker Periphery states for their prosperity. Various versions of the theory suggest that this is either an inevitability (standard dependency theory), or use the theory to highlight the necessity for change
  • 19. GlobalizationGlobalization: the Widening, Deepening &speeding up of World Wide interconnectednessGlobalization is a Contentious issue in the study ofWorld PoliticsThe intensification of worldwide social relationswhich links distant localities in such a way thatlocal happening are shaped by events occurringmany miles away & vice versa
  • 20. Systemic Tools of IR Diplomacy; is the practice of communication and negotiation between representatives of states Sanctions; are usually a first resort after the failure of diplomacy, and are one of the main tools used to enforce treaties These could take the form of diplomatic or economic sanctions or the cutting of ties and imposition of barriers to communication or trade
  • 21.  War; the use of force, is often thought of as the ultimate tool of international relations. A widely accepted definition is that given by Clausewitz, with war being the continuation of politics by other means The mobilization of international shame can also be thought of as a tool of IR. This is attempting to alter states actions through naming and shaming at the international level, like exposing states human rights violations
  • 22. Proponents of IR Norman Angell , Ankerl, Hedley Bull, Barry Buzan, E. H. Carr, Rubén Herrero de Castro & Robert Jervis ,Robert Cooper,Daniel Deudney , Hugo Grotius, The Laws of War and Peace, Thomas Hobbes , Robert H. Jackson, Thomas Hobbes , Robert H. Jackson, Mary Kaldor, Immanuel Kant, Kautilya, Robert Keohane, Hans Köchler, Hans Köchler, Andrew Linklater , Niccolò Machiavelli, Donald Markwell, Donald Markwell, Reinhold Niebuhr , Paul Raskin, Jean-Jacques Rousseau , Google Print , Thucydides, Francisco de Vitoria , Kenneth Waltz, Kenneth Waltz ,Michael Walzer, Alexander Wendt
  • 23. Thanks