Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Pcsd newsletter-special edition-2007

1,121

Published on

This publication made by a teamwork to illustrate the department achievements professionally and attractively.

This publication made by a teamwork to illustrate the department achievements professionally and attractively.

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,121
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
128
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Downstream Upstream Control Instrumentation A Patent on Hydrogen Computer Modeling Yanbu‘ Gas Plant Key Elements for Oil & Purification Optimization of rate of change with Dynamic Optimizer Gas Wireless Networks System is Granted applications in Pipeline Implementation Protection and check valves economic selection“Knowing is not enough; we must apply.Being willing is not enough; we must do.” Leonardo Da VinciIssue No. 8 Special Edition 2007 Leaders in process engineering and automation
  • 2. ©Copyright 2007, Saudi AramcoAll rights reserved
  • 3. Message fromVice PresidentIt gives me a great pleasure to reach out to ourcustomers in this issue of the Process andControl System Department (P&CSD)newsletter. Our goal at P&CSD is tocommunicate our dedication to the continuousimprovement of facilities business performance.The development of new leading edge technologies is one of our main “We alldrivers in the engineering strategies to achieve operational excellence. committed toWe focus on deploying proven process and control technologies that willgive our company a competitive edge. As the main stakeholders, our support ourcustomers’ participation and collaboration are essential to the success of facilities withthe development and implementation of these technologies. leading edge technologies toWe are all aware of the global shortage in technically skilled job achievecandidates. Engineering Services is leading an initiative to develop that operationaltalent in-Kingdom using technical competency maps. These maps focus onrequired technical competencies that can be acquired by attending excellence.“training courses, achieving professional certifications, participating intechnical exchange forums and professional society events, as well aslearning practical engineering skills in the field. Technical competencymaps will guide the development of more than 5000 engineers in oursurface facilities. By remaining competitive, we will improve the lives ofour people, diversify and grow our economy, and ensure that SaudiAramco will remain a leader in the oil & gas industry.Isam Al Bayat
  • 4. ContentsProcess & Control SystemsDepartment Newsletter 15 JRD/FCCU MTC Technology Evaluation by FCC Aspen Kinetic Model 7 Troubleshooting YR Cyclemax Regenerator Catalyst Blow out 16 P&CSD Technology Partnership Meeting with YR and RTR 20 Saudi Aramco’s Fuel 8 Distillation Workshop Quality Roadmap P&CSD Supports Local 21 11 A Patent on Hydrogen Purification Optimization is Professional Granted Societies: AIChE-SAS Application of Flare 12 22 Rate of Change Modeling Gas Recovery Systems in Saudi Aramco facilities TORR Technology for 25 Produced Water Treatment Suggested topics and related technical articles for this newsletter are encouraged and welcome, and may be 28 submitted to Abdulaziz Tijani, EOB, E-3410, Dhahran 120 120 100 100 or e-mailed to tijaniah@aramco.com 80 80 ReG ReG 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 1.2 1.2 3000 1 1 3000 2000 2000 0.8 1000 0.8 1000 ReL 0.6 0 0.6 0 ReImp ReL ReImp Process & Control Systems Newsletter is published Basket Impeller Column: 250 250 200 200 150 150 ReG ReG 100 100 50 50 Bi-annually by the Process & Control Systems Department 0 0 1.2 1.2 3000 1 1 3000 2000 2000 0.8 1000 0.8 New Approach 1000 ReL 0.6 0 0.6 0 ReImp ReL ReImp
  • 5. 30 Data Validation and Reconciliation A Crucial Technology for 44 Industrial Time Processing Plants Synchronization 32 Optimizing Projects with a Main Automation Contractor 46 Trim Integrity for Compressor Anti- surge Valves 36Advanced Multivariable & Regulatory Control Performance Monitoring 48 Industrial Wireless LAN Security For Oil & Gas Process Automation Networks 38 Yanbu‘ Gas Plant Dynamic Optimizer Implementation Process Automation Alarm System Improvement 51 Focus Team Update40 at AINDAR GOSP-2 42 52 Engineering the Automatic Valve FutureCharacterization – Whydidn’t we think of that? 43 Key Elements for Oil & Gas Wireless Networks 54 Safety of the Issue HOT SPOT
  • 6. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n ! Letter from the Team “The link between Innovation, Plant Experience, and Hard Work” Newsletter team: Abdulaziz Tijani, Omar Halawani, Jim Sprague, Jim Anderson Do you ever wonder how our Saudi Aramco innovators come up with such good ideas? Are they born inventors, bred with special imagination? We think not. Our view is that innovation in Saudi Aramco is much like it was in Thomas Edison’s day, “90% Abdulaziz Tijani perspiration and 10% inspiration”. Now you may ask, where does all that perspiration come from? Well, in our view, a large part of it comes from an innovator’s early years working at the plant, dealing with process and control problems every day — day after day. You work and expend so much energy that the process and its Omar Halawani problems are burned into your consciousness. And guess what, that’s a good thing! Because in the end, all those years of perspiration make you what you are — an experienced specialist with a keen understanding of your plant and its problems. Now here is where the innovation part comes in. If that Jim Sprague experienced specialist keeps a sharp eye out — he will ultimately come across some new technology, gadget, or combination — that can solve one of those problems. Sometimes the technology is already applied somewhere else, and the innovation is applying it to your application. Jim Anderson Sometimes it’s combining multiple technologies into one to4 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 7. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation! come up with a solution. The next important step is to sell and implement that solution. Innovation thrives on risk and change. It is important to understand that new ideas and solutions come from an attitude, an environment, and a culture that embraces change. We know that the world is changing faster than it ever has before and that everyone is part of that change. The old“It is saying of “I paid my dues” has become as obsolete andimportant to outdated as the typewriter. Today, as an engineer, your dues areunderstand that paid daily. This means that each of us as a customer, supplier, ornew ideas and employee is being evaluated on a daily basis with an ever changing measurement. The key is to stay on top in our fieldsolutions come through continuous learning and updating our experience andfrom an knowledge. Saudi Aramco’s learning organization initiativesattitude, an can certainly help.environment, In the end, innovation comes from the following:a culture that • the experienced and knowledgeable engineer withembraces • watching out for solutions whilechange.. ” • anticipating change and managing risks. So, for those of you who are gaining work experiences – and that should include all of us – you are Saudi Aramco’s next innovators. Just make sure you keep your eyes open for the solutions. Remember — rarely does innovation just happen: instead, it is nearly always born in the struggle to solve a problem. Sometimes that innovation solves a completely different problem in a very unanticipated way. Sincerely, P&CSD Newsletter Team Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007 5
  • 8. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n !Professional Engineers in P&CSDLicensure and certification are the mark of a professional. It demonstrates a commitment to the high standards ofprofessionalism to which the engineering profession subscribes.Licensure and certification are important because they demonstrate the accomplishment of a set of standards to whichall engineering professionals recognize. The following engineers in P&CSD carry professional engineeringlicenses/certifications in various areas that demonstrate their accomplishments to internationally recognized standards.Other engineers are presently pursuing licenses/certifications. Name Unit License/Certification Instrumentation, Control & Automation Jim E. Anderson APCU Certified Automation Professional (CAP), ISA Steve Wagner APCU P.E. (Canada) Henry Chan APCU P.E. (Ontario, Canada) Mohammed Salim CMU MIET CEng (Member of Institute Engineering & Technology - Chartered Engineer) Zia Soofi CMU P.E. (Texas, USA) Ralph Hartman IU P.E. (Texas, USA) Doug Esplin PASU P.E. (Utah, USA) Farrukh Chawla PASU P.E. (Ontario, Canada) Hashim Ghalib PASU Certified Automation Professional (CAP), ISA TüV/CFSEGB Certified Functional Safety Professional Austin Brell PASU P.E. (Chartered Engineering License with European Counsel of IChemE), TUV Certified Functional Safety Professional Computer Networking Abduladhim, Abdullatif CCNU Registered Communications Distribution Designer, by BICSI Abdullah Nufaii CCNU Certified Wireless Network Administrator (CWNA) Mohammed Saeed CCNU Certified Wireless Security Professional (CWSP), Cisco Certified Design Professional (CCDP), Cisco Advanced Wireless LAN Specialist (CAWDS), Cisco Certified Design Associate (CCDA), Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCDA) Soliman Walaie CCNU Certified Wireless Networks Professional (CWNP) Process Engineering Gene Yeh DPED P.E. (Louisiana, USA) Sam Zoker DPED P.E. (Texas, USA) Prasad Pantula DPED P.E. (Corporate member for Engineer’s Australia) Gabriel Fernandez OPU P.E. (Alberta, Canada) Jack Dempsey P&SU Chartered Engineer Registrant for the Engineering Council (UK) Pierre Crevier UPED P.E. Chemical Engineer (Alberta, Canada) Saleh Mulhim UPED P.E. (Texas, USA) Yuv Mehra UPED P.E. (Texas & California, USA) 6 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 9. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation!P&CSD Technology Partnership Meeting with YR and RTRP&CSD held one-day “Technology Partnership Meetings” in May and June at Yanbu‘and Ras Tanura refineries, in line with Engineering Services business line’s strategicinitiatives to accelerate technology exploitation.The meetings were organized to promote a selected for further evaluation through an Engineering Service Agreement (ESA) between the two refineries. Thetechnology culture among refinery personal brainstorming sessions in YR and RTR were facilitated byand provide a platform for engineers to Engineering Services’ performance consultant and thebrainstorm new technologies that could be leadership center in Dhahran.deployed in a partnership between therefineries and P&CSD. Another goal was to Forty-five engineers participated in the Yanbu’ Refineryincrease the awareness of Saudi Aramco’s meeting from Saudi Aramco, Saudi Aramco Mobil Refinery (Samref), Saudi Aramco Lubricating Oil Refinerytechnology program. Co. (Lubref), American company Honeywell andAt the meetings, the Research and Development Center’s Honeywell subsidiary UOP. The Ras Tanura meeting wasTechnology Management Division presented an overview attended by 33 engineers.of the center’s technology program to encourage future Both meetings were coordinated by Mohammadparticipation by employees attending the meetiing. Balamesh and Saeed Al-Alloush from P&CSD’s CatalyticP&CSD representative then discussed three new Conversion Unit.technologies that were successfully implemented at thetwo refineries after P&CSD evaluation, and a Yanbu‘Refinery representative talked about new technologiesthat have been implemented at that refinery.Fruitful brainstorming sessions conducted at the meetingsidentified more than 70 technical items important to thetwo refineries. The items were categorized, and 11 were Right: Brain Storming Session at Rastanura Refinery Below: Yanbu‘ Refinery Gathering Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007 7
  • 10. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n !Saudi Aramco’s Fuel Quality RoadmapAuthor: Walid A. Al-NaeemA cross-functional team composed of EPD, FPD, RTSD, OSPAS, and chaired byP&CSD was charged with the development of a transportation fuel qualityroadmap to enhance the overall gasoline and diesel qualities to be environmen-tally friendly.This team along with a reputable consultancy firm IFQC the Green House Gases (GHG) – the main cause of climate(International Fuel Quality Center) has done extensive change. Saudi Aramco believes that the best way todata gathering and analysis to develop the roadmap. The combat climate change is to look forward and actmain parameters that are affected by the roadmap is a proactively. So far, Saudi Aramco has already takenreduction in sulfur content in both the gasoline and diesel serious steps to improve the environmental situation inproducts to 50 ppm & ultimately to 10 ppm, a reduction the Kingdom by establishing an Environmental Masterin the gasoline benzene to 1.0 vol. % or less, and a Plan that addresses all sources of contamination to the air,reduction in benzene aromatic contents to 35 vol. %. earth, and water. This master plan was endorsed by theThese reductions is planned to take place at different Saudi Aramco board in 2001.stages of the roadmap.Those stages are: So far, Saudi Aramco hasStep 1: Immediate operational changes that do not require capital investments. already taken serious steps toStep 2: Changes that require capital projects and can improve the environmental be implemented by 2013.Step 3: More stringent specifications that require situation in the Kingdom by additional capital projects to step 2 and can establishing an Environmental be implemented by 2016. Master Plan that addresses allBackgroundToday, the world’s policy makers and business leaders are sources of contamination to theincreasingly in agreement that climate change isoccurring and it has to be addressed. As a responsible air, earth, and water.corporate citizen, Saudi Aramco is committed to reduce Figure 1 Gasoline Quality Roadmap Figure 2 Diesel Quality Roadmap 8 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 11. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation!The primary objective of the master plan is to bring allSaudi Aramco facilities into compliance with thegovernment environmental regulations. It is also in linewith the company’s strategic initiatives to protect theenvironment and ultimately improve public health.In addition and due to high sulfur levels in transportationdiesel, which eventually contributes to high SO2 emissions,the company has decided to include transportation dieselfuel into the master plan with the idea of addressingother fuels and air pollutants in the future. As a result,the master plan has recommended to lower sulfur intransportation diesel from 10,000 ppm to 500 ppmmitigating SO2 emissions from diesel engines. Figure 3 Sophisticated Emission Control Systems As a result, the master plan has Impact of Fuel Quality on Vehicle recommended to lower sulfur Performance in transportation diesel from There is without doubt global recognition that climate change abatement and the drive toward lesser GHG can 10,000 ppm to 500 ppm only be achieved if vehicle manufacturers, refiners and legislation work together. Since fuels and engines are mitigating SO2 emissions from technically linked with each other, the improvement in gasoline and diesel fuels quality will permit the adoption diesel engines. of up-to-date low emission engines in the kingdom as opposed to the currently available. It is important to mention at this point in time that vehicle manufacturers have been supplying high emission vehicles to theFuture Environmental Challenges kingdom in the past and they continue to do so at theto KSA present time. This is because their up to date engineSince future challenges are always their ahead of us, components are very sensitive to high sulfur fuels, whichSaudi Aramco has taken proactive measures by will cause it to be in-effective in a short while. Forestablishing the fuel quality roadmap (Figures 1 & 2) that example, NOx and PM pollutants require special emissionwill ensure compliance to the government environmental control systems to be embedded into the vehicles to trapregulations at all times. and convert those pollutants into friendly gases. For those systems to operate efficiently (Figure 3), sulfur inThe fuel quality roadmap, which was recently both gasoline and diesel fuels need to be further reducedapproved by the company board, has provided an from 500 ppm to 50 as an intermediate step and ultimately to 10 ppm. At 10 ppm the emission controlupdate to the existing environmental master plan, systems will give the utmost optimum performance thatbearing in mind the following future challenges: will drastically mitigate the NO2/PM emissions to the least.• The kingdom has high urbanization level, Therefore, it is clear that reduction of NO2 and PM meaning that people tend to move to bigger cities emissions are solely dependent on low emission engine which ultimately cause high population and traffic technology. To introduce those low emission engines to densities, especially in Riyadh, Jiddah, Makkah, the kingdom’s fleet, it requires around 18 years to have and Dammam. full replacement of our high emission vehicle fleet. As a result, the actual realization of NO2 and PM emissions• Since 1998 the number of registered vehicles has reduction will take more time as compared with the other increased by 45%. pollutants. Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007 9
  • 12. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n ! For this year, it is planned to conduct two workshops for scientists during December 9–10, 2007, and for executives during December 11, 2007. The objective of this year’s workshops is to underscore, at a strategic level, the inter- On the other hand, the required relation between stringent fuel specifications, engine performance, environment protection and the capital investment program sustainability of oil market. Several other concepts will be addressed, as well as the future of Dieselization and the associated with implementing Kingdom’s environment, as a result of the recently approved Fuel Quality Roadmap. the long term strategy of the roadmap has been recently approved by the company Today, the world’s policy board to be injected into the makers and business leaders 2009 – 2013 business plan cycle. are increasingly in agreement that climate change is occurringUpdates and it has to be addressed.The transportation fuel quality roadmap was presentedto the Management Committee on June 5, 2007. andsuccessfully acquired the MC‘s endorsement, to beinjected into the environmental master plan. In addition,several roadmap parameters were already implementedsuch as 800 ppm sulfur diesel (in major cities) and 5000 Acknowledgmentppm sulfur diesel (country wide) as compared to 10,000 P&CSD would like to thank all the multidepartmentalppm sulfur diesel, updating MTBE specification to 15 vol. members who participated in the development of the% as opposed to 10 vol. %, etc. Fuel Quality Roadmap for their great efforts and continuous support. Their time, dedication, andThe required capital investment program associated with contribution towards the completion of the roadmapimplementing the long term strategy of the roadmap has added great value.recently been approved by the company board to beincluded in the 2009 – 2013 business plan cycle.Fuels TechnologyIn line with Engineering Services knowledge sharingstrategy and to promote the understanding of the everchanging dynamics of vehicles technology and its relationwith fuel quality, P&CSD conducts regular workshops for Walid A. Al-Naeem is the Supervisor of Distillation andSaudi Aramco executives and scientists. Treating Unit of P&CSD. He is also the Chairman of Saudi Aramco Products Specifications Committee which is com-In 2006, P&CSD sponsored a full-day manager’s workshop posed of cross functional members from various departments such as FPD, EPD, R&DC, OSPAS, Distribution, RTSD, Sales andtitled “Importance of Fuel Quality & Effect on Vehicle Marketing, and Domestic Refineries. This committee isPerformance” on December 2nd, 2006. This workshop charged to look after various issues related to Saudi Aramco Products and Fuels Specifications. Walid holds a Masterwas designed for relevant department managers who Degree in Chemical Engineering from KFUPM since 2003.directly deal with fuels production, distribution, and Walid is a member in several local and international techni-specifications. The primary objective was to raise their cal societies and very active in IK / OOK events as chairman, speaker, and as a delegate.awareness to the global trend towards producing cleanfuels and to underscore the interaction between engineand fuel technologies. 10 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 13. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation!A Patent on Hydrogen Purification OptimizationSystem is GrantedAuthor: Ibrahim M. Al-BabtainThis patent relates to the recovery of hydrogen from gas mixtures and, moreparticularly, to a method for obtaining increased hydrogen recovery from oilrefineries and petrochemical or natural gas operations by combining a steamreformer hydrogen product stream with an off gas stream and utilizing a combinedstream as a feed to a single Pressures Swing Adsorption (PSA) unit.This idea was generated during the initial start up of a has provided his support and encouragement to considernew refinery that includes multiple PSA units utilized to implementing this patent in the project if applicable astreat different feed streams of CCR off gas and refinery significant capital savings could potentially be realized.off gas. One of these streams exceeded the capacity of the The sketches below show the system before and after therelated PSA unit and this portion of the excess gas is not modification.effectively utilized and typically sent to the flare or fuelgas system in the refinery. Another disadvantage is thatone of the PSA units is operating at high feed capacitywhich can increase the probability of damaging theadsorbent material within the PSA unit and carryingimpurities between the adsorbent layers. Also, flaring thisportion of excess gas requires compensation of sameflared quantity from another feed stream that feeds theother PSA unit.Prior to development of this invention, there has been nosingle method of hydrogen recovery in refineryoperations in which some or all of the feed streams from Figure 1 System before the modificationseparate PSA units were combined and utilized as feed fora single PSA unit, and in which some or all of a steamreformer product stream and a refinery offgas streambeing used as feed streams for separate PSA units werecombined and utilized as feed for a single PSA unit. Byapplying this invention in the refinery, the total hydrogenrecovery was increased in the refinery by effectivelyutilizing the excess gases that were flared, the load on thesteam reformer was reduced by lowering reformer feedrate, the refinery fuel gas consumption was reduced inthe steam reformer furnace, and the hydrocarboncontent and heating value of the tail gas, from the PSAunit fed by the steam reformer product stream, was Figure 2 System after the modificationenriched.The full utility patent application for this invention wasfiled at the United States Patent & Trademark office(USPTO) on July 2003 and the patent was granted under Ibrahim M. Al-Babtain is a Refining Specialist in the Downstream Process Engineering Division of Saudi Aramco.US Patent # US 7,252,702 dated August 7, 2007. Ibrahim has 18 years of experience in refining business. Joined P&CSD and participated with FPD and NBD as aWith regard to implementing this invention, Yanbu‘ technical member in the development of major refining projects and evaluation of several technologies.Export Refinery Project’s director; Mohammad S. Al-Subhi Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007 11
  • 14. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n !Application of Flare Gas Recovery Systems inSaudi Aramco facilitiesAuthors: Ra’ed Husseini, Prasad PantulaThe corporate Flaring Task Team led by P&CSD developed the Flaring MinimizationRoadmap that was endorsed by the Management committee in June 2006, Theroadmap recommended installing flare gas recovery (FGRS) units in companylocations where the normal daily flare gas exceeds 1-2 MMSCFD. This articlepresents the concepts of FGRS and its application in Saudi Aramco.“Protecting the Environment,” “Managing and The emissions of sulfur dioxide, ozone precursorsProtecting Resources,” and “Improving Health & Safety” and particulates have a significant environmentalare all part of our Business Line Strategies to meet the and health impact.Corporate Imperatives. Installing a Flare gas recovery sys-tem (FGRS) at the tail end of a gas plant or a refinery will • It provides an economic incentive in returning theachieve all the above strategies, plus recover fuel gas recovered flared gas to the value chain, thus savingworth $2/MMBtu. The Flaring Minimization Roadmap as on plant fuel gas.endorsed by the Management Committee in June 2006, • FGRS improves the reliability of the main flare tip.recommended installing flare gas recovery units in com- This is an important consideration for the largerpany facilities where the normal daily flare gas rate diameter flares that are prone to damage from oper-exceeds 1-2 MMSCFD, after exhausting all possible flaring ation at the low daily flaring rates. With FGRS, theminimization efforts. main flare is in stand-by mode, which improves its reliability and life, and minimizes the recurring costWhy Flare Gas Recovery? of flare tip replacementThe main drivers for a FGRS project are;• It’s a proven technology • The project has a potential for emission trading and CO2 credits, thus generating additional revenue.• It eliminates daily flaring, except for the pilots, thus providing intangible benefits from reduced emis- • FRGS reinforces Saudi Aramco’s (& the Kingdom’s) sions of CO2 (green house gas), SOX, NOX, & VOCs. positive image as a responsible corporate citizen. Recovered Gas to Process Flare Gas Knockout Drum FGRS 6 MMSCFD N2 Purge Existing Flares HP/ACID or INLET New Staging Device Figure 1 FGRS concept 12 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 15. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation!FGRS Components ever flow is detected. Basically, the staging devices enableA flare gas recovery installation for an existing plant will safe operation of the entire system through sealing theconsist of four main components: elevated flares and provide backpressure in the flare1. A compression based package (FGRS) to recover the header, allowing the flare gases to be routed to the FGRS. flare gases for re-use in the existing processing facili- ties Process Design of FGRS package2. Staging devices to safely allow diverting the routine As shown above, the FGRS is a compression based pack- daily flared gases to the FGRS package but not the age designed to recover the flare gases for reuse in the emergency or abnormal relief loads. Figure 1 illus- existing processing facilities. The system configuration is trates the integration of the FGRS into the flare sys- dependent on the final destination of the recovered gas tem. and the type of compression equipment selected.3. A nitrogen generation package to supplement exist- ing nitrogen generation capacity. Nitrogen will be Destination of recovered gas: used as purge gas, downstream of the staging device. Some of the potential destinations for the recovered gas4. Control system within the package and interface with could be; the plant DCS • Plant Fuel Gas header. This requires compressionAs shown in Figure 1, the Flare gas recovery unit ties into facilities to compress the flare gases from nearthe flare gas header between the knockout drum and the atmospheric pressure (3.5 psig max.) to approximatelystaging device, and pulls flare gas from the header when- 100-120 psig. • Plant inlet Gas header. This destination is typically the suction of the LP compressors in the GOSPs (1ñ50 psig) or the Inlet slug catchers in the gas plants (230 psig), which also requires compression facilities to compress the flare gases to the required pressure. Type of Compression equipment The choice of compression equipment will influence greatly the configuration of FGRS system. A detailed survey of existing technologies revealed that the The Flaring Minimization Vendor offered package for FGRS Figure 2 with LRCs (courtesy: Envirocomb ltd) Roadmap as endorsed by the Management Committee in June 2006, recommended installing flare gas recovery units in company facilities where the normal daily flare gas rate exceeds 1-2 MMSCFD, after exhausting all possible Typical Screw compressor package flaring minimization efforts. Figure 3 offered by Man-Turbo Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007 13
  • 16. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n !compressor types widely used for FGRS application are: exceeds the design capacity of the FGRS. • Pressure control, low pressure alarms, and ESD systems• Liquid ring compressor (LRC) with a variety of service fluids, e.g., water, DGA, diesel, etc. should be provided at the inlet of the package to ensure that positive pressure in the flare headers is• Multistaged screw compressors (MSSC) always maintained. The major advantages of the above compressors types • The staging control valve/seal drum should be are as follows; designed to open to existing flare stacks when each• Can handle a wide range of gases with varying corresponding flare header flow exceeds the design molecular weights with no effect on their capacity of the FGRS. performance• Can handle flow from zero to full capacity with a Nitrogen purge robust recycle system. To ensure positive pressure in the flare headers while the• Can tolerate liquid in the feed better than any other FGRS is in use, the flare headers will be continuously type of compressors. purged with nitrogen at a point downstream of theTypical vendor offered packages are illustrated in Figures staging devices or the water seal drum. As a backup to the2 & 3. The flare gas stream can be compressed in a LRC nitrogen purge, fuel gas from the existing fuel gas purgebased compression system to 100-110 psig with water as a header can be provided, with automatic controls.service liquid in a closed loop. A heat exchanger to coolthe circulating water and a three phase separator to Impact on the existing flare systemremove oil and water are part of the package. The staging device seals the existing flare and imposes aAlternately, a screw compressor package may be utilized. positive back pressure on the flare gas header. This allows routing the flare gas to FGRS while maintaining a positive The system configuration is dependent flare gas header pressure, which is important with regard to the safety of the flare headers. Generally the maximum on the final destination of the backpressure allowed will have no impact on the existing recovered gas and the type of PZVs connected to the flare header; however the actual impact should be checked with flare simulation models compression equipment selected. during the detailed engineering stage.Design of staging device ConclusionsThe flare gas stream is intercepted at a point downstream FGRS is a widely proven technology, though it has notof the corresponding Flare Knockout drums by a staging been applied in Saudi Aramco. In future, all potential sitesdevice. The staging device is set to divert the routine will be considered for a detailed evaluation for itsflaring rate of flared gas to the FGRS or to the elevated application. Currently a DBSP is under development forflare if the rate exceeds the capacity of FGRS. The staging installing a 6 MMSCFD FGRS units at ShGP & UGP . Otherdevices required to seal the elevated flare can be a water potential sites being evaluated are Safaniya GOSP1 andseal drum or a Buckling Pin/fast acting control valve Riyadh Refinery. Hawiyah NGL Recovery, Khuraisarrangement, similar to what is currently used at BGP, Development and potentially Khursaniyah are providingHGP, HdGP, and proposed for the Hawiyah NGL project. tie-ins for future units.Control SystemThe control system within the FGRS package and DCS Ra’ed Husseini is a Senior Engineering Consultant with P&CSD. He has over 23 years of Aramco experience in gasinterface should be part of the FGRS process detailed processing, refining and in upstream.design. The FGRS Process design vendors can provide thecontrol system design and interface to the DCS withoutcompromising process safety. The following are somerecommended features that should be part of a FGRSpackage; Prasad Pantula is with F&RSU /DPED since 2002. He has 25• The FGRS package should be isolated and safely shut- years of experience in upstream crude oil processing, petroleum refineries and process plant design. down or put in recycle mode automatically when the staging device opens, in the event the flaring rate 14 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 17. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation!JRD/FCCU MTC Technology Evaluation By FCCAspen Kinetic ModelAuthors: Saeed Al-Alloush, Sidney Anderson, Talal Al- AshwalThe purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility of installing the MixTemperature Control (MTC) technology from Stone & Webster/IFP New Technologyto improve Jeddah Refinery profitability by increasing conversions of gasoline andLPG on the Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit (FCCU).The evaluation study will identify for JR major impacts of the use of MTC. These are: 2. Control of the optimumthe implementation of this technology by focusing in the regenerator temperature.following area: unit conversion, gasoline sulfur content, 3. Adjustment of the feedRx velocity, vapor line velocity and overhead cooling temperature up to its bubble point to achievecapacity after recycling all LCO stream. P&CSD/DPED/CCU better atomization andhas signed with JR an Engineering Service Agreement faster vaporization.(ESA) to evaluate this technology by utilizing FCC Aspen 4. The heat absorbed with theKinetic Models. recycle quench is recovered as steam production, preheating, or reboiling in Fig. 1 Mix Temperature Control atProposed Technology the fractionation section of FCCU Feed Riser Section the FCCU.The MTC technology allows for independent temperaturecontrol of the catalyst cracking zone that results in Study Conclusiondecreasing yields of less desirable products (coke and gas). The study evaluates the implementation and potentialMTC is performed by injecting a recycle quench stream of application of MTC at JRD/FCCU by FCC Kinetic Modeleither cracked FCC naphtha or light cycle oil, further up simulation model. The annual revenue incremental fromthe reactor riser downstream of the combined feed applying this technology is significant. P&CSDinjection point (See Figure 1) recommends consideration of the following future workThis recycle quench stream results in separating the if JR plans to implement the MTC technology:reactor riser into two separate reaction zones. Consider MTC technology for increasing the unit• The first zone, (Zone 1), between the fresh feed conversion and production of more gasoline yield. injection point and the recycle quench stream Utilize of the FCC Aspen Kinetic Model to evaluate several injection point, is characterized by high temperature, scenarios at different feedstock conditions. high catalyst to oil ratio and very short contact time of The author acknowledges the support from Graham Jones, Ahmad oil and catalyst. Al-Othman from Pipeline & Simulation unit, Christopher Dean,• The second zone, (Zone 2), between the recycle Abdulaziz Al-Ghamdi and Adel Bawizer for finishing the ESA with quench stream injection point and the riser JRD on time. termination into the reactor vessel, is where reactions occur under more conventional and milder catalytic cracking conditions.The primary objectives of the MTC system are: Saeed S. Al-Alloush is a senior process engineer in the1. To provide independent control of the catalyst and oil mix Downstream Process Engineering Division, Process & Control temperature in Zone 1. Systems Dept. (P&CSD). He has 15 years of experience with Saudi Aramco in refining area and mainly in Fluid Catalytic This recycle quench is a heat sink that behaves similarly to a steam Cracking area . He graduated with Master Degree of Science cooler or a catalyst cooler in the regenerator side of the FCC in Engineering from University of Tulsa (TU), USA. He is a reaction section. By behaving as a cooler the regenerated catalyst member in American Institute of Chemical Engineering temperature can somewhat be controlled during the catalyst (AICHE) since 1997. regeneration. Usually the minimum regenerated catalyst temperature is the one that results with adequate catalyst Sidney V. Anderson is an Engineer II in Saudi Aramco’s Jiddah regeneration of coke. The cooler catalyst temperature causes Refinery Operation Engineering Unit. He has over 38 years of higher catalyst circulation rates for meeting the heat requirements process engineering and refinery management experience for the cracking reactions and maintaining reactor outlet and has previously served on the NPRA Q&A panel. He has temperature. Additionally, there are also secondary objectives from also written or co-authored several other papers related to FCCU operations. Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007 15
  • 18. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n !Troubleshooting YR Cyclemax RegeneratorCatalyst Blow outAuthors: Rabea M. Al-Saggaf, Hamzah Z. Abuduraihem, Neelay Bhattacharya, Sajeesh PadmanabhanP&CSD/DPED/CCU assisted Yanbu‘ Refinery Engineering in resolving the recent CCRPlatformer regeneration catalyst pinning and blow out problem that resulted fromthe over-design of the regeneration gas blower by installing a restriction orifice inthe Regeneration gas blower suction line.P&CSD Downstream Process Engineering has promptly spent catalyst is regenerated in four steps: 1) Cokeextended troubleshooting support to Yanbu‘ Refinery Burning; 2) Oxychlorination – for dispersing the catalystEngineering and recommended a course of action to put metals and adjusting the catalyst chloride content; 3)the unit in a normal mode of operation. The Continuous Catalyst Drying; 4) Reduction – for changing the catalystCatalyst Regeneration (CCR) section of Yanbu‘ Refinery metals to the reduced state. Finally, the regenerated(YR) CCR Platformer Plant experienced successive catalyst catalyst is circulated back to the first Platforming reactor.blowouts leading to the regeneration section shutdown. Over a period of time catalyst fines plugs the RegeneratorThis caused the Platformer section to operate at reduced screen. The CCR has to be shutdown and the screenfeed rate and severity. Prolonged shutdown of the removed for cleaning every 12 months.catalyst regeneration section would have led to theshutdown of the Platformer Plant and the consequence of Incident Backgroundlosing the gasoline production. Since the first startup in June 2006, the CCR Regeneration Tower has been operating with a partially plugged screenIntroduction as a result of catalyst fines generated in the system fromThe Yanbu‘ Refinery Platformer unit was revamped in the containment loss in the Platformer reactors. This hasJune 2006 from a fixed bed unit to a Continuous Catalyst effectively reduced the Regeneration gas flow withoutRegeneration Unit. Coked spent catalyst from the affecting the CCR operability. It was recommended by thePlatforming reactors is continuously sent to the CCR licensor to clean the screen at the earliest opportunity.Regeneration Tower where the coke is burnt off and the The CCR was shutdown for a period of 5 days to carry out Figure 1 DCS Pressure Trends 16 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 19. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation!Table 1: Regeneration Tower Normal and Incident procedure at 50˚C/Hr. When the blower was switched toTemperature Profiles low speed at 350˚C a blowout was again observed. A Licenser similar phenomenon was observed when the blower was Normal Shifted TI Specified Profile Profile switched from low speed to high speed during the reheat. Range There was no improvement in the unit performance. TI -1 479-510˚C 380˚C 250˚C Therefore, the regeneration section was again shutdown as a result of repetitive blow out occurring between the TI -2 493-593˚C 563˚C 465˚C disengaging hopper and the regeneration tower. The CCR TI -3 493-593˚C 557˚C 475˚C Platformer throughput was lowered from the design of 40 to 30 MBD and 95.0 operating severity to control coke TI -4 493-560˚C 503˚C 511˚C lay down. TI -5 491-504o˚C 492˚C 543˚C Analysis & Findings TI -6 491-504˚C 487˚C 479˚C It is very unusual for a blowout to take place in a CCR TI -7 491-504˚C 485˚C 472˚C because it is normally catalyst full. During normal operation the catalyst flows down due to gravity. The TI -8 479-499˚C 485˚C 465˚C Disengaging Hopper operates at approximately 9 kg/cm2(g) and the Regeneration Tower operates atthe cleaning of the regeneration tower screen. The unit approximately 2.5 Kg/cm2(g). This huge pressurewas restarted in black burn mode. The startup was normal differential is taken by the catalyst in the long transferand the regeneration tower temperature profile had its pipes between the Disengaging Hopper and thepeak at the second TI in the Burn Zone. The operation of Regeneration Tower. If due to any reason a void is createdthe regenerator for the next 36 hours was absolutely in the Regeneration Tower, the huge differential pressurenormal with regenerated catalyst carbon at 0.095 wt% will force the catalyst down, causing a pressureand spent catalyst carbon at 4.3 wt%. fluctuation that generates a lot of fines and dust. The fines will block the Regenerator screen, causing theOn Tuesday, January 23, a blow out occurred between the temperature profile to slip down.disengaging hopper and the regeneration tower whichcaused the disengaging hopper level to drop from 52 % P&CSD analyzed the problem on theto 47 %. The Disengaging pressure dropped and the following lines:Regeneration Tower pressure increased momentarily. 1. One probable cause could be something blocking theFigure 1 below shows the pressure fluctuation and level catalyst transfer pipe. But this would be a one timedrop at the time the blow out occurred. occurrence that would get automatically cleared afterDue to the blowout, a lot of fines and chips were the blowout. But since the blowout reoccurred it wasgenerated that plugged the Regenerator screen. A shift in obvious that it was not due to plugging of theburn zone temperature profile has being experienced and transfer pipes.the peak temperatures shifted to fifth TI which is at the 2. The only difference between the two startups was thebottom of the burn zone (refer to Table 1). condition of the screen. Since initial startup the unit was operating with a plugged screen. The recentMaintaining a proper burn profile in this section is startup was the first time with a clean screen.extremely important for safe operation of the unit. If theburn profile shifts down, un-regenerated catalyst will 3. The blowout was clearly related to the blowerenter the chlorination zone potentially causing catalyst to operation because the blowout had happened on twoagglomerate and damage the Regenerator internals. occasions when the blower speed was switched.Intensive discussions were held between Refinery Analysis of the previous operating data showed that theengineers and licensor experts on this subject and it was blower flow was 102 % of design even with a partiallyconcluded that it is very difficult to pin-point the root plugged screen. Once the screen was cleaned the flowcause of the blowout. An attempt was made as suggested increased causing the catalyst to pin in the Regenerationby licensor to stop the regeneration blower and carry out Tower. Since the Lock Hopper is removing catalyst, a voidcold circulation of the catalyst in order to clear the screen. was created at some location in the Regeneration Tower.Accordingly the regeneration tower was cooled as per When the differential pressure between the Disengaging Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007 17
  • 20. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n !Hopper and the Regeneration Tower was high enough, it to install a restriction orifice in the regeneration gasforced the catalyst to fill the void creating a blowout. This outlet line, to reduce the regeneration gas blower flow bywould also explain why the blowout occurred when the approximately 15%, and prevent catalyst pinning on theblower speed was changed. The first time when the regeneration tower screen. Unit licensor designed ablower was switched from high speed to low speed the restriction orifice with a bore size of 340mm, which wascatalyst unpinned, causing an immediate blowout. The fabricated by YR and installed in the Regeneration gassecond time the blower was switched from low speed to outlet line to reduce the flow by approximately 15%.high speed caused the catalyst to pin. The blowout didnot occur immediately. During subsequent heat up the CCR Restartcatalyst slumped, creating a void below the pinned area, The regeneration section was restarted on Feb 6, 2007,causing a blowout. after the installation of the restriction orifice. The startup was smooth without any pressure fluctuations or signs ofA conference call was initiated by YR Engineering and blowout. The circulation rate was slowly increased to 95P&CSD with the Licenser on January 31, 2007. P&CSD % of design and the oxygen concentration was slowlyconvinced the licensor that the blower could be a highly reduced from 1.0 mole% to 0.9 mole%. Laboratory resultsprobable cause for the blowout and it was decided that: showed less than 0.07 wt% carbon, indicating complete1. The licensor would size a restriction orifice to reduce regeneration. The temperature profile in the the Regeneration Gas flow by 15-20 % to avoid regeneration section was satisfactory, indicating no pinning. YR would keep it ready for installation in the reduction in the unit capacity. Regeneration tower gas outlet line. In conclusion, installation of the restriction orifice on the2. Conduct inspection of the disengaging hopper and regeneration gas blower suction eliminated the pinning regeneration tower screen. problem from the over-design of the blower. Normal CCR Platformer operation resumed.3. If inspection did not reveal any obvious reason to explain the blowouts, then install the restriction orifice in the Regeneration gas outlet line and observe the unit performance on restart.Field Inspection Rabea M. Al-Saggaf is a process engineer working with Saudi Aramco Yanbu‘ Refinery Department. He has 10 yearsThe regeneration tower and the Disengaging Hopper experience in refineries. Rabea holds a B.S degree in chemical engineering from King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 1996.were open for inspection. While unloading the catalyst, He joined Saudi Aramco in 1996.the last few drums from the Disengaging Hoppercontained fresh catalyst. YR had added 12 drums of freshcatalyst to the Disengaging hopper during the recentreload. Since the catalyst had been circulated for 500 Neelay Bhattacharya is a process engineer working with Saudi Aramco Process and Control Systems Department. Hecycles there should not have been any fresh catalyst has 17 years experience in Refineries and Petrochemicalremaining in the Disengaging Hopper. This clearly plants. Neelay holds a B.E degree in Petroleum and Petrochemicals from Pune University, India 1990. He joinedindicated that the catalyst was not moving as a result of Saudi Aramco in 2006.localized catalyst pinning on the regeneration towerscreen. No clumps or debris were found between thedisengaging hopper and the regeneration tower. The Hamzah Z. Abuduraihem is a process engineer working withRegeneration screen was heavily plugged. There was no Saudi Aramco Process and Control Systems Department. He has 15 years experience in refinery operation and project.sign of integrity loss or severe damage to the screen. Hamzah holds a M.S degree in Chemical Engineering andP&CSD concluded that the root cause for this problem was Petroleum Refining from Colorado School of Mines, USA 2001. He joined Saudi Aramco in 1992.the oversizing of the regeneration gas blower.Recommendations Sajeesh Padmanabhan is a chemical engineer and works withP&CSD recommended installing a restriction orifice in the the Operation Engineering & Automation Unit at Yanbu‘Regeneration gas blower suction line to reduce the Refinery. He has 11 years of experience in Hydrotreating, Plaforming and Petrochemicals. He joined Saudi Aramco inRegeneration gas flow and increase the pinning margin. Jan 2005.YR and Licenser supported P&CSD’s findings and decided 18 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 21. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n !Distillation WorkshopDHAHRAN — As company refineries look for newtechnologies and ways to revamp operations and bestpractices, more than 100 engineers, specialists andconsultants gathered on March 28 to discuss the latestcrude and vacuum distillation technologies.Personnel came from Saudi Aramco domestic refineriesand central engineering services to join worldwideindustry experts on March 28 for the first DistillationWorkshop.The event was conducted and organized by the Processand Control Systems Department (P&CSD) at the Researchand Development Technical Exchange Center under thetheme, “Distillation: Revamping, Troubleshooting,Technology and Energy Conservation.” The aim was tocreate a learning organization, a stated goal ofEngineering and Operations Services. Saleh A. Al-Zaid, manager of P&CSD left talks with Said Al-Zahrani & Mohammed Slamah during break time.P&CSD Manager Saleh A. Al-Zaid highlighted theimportance of the distillation process in every plant and The Sulzer representative delivered the secondrefinery. He also concentrated on the importance of technology presentation, “Maximize Distillate RecoveryP&CSD in supporting Saudi Aramco’s domestic refineries, by Means of Advanced Mass Components.” That wasespecially given the rise in fuel demand. followed by a panel discussion on energy conservation at“The importance of this workshop is derived from the crude distillation units, moderated by Tariq A. Al-Zahraniimportance of crude and vacuum distillation processes,” and Khalid S. Al-Otaibi from P&CSD’s Distillation andAl-Zaid said. “Crude and vacuum units are the heart and Treating Unit.the main gate of every refinery in the world. Their “It was a great opportunity to exchange experiencesimportance is not negotiable.” with engineers, specialists and consultants fromRepresentatives from two leading companies in crude different organizations within Saudi Aramco anddistillation process revamps and technologies, Koch-Glitch worldwide industries,” said Mohammed S. Al-Ghamdi,and Sulzer Chemtic, presented “Primary Refinery Yanbu‘Refinery Operations Engineering and AutomationTreatment: Process and Technology.” That was followed Unit supervisor, of the value of the workshop.by panel discussions on Crude Distillation Walid A. Al-Naeem, supervisor of D&TU, concluded the(Atmospheric/Vacuum) and Crude Handling and workshop by thanking the attendees for theirDesalting, featuring panelists from Saudi Aramco, and participation.Sulzer and Koch-Glitsch. Distillation workshop attendees, organizers and panelists pose for a picture in R&DC Technical Exchange Center. 20 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 22. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation! P&CSD Supports Local Professional Societies: AIChE-SAS The American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) – Saudi Arabian Section (SAS) is a non-profit professional association. It has memberships from all major companies of Saudi Arabia including SABIC, Saudi Aramco, KFUPM, SWCC, Royal Commission, and many other private companies. One of the major activities is the Monthly Technical Dinner Meeting of the members. The Meeting is highlighted with presentation from a well-known expert/specialist on chemical engineering-related subjects and major activities in the downstream industries. Further information about the meeting or the society can be viewed by visiting our web-site @: http://www.kfupm.edu.sa/sas-aiche. Process & Control Systems Dept. (P&CSD) has sponsored April 8, 2007, Meeting of AIChE-SAS in the Meridian Hotel, Khobar. The Guest Speaker was Mr. Khaled The Guest Speaker Mr. Khaled Al-Faleh, Sr. VP. Al-Faleh, Sr. VP, Industrial Relations of Saudi Arabian Oil Company (Saudi Industrial Relations of Saudi Aramco). Mr. Al-Faleh discusses Saudi Aramco’s global and national business Arabian Oil Company (Saudi Aramco) addressed his challenges and the need to elevate IK educational outcomes to meet the presentation “Educational Outcomes & Industry Needs: country’s rapid economic growth and international competition. In this regard, Saudi Aramco’s Perspective” during AIChE-SAS April he has addressed the state of the Kingdom’s educational system and its monthly meeting sponsored competitiveness at an international level. In addition, three key Board Officers by P&CSD. from P&CSD are investing a lot of after-hours to make this chapter successful and serve the chemical engineering society for the year 2007. ague e society pl hand on th Chairman, AIChe-SAS ntribution. -Majnouni, k him for hi s co ohsen D. Al er, to thanMr. Abdulm CSD Manag h Al-Zaid, P&to Mr. Sale Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007 21
  • 23. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n !Rate of Change ModelingAuthors: M. A. Al-Rasheed, Nazar A. Al-NasrA New Method is proposed to simulate rate of change of process variables. Themethod can be appllied in the oil and gas industry such as in pipelines overpressureprotection and valve selection.N. A. Al-Nasr and M.A. Al-Rasheed co-authored a joint Pipeline Simulation Interest Group (PSIG) that will takepaper titled “A Method of Simulating Rate of Change place in October this year in Canada.with Applications in Pipelines Protection and CheckValves Selection.” The paper has been accepted for The paper introduces new method of simulating a processpresentation and publication in the 2007 Conference of variable (PV) rate of change with respect to time (time N.UWSS1.SUCT N.UWSS1.DISCH E.UWSS1.SUCT UPUMP1 NODE5 UBLOCK1 B.UWHW.IN NODE7 LOOP NODE8 T.UWSS1B.HCWIP NODE3 B.SRV UPUMP2 UBLOCK2 T.UWSS1A.HCWIP B.UWHW.OUT NODE1 NODE6 HWELLS NHCWIP001 V.SRV E.SRV NODE4 H.SRV NODE2 Figure 1 Schematic of water injection pipeline system derivative d(PV)/dt), that is usually not readily available or directly calculated by some dynamic pipeline simulators. The method makes use of elementary concepts of Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers along with commercial software packages of pipeline dynamic simulators, like Stoner Pipeline Simulator (SPS). The paper describes the method and its application in the oil and gas industry. One application is related to overpressure protection of cross-country pipelines (Figure-1). The method can also be applied to the proper selection of a check valve as an integral part of a pipeline system (Graph-1). In pipelines process dynamic simulation packages, flow, pressure and temperature are the most commonly used Pressure & Flow Profile of the Simulated calculated PVs. Flow, on the other hand, is the most Graph 1 Pipeline System common PV rate of change of mass or volume with 22 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 24. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation! PRR Controller Output (Red) & FSP Controller Response of SRV (Relieved Flow in Blue) to PRR Graph 2 Graph 3 Output (Black) After Surge & FSP Controllers After Surge Dimensional Dynamic Performance Curve (DPC) Non-dimensional Dynamic Performance Graph 4 Graph 5 of Various Check Valves Curve (DPC) of Various Check Valvesrespect to time. Fluid velocity (V) in a pipeline is another acceleration or deceleration are not standard calculatedexample of a PV rate of change of the fluid traveled- outputs in pipelines hydraulics and surge analysisdistance with respect to time, which is usually calculated software programs.from flow rate based on physical properties of fluid (e.g. A PV rate of change like dP/dt is very useful in surgedensity and viscosity) and pipe size and material. The analysis to simulate rate-of-rise types of surge reliefpressure rate of change (dP/dt) such as pressure rate of valves. Also, knowing a PV rate of change like dV/dt fromrise (PRR), or velocity rate of change (dV/dt = a), that is, a transient analysis simulation, helps identifying the Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007 23
  • 25. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n ! Fluid Velocity Before & After Closure of the Response of SRV (Relieved Flow in Blue) Graph 6 Graph 7 Downstream Valve to PRR & FSP Controllers After Surge A PV rate of change like dP/dt is Though, the derivative action in very useful in surge analysis to a PID controller can cause simulate rate-of-rise types of amplification of any noise in surge relief valves. the error signal, the proposedsuitable check valve for a specific system and application. method of derivative-onlyThere are also situations where PV rate of change is controller can be applied inneeded to be observed almost continuously and displayedbefore an operator in the form of “rate of change”alarms, where abnormal variation of PV data with respect simulation with the absence ofto time, such as sudden increase or decrease of pressurecan trigger rate of change alarms. While PV data may not any source of noise.be high or low enough to trigger normal high or lowalarms, rapid fluctuation in PV value, in the from of rateof change with respect to time, can indicate abnormaloperating conditions. Such rate of change alarms would M. A. Al-Rasheed: A Pipeline Hydraulics & Surge Analysisthen alert the operator to respond ahead of time to the engineer in the Upstream Process Engineering Division. Hasobserved abnormal situation and take a corrective action more than 15 years experience in the oil industry. Holds a degree in chemical engineering from King Fahd Universitybefore unacceptable operating conditions can occur. of Petroleum & Minerals in Dhahran. A member of theThese kinds of alarms can be simulated by applying the Pipeline Simulation Interest Group (PSIG) and the Americanproposed method. Association of Chemical Engineering (AICHE).Though, the derivative action in a PID controller can cause Nazar A. Al-Nasr: Holds a PhD of Mathematics since 1981amplification of any noise in the error signal, the from Clarkson University, NY, USA. An assistant professor ofproposed method of derivative-only controller can be mathematics at KFUP, for two years. Published several papers on mathematical applications to multi-variableapplied in simulation with the absence of any source of control systems. Joined Saudi Aramco in 1983. Has 12 yearsnoise. of experience in operator training simulators (OTS). Developed in-house real-time custom models for OTS in theThe proposed method is detailed with two illustrative Northern Area Producing. Currently an engineering specialist in pipeline hydraulics and surge analysis simulation.application examples in the PSIG paper. 24 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 26. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation!TORR Technology for Produced Water TreatmentAuthor: Salah M. Al-BinHajiTechnology approach towards challenges faced by the significant increase of pro-duced water from the oil fields “Optimize Operations for Improved Performance”As assets mature, and produced water volumes increase, depend entirely on the condition of the oil-waterproducing facilities face major problems in dealing with mixture. Present techniques for the separation of oil fromthe resultant process issues. On the other side of the water are based on their difference of density.equation, increasingly stringent discharge specifications, Stoke’s Law states that rising velocity (Vr) is a function oflimit the disposal options open to these facilities; i.e., the square of the oil droplets’ diameter as shown in thecurrent oil-in-water content between 50-100 mg/l with below equation: Vr α d^2 (ρw – ρo) / µfuture reductions to less than 50 mg/l. Where Vρ = rise velocity of oil droplet ρw = density of water, ρo = density of oilAll these factors mean that produced water is no longer a d = oil droplet diameter, µ = viscosity of watersimple waste stream. Equally, the complexity of the From Stoke’s Law, it can be seen that droplet size has theproblem is such that no single item of equipment is largest impact on the rising velocity rate of oil droplets inenough to mitigate the problem, and a truly integrated water. Consequently, the bigger the droplet size, the lessapproach is therefore needed to address all aspects of the time it takes for the droplet to rise to a collection surfaceprocess. and thus easier to treat the water. The oil in the producedThis challenge is visible in NAOO as capital projects have water can be present as free-oil, and/or dispersed, and/oralready been put in place, to expand and improve the dissolved states in different proportions.present water handling facilities, for the GOSPs to Free-oil is defined as an oil droplet of 150 microns, whichoperate at the maximum sustained rates/capacities (MSC). will float immediately to the surface due to its large size and high rising velocity. An emulsion is defined as oilOil-In-Water Separation Theory: which is dispersed in the water in a stable fashion due toThe performance of any given separation technique will its small diameter and its low rising velocity. Figure 1 Technology Oil-In-Water Separation Process Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007 25
  • 27. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n ! The size distribution curve for the dispersed oil in water must be measured to effectively address the issues and meet and exceed the set Figure 2 Technology Process Flow Diagram discharge targets.The Challenge of Removing Small Oil- when it’s fully saturated with oil, while desorbing the coalesced oil as free-floating oil.In-Water Droplet:Even under favorable conditions, oil droplets smaller than The two previously mentioned characteristics of RPAabout 30 mm in water are known to be quite difficult to allows for an efficient process (removal of oil emulsionsseparate (From Literature). Oily water with small droplets down to 2 microns) and also a self-cleaning systemless than 30 mm are even more difficult to separate. (continuous oil separation and recovery) with low operations and maintenance.Therefore, it is important to fully understand the The technology offers several potential benefits ascharacteristics of the produced water. The size follows:distribution curve for the dispersed oil in water must bemeasured to effectively address the issues and meet and • Separates and recovers non-soluble dispersedexceed the set discharge targets. hydrocarbons in water with approximately 2 microns in diameter and larger.TORR Technology (Newly introduced • Reduce the hydrocarbon content of non-soluble hydrocarbons to below 10 PPM. The technology claims totechnology for produced water treatment): have the highest oil removal efficiency for oil-in-waterAs part of P&CSD efforts in exploring technologies to droplets size even below 30 mm (between 15-30 mm).optimize operations for improved performance, new • Accomplishes oil separation and recovery without theproduced water treatment technology (TORR™) is being need for chemicals or heat, thus operational costs areinvestigated for application. minimal.The TORR™ (Total Oil Remediation and Recovery) System • Energy requirements for pumping the oily water are minimal since the TORR™’ system’s pressure drop acrosswas developed by EARTH (Canada) Corporation. the process is low.This technology is based on the filtration, coalescence, P&CSD has coordinated a technical meeting for the newand gravity separation process. These three principles are technology in which representatives from SAOO, NAOO,combined together into a single process resulting in a EPD, FPD, and Aramco Service Company (ASC) attendedself-cleaning oily water filtration system. To achieve that, the meeting.the RPA® (Reusable Petroleum Absorbent), a P&CSD is in the discussion stage with the vendor andhydrophobic absorbent developed and patented by NAOO for conducting a trial test of this technology.EARTH (Canada) Corporation, is used as a filtration/coalescing medium. The RPA has the followingcharacteristics: Salah M. Al-BinHaji is a process engineer with Oil Production Unit /UPED. He has seven years of experience• Absorption of very fine emulsions down to 2 microns as with Saudi Aramco. He worked as a plant engineer, senior engineer and safety/Environmental/Health engineer in a result of being highly oleophillic. North Ghawar Producing Department. Currently he is on a• Capacity to continue absorbing the fine emulsions even one year assignment with P&CSD. 26 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 28. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation! Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Summer 2007 27
  • 29. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n !Basket Impeller Column: New ApproachAuthor: Salem Al-QahtaniHydrodynamics and Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer Characteristics of a MultistageDual-flow Spinning Basket Impeller Catalytic Distillation ColumnThe basket impeller column is an alternative catalytic drop and liquid hold up of stage correlations. Thedistillation reactor design for systems that require an volumetric mass transfer coefficient and interfacial areaeffective catalytic liquid renewal and high rate of were determined using the absorption chemical system oflocalized mixing to overcome severely limiting mass carbon dioxide in sodium hydroxide andtransfer resistances. The basket impeller consists of 4- carbonate/bicarbonate buffer solutions. The resultingblade wire mesh, distributed one per stage, that contains correlations were typical of those found in dual flowsolid catalysts typically found in a stirred basket slurry columns, with improvement obtained through agitation.reactor. The liquid contact with the catalyst is enhancedwith rotational speed of the basket impeller on a renewalbasis, allowing for slip velocities much higher than those 120 100 120 100 80 80achieved with a static catalytic distillation column. The ReG ReG 60 60 40 40 20impeller is located directly above a sieve plate in a column 20 0 1.2 0 1.2 1 3000 3000without downcomers. The current configuration of the 1 2000 2000 0.8 1000 0.8 1000 ReL 0.6 0 0.6 0 ReImp ReL ReImpbasket impeller column, with dual flow action bubble 250 250recirculation provided by the impeller, enhances the gas ReG 200 150 200 150 ReGliquid contact that results in higher mass transfer rates. 100 50 100 50 0The objective of this study is to provide correlations of the 0 1.2 1 3000 1.2 1 0.8 2000 3000 2000 1000 0.8basket impeller column to better understand the system ReL 0.6 0 1000 ReImp ReL 0.6 0 ReImpand use them in future applications. Deriving processmodeling that characterizes such a configuration will Figure 2 Capacity Loading and flooding Envelopemake the utilization of this system more widely applicablefor future experiments; this includes loading and floodingenvelopes. In addition, the hydrodynamics and gas to Discussionliquid mass transfer, over a range operating parameters, Loading and flooding Envelope:was determined. As the operating range lay in the It is clear from the above figure for the loading andmiddle, it was found that the actual number of stages is flooding envelope that the non-linearity occurred fromequal to the calculated N model ”calculated number of steep areas of change on the envelope surface. Thesestages”. The phenomenon of mechanically assisted forced were represented using a power law type expression onweeping was thoroughly investigated by using pressure each surface. The loading envelope for this column with 7 and 13 % Open Area plates over the ranges of superficial Reynold numbers: Basket Impeller Column 0 ≤ ReG ≤ 250.0.6 ≤ ReL ≤ 1.6,0 ≤ 1.6 ≤ 0 ≤ Ω ≤ 300 Cumulative Flow Meter are obtained by: ReG Loading = 8.875 * 10-0.2ReL-0.2210(5.108x10- ReL+4.17)θ1.26 0.5 T P Gas Chromatograph TCD The ReG values obtained from this equation represents the establishment of a froth structure in the presence of the operating basket impeller, which is typically Gas Feed Pre-Saturator Variable Speed P P illustrated by sustained large bubble formation. Peristaltic pump Gas Supply N2 and CO2 The flooding envelope is similarly obtained over the same range of operation for the basket impeller column for the RTD Pressurized Fraction Collector 7 and 13 % Open Area plates by: Liquid Phase Supply and Reciever ReG.Flooding = 6.406x10-0.2 ReL -0.17 10(6.08x10)-0.6 Re1+4 Figure 1 Experiment setup Those corresponding to this equation predict the onset 28 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 30. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation!flooding where by the froth height has reached the 0.06stages highest point of 0.15 m. When comparing loadingto flooding, the loading is generally sensitive to all 0.05 13% ReG 170.7 13% ReG 139.0variables, while flooding is particulary affected by ReL the 7% ReG 51.2impeller Reynolds number and q the fractional plate open 0.04 7% ReG 43.9area. The potentially significant interaction of these two KLa (s-1)variables has been shown to strongly influence tray 0.03capacity. These equation define the applicable range of 0.02all correlation subsequently reported. 0.01Residence Time Distribution (RTD) 0The below figure shows a typicall RTD curves for the 0 100 Ω (rpm) 200 300system, it reflects the type of behavior observed during Figure 4 Mass Transfer Resultsthe study:As the basket impeller rotational speed Ω increases, the E- 2 kLaL = b1Re +b2Re1+b0curves increase as well. This observed increase in variancewith Ω from 0 to 150 is caused by the higher axial b1 = 145x10-09 – 1.36x10-10ReG–4.74x10-10ReL+1.28x10-07θdispersion within the column, and increased residence of b2 = 135x10-06 + 210x10-07ReG+234x10-05ReL–1.98x10-01θthe tracer within the packed basket. As the rotational b0 = 244x10-02 + 9.36x10-01ReG+1.01x10-02ReL–1.21θspeed Ω increased, the froth structure collapsed due tothe force of weeping that produced a return to plug flow. Conclusion It is concluded in this study that the basket impeller 0.1 column operating range becomes broader as the % OA of 0.09 0 rpm 150 rpm the plate increases, the larger the OA, the higher the 0.08 250 rpm operating maximum and minimum. The broader range of 0.07 operation will give flexibility on the column and allow the 0.06 gas and liquid flow rate to vary. Therefore, the E-(t) 0.05 0.04 controllability of the basket column impeller with 0.03 higher % OA plate is easier than the low % OA one. The 0.02 efficiency with smaller plates is higher than the larger 0.01 one. Moreover, it is revealed from the RTD experiments 0 that at mid range of operation, the number of stages N 0 20 40 60 80 t (min) for the basket impeller column become close to the actual number of stages. Operating at or close to loading and Figure 3 Residence Time Distribution (RTD) Analysis flooding envelopes result in partial bypass and recirculation, resulings in a highly back-mixing column. InMass Transfer Gas-to-Liquid the gas to liquid mass transfer experiments, it revealed that the mass transfer is typically of tray plate withAs the surface area of mass transfer increases, the mass stationary basket, with additional, enhancement of thetransfer will increase as well. This fact is iullstrated in the impeller to a certain maximum, before froth collapsedbelow figure for the two plates 7 and 13 % Open Area and force of weeping decreases the liquid. The mass(OA). The 13 % plate has a higher operating range than 7 transfer of the 13 % OA is higher than the 7 % plate. A% plate: high area provides more gas to liquid contact. TheThe 13 % OA plate has a higher throughput, which behavior of dependent parameters is typically non-linearprovides for a higher gas to liquid mass transfer. Previous with respect to rotational speed.work with this configuration showed that the efficiencyof distillation column at mid range of operation for thesmall area plate is usually higher than large one. This Salem Al-Qahtani is a Process Engineer withresult is also true for the standard bubble column without P&CSD/UPED/GPU. Salem’s main specialty is NGL recovery and fractionation. He holds a Master of Engineering Scienceinternals. The correlation for the effective mass transfer from the University of New South Wales, Sydney Australia.coefficient for liquid kLaL is as follows: Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007 29
  • 31. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation!Data Validation and ReconciliationA Crucial Technology for Processing PlantsAuthor: Amein AlsueziThe validity and accuracy of measurement data are crucial factors to successfullyexploit plants’ Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and Energy Performance Indices(EPIs). Measurement data are inherently plagued with varying degrees ofinaccuracies.This necessitates the need to validate plants’ Stabilizer Reboilers E-26Bmeasurement data utilizing all available and E-26Apossible process data, exploiting the basic 450.00laws of physics. After data validation, Design HTC higher Heat Transfer than previous 400.00reconciliation is a method for extracting all Coefficient (HTC) design value 350.00information present in plant data to gain thegreatest economic value. 300.00 Replaced Deteriorat Tubes 250.00EPIs, as well as KPIs for critical equipment, Heat Transfer Deteriorationprovide the plants the means to monitor and 200.00 Heat Transfer Coefficientimprove process performance, thereby 150.00reducing energy consumption. 100.00 TubesUnderstandably, instrument and equipmentmaintenance in a large organization such as 50.00 Cleaned DeteriorSaudi Aramco can be a daunting and 0.00overwhelming task resulting in several 7/1/06 7/3/06 7/5/06 7/7/06 7/9/06 7/11/06 7/13/06 7/15/06 7/17/06 7/19/06 7/21/06 7/23/06 7/25/06 7/27/06 7/29/06 7/31/06 8/2/06 8/4/06 8/6/06 8/8/06 8/10/06 8/12/06 8/14/06 8/16/06 8/18/06 8/20/06 8/22/06 8/24/06 8/26/06 8/28/06 8/30/06 9/1/06measurements being inaccurate and Heat Transfer Coefficients’ KPI for cleaned as Figure 1sometimes invalid. well as new type of tubes deterioration as well as the improvement in the heatIn 2004, Saudi Aramco evaluated the five leading data transfer coefficients before and after tube cleaning andvalidation and reconciliation (DVR) applications to replacement. This information is provided online at anyprovide the needed measurement data validation. VALI desired time interval allowing for condition-based maintenance as well as incident avoidance. Also, itfrom Belsim s.a./NAIZAK Global Solutions was the provides insight to equipment performance, revealing,primary choice application for data validation & for example, that the new tubes’ types have higher heat transfer coefficients than the old ones.reconciliation (DVR). Saudi Aramco is proceeding to establish a corporateSaudi Aramco has since implemented a project pilot at license agreement for faster implementation of theRiyadh Refinery’s crude distillation unit as well as a plant- application across all its producing, gas processing and oilwide material balance model. In addition, a pilot at the refining facilities.Shedgum Gas Plant liquid recovery unit provided plantEPIs and equipment KPIs for proactive and predictivemaintenance. The implementation of VALI-DVR revealedpotential opportunities for revenue enhancements as Dr. Amein Alsuezi is the Data Validation & Reconciliation team leader within PCD of P&CSD. With more than 20 yearswell as insight for proactive predictive maintenance and of industrial experience, he has extensive knowledge inincident avoidance. A good example is the heat transfer successfully leading and managing projects. Prior to joining Saudi Aramco, he worked in the USA as independentcoefficient KPI, calculated for cleaned as well as new types consultant for various companies.of tubes (see figure 1). One can clearly see the 30 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 32. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n !Optimizing Projects with a Main Automation ContractorAuthor: Saleh Al-QaffasTransform Corporate Performance is one of our Corporate Strategic Imperatives,and Process Automation project execution is one of the processes that requiredynamic optimization to ensure quality and cost effectiveness.Process Automation Systems (PAS) are used in most Saudi • Design inconsistenciesAramco industrial capital projects and hence havesignificant impact on the cost, quality and on stream • Poor interfaces between PMT, EPC, and subcontractorsoperation of Company plants and facilities. The Main • Inconsistent selection of equipment and materialsAutomation Contractor (MAC) concept was created by • High projects contingencyindustry users in conjunction with process automation As a practice in the industry to overcome the problemssuppliers to optimize PAS projects execution. associated with the tradition project execution approach,MAC is defined as a highly qualified, large projects The MAC concept was created to address the followingexperienced, and well resourced control systems business drivers:contractor assigned to engineer, supply/procure and • Economicsmanage Process Automation Solutions and associatedinstrumentation for all project process areas and facilities. • Accurate definition of PAS scope prior to project detailingAs part of its strategic initiatives to support corporate • Reduction in change ordersperformance transformation, P&CSD has launched acomprehensive study of the MAC concept to assess its • Improvement is project scheduleapplicability and value to Saudi Aramco PAS projects. A • Better integration with third party equipmentteam comprising of representatives from P&CSD, PMT, Concept Phase Planning Phase Implementation Phase Close-Out-Phase 20% 40% 60% 80%FPD, and PS&CD was formed to conduct the study, assess Highrisks and validate projected benefits. Cost Expenditure Ability to Influence CostBackgroundIt is well known in the industry that PAS expendituresrepresent about 3% - 5% of an overall project budget.Improper planning, design and implementation can drivethe cost of PAS by an additional 10%-25% of its value.Furthermore, PAS is the foundation for a plant operation Cost Influence Lowwhich can result in 100% downtime if not properly Definitive estimate & proposal at the early stage is critical for customer successdesigned and configured. Therefore, it is essential tofocus on PAS during the initial Project Proposal (PP) phase Figure 1 MAC impact on Project Costto ensure that overall PAS design, scope and integrationrequirements are properly defined. Figure 1 shows that early involvement of MAC in the project design can positively influence project cost whileTraditional PAS projects proposal phase has been late involvement in a project could result in additionalexecuted by design contractors in the absence of Process cost expenditures, due to change orders andControl Supplier (PCS). Similarly, during the detail design contingencies.and construction phases, Lump-Sum Turn-Key (LSTK)contractors have typically performed the role of theautomation contractor while the scope of the PCS Findings and Benefitsremained limited to implementing the design packages. The Team has concluded that the MAC concept is anThis approach has resulted in numerous project execution industry trend and widely used by major Oil & Gas usersproblems including: as a strategic project execution tool. MAC has been proven to reduce PA project costs by 10 – 15%, improve• Unplanned scope changes overall Process Automation schedule, improve total• Unplanned resources integration quality, and reduce risks. 32 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 33. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation! DBSP PP Completed Completed Design Prep./ Basic design Project Proposal phase Implementation Phase MAC BP MAC MAC Design of Work Strategy LSTK Prep. Bidding Sel. PAS BP Together Bid Package Finalized Quotation Selection LSTK award • MAC Bid • Project • Award for Package Work on PP includes: LS cost • PEFS’s rev A PP Phase • System sizing and architecture • Units • Unit rates • Implementation plan & execution • etc. • etc. Duration (Weeks) • Functional Design specs • Project standards • Site planning data • New Quotation (< Ceiling) (Ceiling = Old Quote +/- Units * Unit rates + contingencies) Figure 2 MAC Project TimelineHighlighted benefits from vendor proposals/ 1. Equipment (DCS, SCADA, TMS, Auxiliary systems,presentations, interviews and work sessions with industry Instrumentation)users, LSTK contractors, and SAPMT are the following: 2. Engineering Services• MAC involvement in each automation area will 3. Construction Services contribute to consistency and higher quality of 4. Operation Services procedures and specification documentation Figure 3 shows the milestones structure should be• MAC will contribute to higher quality integrated followed to capture the benefits realized from MAC systems from the field instrument to the board room executed projects.Early MAC involvement during FEED (Project Proposal)reduces project cost via reduced change orders, lower Recommendationcontingency, and shortens development time. Estimated The team recommended that the MAC concept be appliedproject cost avoidance is in the range of 10-15%. to all types of Saudi Aramco process automation projects,MAC will improve overall automation schedule due to including Maintain Potential and Master Appropriationsearly involvement in project proposal development. projects.Typically, more than 5 months are saved in a project Contribution of this initiative goes to all team members:schedule due to MAC early selection and basic design Saleh A. Alqaffas (P&CSD), Riad S. Mosrie (P&CSD),availability. This concept would take automation system Farrukh N. Chawla (P&CSD), Abdulla A. Al-Mulla (PMT),out of the critical path during detail design and Kenneth T. Koval (PS&CD) and Wadei A. Al-Marhoonconstruction phases. (FPD)All system releases are managed by MAC to ensure latestversion upon project completionImpacted Saudi Aramco StandardsIn support of the MAC concept, a new engineering Saleh Al-Qaffas is an Engineering Consultant with Process & Control Systems Department. He holds a BS degree inprocedure, SAEP-1650 has been developed. This Electrical Engineerin from the Universsity of Pittsbirgh, USAProcedure details MAC applicability, execution and an MBA degree from the university of Hull, UK. Saleh is the Chairman of the Process Control Standards Committeemethodology, selection criteria, scope boundaries and with Saudi Aramco and the Presidient of the Saudi Arabiaproposed activity timeline. MAC responsibility and scope Section of the Instrumentation, Systems & Automation Society (ISA).boundaries include: Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007 33
  • 34. Monitoring and Maintaining Multivariable Constrained Controllers Jim Anderson Matrikon Users Summit 2007 Centralized LIMS System at Saudi Aramco Chicago, Illinois USA, May 9, 2007 Muhammad Shahid Khursaniyah Gas Plant Project London, United Kingdom, March 23, 2007 Saudi Aramco Control Systems Design and Future Trends, John Kinsley Invensys Foxboro North America 2007 User’s Group Meeting Chicago, Illinois USA, July 18, 2007Application of Multi-Unit Optimization on a NGL Gas Plant,Steve WagnerHoneywell Profit Suite Strategic Users Forum 2007Phoenix, Arizona USA, June 8, 2007 Oil and Gas Processor Goes Wireless on the LAN Mohammed Al-Saeed, Soliman Al-Walaie, and Majed Al-Subaie ISA InTech Magazine, April 1, 200 Saudi Aramco Organization & Implementation of DVR Technology for Performance & Energy Consumption Optimization, Ashraf AlGhazzawi, Antonio Fernandes and Amein Alsuezi, D.Sc. Industrial Wireless LAN Security for Oil & Gas Process 16h Belsim User Meeting 2007, Barcelona, Spain Automation Networks June 11, 2007 Mohammed Al-Saeed The 8th Annual Gas and Oil Exchange UK 2007 United Kingdom, November 30, 2007
  • 35. The Effect of Biological and Polymeric Inhibitors onMethane Gas Hydrate Growth KineticsS. Al-Adel, J. Dick, R. El-Ghafari and P. ServioEleventh International Conference on Properties andPhase Equilibria for Product and Process Design,Crete, Greece, May 23, 2007 Legacy Industrial Wireless and the SP100 in Oil and Gas Process Control Systems – Design and Planning Considerations, Author: Dr. Abdelghani Daraiseh. Co-authors: Abdullah Al-Nufaii, Barrag Assaf from North Shedgum Gas Plant, IEEE Gulf Conference, Manama, Bahrain, November 12, 2007 Foundation for Safety Instrumented Functions (SIF) Patrick Flanders, KFUPM Workshop on Industrial Systems and Control, Dhahran Saudi Arabia, May 21, 2007, ISA Saudi Arabia Section, Dhahran Saudi Arabia, June 25, 2007, Foundation Fieldbus Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, Sept 10, 2007 Crude Column Optimization – Saudi Aramco Rabigh Refinery case, Khalid S. Al-Otaibi, Salem S Bolawi, Hamad A Sobhi PETROTECH 2007 India, January 17, 2007 Overview of Catalyst Management and Selection Protocols at Saudi Aramco’s Refineries Saeed Al-Alloush, Gene Yeh, and A. M. Aitani (KFUPM), Saudi Aramco Journal of Technology Fall 2006
  • 36. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n !Advanced Multivariable & Regulatory ControlPerformance MonitoringAuthors: Jim Anderson, Mohammed Al-Zain, Dr. Rashid Ansari, Dr. Othman Taha, Abdullah Al-Garni, Khaled Al-HarbiA technical study was completed in early 2007 to identify, pilot, and evaluatemultivariable control (MVC) and regulatory control (PID) advanced performancemonitoring technologies for use in Saudi Aramco facilities.A technical study was completed in early 2007 to identify, and evaluating technical capabilities of the major vendorspilot, and evaluate multivariable control (MVC) and that supply such systems and to recommend a limitedregulatory control (PID) advanced performance number of vendors that can provide best field provenmonitoring technologies for use in Saudi Aramco systems that meet all the requirements for Saudi Aramcofacilities. The monitoring tools are essential to be able to Refineries and Gas Plants. The core Evaluation Team wasfully and consistently capture the economic benefits that formed to execute and complete the technologiessuch MVC applications bring. Currently, Saudi Aramco evaluation and was comprised of representatives fromuses MVC technologies from AspenTech, Honeywell, and P&CSD, Ras Tanura Refinery, Riyadh Refinery, Ju’aymahYokagawa/Shell. Gas Plant and Yanbu‘ Refinery.The Advanced Process Control Unit (APCU) of the ProcessControl Division (PCD) of the Process & Control Systems Evaluation MethodologyDepartment (P&CSD) obtained approval for a Technology A Product Evaluation Program was developed to aid inItem (PRA-02/04-T) for the purpose of identifying, piloting objectively assessing the various MVC performance Matrikon’s ProcessDoctor uses an ergonomically designed interface that allows a single view of all MVC assets for an Figure 1 entire plant with drill-down capability to easily and quickly detect, diagnose and correct control performance problems. 36 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 37. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation!monitoring technologies. This program was based on the Benefitssame principles of previous product evaluationsconducted by P&CSD which were approved by Law It is estimated that the MVC advanced performanceDepartment and Contract Review & Cost Compliance monitoring technology piloted as part of this study willDepartment. This program is based on the Kepner-Tregoe improve MVC performance by 10%. This performance(K-T) Decision Analysis Method. improvement is largely measured as increases in online service time and controller effectiveness or utilization resulting significant annual savings when used on all MVCResults & Recommendations applications within Saudi Aramco. Preliminary data fromMatrikon’s ProcessDocTM PID carries the highest rating the installed pilots indicate that the estimatedand is recommended for all operating facilities to monitor improvement of 10% is achievable.performance of the regulatory control systems. Inaddition, the Matrikon’s ProcessDocTM MPC and Tai-Ji are Implementation Stepsrecommended for operating facilities employing MVC P&CSD issued preliminary recommendations to operatingtechnologies from either Honeywell (Profit ControllerTM) facilities in 2006. As a result of the recommendations,or AspenTech (DMCplusTM). Currently, Matrikon’s several operating facilities budgeted accordingly andProcessDocTM MPC does not interface with the purchased site licenses for Matrikon’s – ProcessDocTM PID,Shell/Yokogawa SMOCTM controller. Matrikon has future MPC & Tai-Ji. Ras Tanura Refinery purchased a site-wideplans to incorporate the SMOCTM technology into its license and installed the technology at the end of 2006.monitoring product but there are no specific dates for Yanbu‘ Refinery and Gas Plant have also completed site-accomplishing this. Therefore, facilities which utilize wide installations of ProcessDocTM PID and MPC in 2006Shell/Yokogawa SMOCTM MVC controllers may use and 2007.Shell/Yokogawa’s monitoring product, MDPro, for thoseapplications. P&CSD was able to negotiate a favorable corporate discounting structure in the Matrikon software contractAspenWatchTM package may be considered for very due to the large rollout of the product across thecomplex DMCplusTM applications. Examples include Company. Nine (9) major downstream facilities have nowreactor processes or highly integrated MVC applications. purchased site-wide licenses. Berri and Shedgum GasThe reasoning for this recommendation is based on Plants have planned installations in 2007 while the othersAspenWatchTM being designed specifically for are planning for 2008 and 2009. Upstream operations areDMCplusTM. Consequently, it has very detailed also planning installations in 2008.knowledge of the inner workings and capabilities ofDMCplusTM. Jim Anderson is a Control Consultant at Saudi Aramco. He Dr. Othman Taha is a Lead Process Control Engineer with works in the Advanced Process Control Unit for P&CSD. He the Advanced Process Control Unit in P&CSD. He holds a PhD has 30 years of industry experience in process controls. in Chemical Engineering and PhD in Electrical Engineering, with speciality APC control. Mohammed Al-Zain is a Lead Process Control Engineer at Abdullah Al-Garni is a Lead Process Control Engineer at Saudi Aramco. He works in the Advanced Process Control Saudi Aramco’s Ras Tanura Refinery where he works in the Unit for Ju’aymah Gas Plant. is a Control Consultant at Saudi Engineering Technical Support Unit. Aramco. He works in the Advanced Process Control Unit for P&CSD. He has 30 years of industry experience in process controls. Dr. Rashid Ansari is a process Control Specialist at Saudi Khaled Al-Harbi is a Process Control Engineer at Saudi Aramco’s Riyadh Refinery. He holds a PhD in Chemical Aramco. He works in the Operations and Automation Unit Engineering with specialization in multivariable control and for Yanbu‘ Refinery. optimization. Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007 37
  • 38. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n !Yanbu‘ Gas Plant Dynamic Optimizer ImplementationAuthor: Steve WagnerP&CSD/APCU partnered with YG&TD Engineering and Operations groups toimplement a dynamic multi-unit optimizer application for NGL fractionation.P&CSD/APCU partnered with YG&TD one operating area. The Yanbu‘ NGL applicationEngineering and Operations groups to incorporates operating objectives and constraints ofimplement a dynamic multi-unit optimizer the process areas of three console operators.application for NGL fractionation. Six advanced process control applications wereThis application is primarilydesigned to optimize andcoordinate the feed rates to the NGLfractionation trains subject toethane and local non-refrigeratedpropane demands. This is the secondimplementation of this specific typeof real-time dynamic optimizationtechnology at Saudi Aramco. It is thefirst implementation with a processscope that encompasses more than This application is primarily designed to optimize and coordinate the feed rates to the NGL fractionation trains subject to ethane and local non- refrigerated propane demands. 38 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 39. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation! to provide just the key control and related status information. Initial results of this application show the anticipated reduction in variability of the feed to the NGL fractionation trains and steadier supply to ethane customers. The figures below show before and after control performance for the ethane header pressure. The following figures show the related change in the control performance of the feed rates to the NGL fractionation trains. These more gradual changes translate into better control of key specification on the individual fraction columns, especially the de- ethanizers.implemented on the three fractionation columns inMod 3 and 4 in 2006. These control applications useHoneywell’s control technology and were designedwith the subsequent addition of this tightly integrateddynamic optimization technology in mind. Theoptimizer application was developed in the firstquarter of 2007 and commissioning was completed atYanbu‘ in April. P&CSD handled most of theengineering in-house.Console operator interface training was a key concernfor this project. The application scope includes oneconsole area where personnel previously had noexperience with advanced control technologies. Thestandard operating screens for these technologies caninclude large amounts of data and require sometraining and familiarization to be used effectively. Anexample of just one of six standard screens for thedynamic optimizer is shown below.Since only a select few pieces if all this data are used bythe console operator for control YG&TD control Stephen Wagner is an Engineering Specialist with theengineers designed a simpler, focused interface for the Advanced Process Control Unit in P&CSD. He has 22 yearsconsole operators new to this technology. This step experience in the areas of process control and refining operations. Stephen is a Chemical Engineer and has beenprovides a better operating tool and significantly with Saudi Aramco since 2001. Prior to that, he worked inreduced the training required during commissioning. several refineries in Canada with experience in process control operations and process engineering.The new custom graphic is shown below. It is tailored Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007 39
  • 40. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n !Alarm System Improvement at AINDAR GOSP-2Authors: Saad M. Al-Abbud, Bandar M. Al-UsaimiUsing an Engineering Services Agreement (ESA), Process & Control SystemsDepartment (P&CSD) in partnership with North Ghawar Producing Department(NGPD) provided an alarm baseline assessment, immediate performanceimprovement solutions, and recommended resolutions for fixing the top 10 badactors at AINDAR GOSP-2.This is the first project to improve a GOSP Alarm Data Collection SetupManagement System within Saudi Aramco. This article The alarm and events messages from AINDAR GOSP-2 aredescribes the data collection setup, summarizes the collected by using the Matrikon Collector via the ExaOPCanalysis results, and recommended resolutions for the Server interfaced to the process automation systemimmediate alarm system performance improvement. (PAS),Yokogawa CS3000. The messages are parsed and ProcessGuard Client Applications LEGEND ProcessGuard Software Component ProcessGuard Internet Excel Analysis Real Time Viewer Explorer PC / Server Reports TCP 80 TCP 8542 TCP 8540 /8543 ProcessGuard ProcessGuard Web Reports Analyzer Central ProcessGuard BC312960 Central Database ProcessGuard Server Health Monitor Server DBTEMS 01 ProcessGuard Archiver DHA00730-SQLT01 ABQAIQ AIN DAR GOSP-2 TCP 8541 Process BC332172 Guard Data stored locally and then Collector forwarded to another Local collector from which it is ProcessGuard sent to the central server Process Server Guard Archiver Local DB ( 2GB Limit ) ( MSDE ) TCP 8541 Process OPC 0162 Guard Collector ExaQuantum OPC Server Yokogawa ExaOPC A & E Server Figure 1 ProcessGuard System Architecture 40 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 41. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation! • The different alarm priorities are neither distinguishable by color on the displays nor by audible The performance measured by alarm tones. This severely impacts the operator’s ability to focus on prioritizing his actions during using Key Performance abnormal conditions. Indicators (KPIs) defined in Saudi • There is no Alarms Philosophy document available at the site. Aramco Engineering Report Recommendations SAER-5895, Alarm Management A workshop was held at AINDAR GOSP-2 attended by representatives from P&CSD, NGPD, AINDAR GOSP-2 Guidelines for PAS. Operation, Engineering, and Maintenance. During the workshop, proposed recommendations for fixing the top 20 bad actors and immediate performance improvementachieved on a local Archiver then forwarded to a central solutions were discussed. The team agreed on theserver located at Abqaiq for remote alarm management following recommendations:and analysis. The ProcessGuard System Architectureinstalled for AINDAR GOSP-2 is illustrated below. • The PAS Alarms need to be re-configured so that the different priorities (Low, High, and Emergency) of theAlarm Data Analysis Results Summary alarms can be distinguishable to the console operator. The alarm indication color should be based on priorityThe alarm data were collected for more than a three and be consistent through displays on all consoles. Thismonth period, from February 4, 2007 through May 13, will play an important role especially in an upset2007. The performance measured by using Key condition when the Operator can focus on prioritizingPerformance Indicators (KPIs) defined in Saudi Aramco his actions based on alarm priority.Engineering Report SAER-5895, Alarm ManagementGuidelines for PAS. • Immediate implementation of the recommended resolutions of the top 20 bad actors should beMany of the performance deficiencies listed in the performed. This will improve the alarm managementfindings below are due to an improper alarm system system by 70%.design inherited from the designer, and inappropriateconfigurations exercised by the PAS Vendor. Here is the • An Alarm Philosophy Document for AINDAR GOSP-2summary of the findings and recommendations: should be developed based on NGPD Management of Change, and SAER-5895. The Alarm Philosophy Document will serve as guidelines to provideFindings consistent methodology and criteria for the• The tags of the top 20 bad actors have been identified. development, implementation, and modification of More than 25% of these bad actors are caused by process alarms. instruments malfunction. Also, alarms on 69 tags have been disabled/suppressed due to similar problems. It is recommended that disabled alarms should be less than 30 at any time.• The average of the configured alarms per analog tags Saad M. Al-Abbud is the Alarm Management Optimization is 1.6, and the average of the configured alarms per (AMO) Lead Engineer at Saudi Aramco. He has active participations in establishing Alarm Management System digital tags is 1.0. The recommended average for Project Specification, and sites alarm system philosophy analog tags is 1.0, and for digital tags is 0.4. The Documents. Led many AMO projects. existing configuration for the both tag types is exciding the recommended average.• About 96% of the alarms have MEDIUM (HIGH) Bandar M. Al-Usaimi works in NGPD as a control system priority with no LOW priority alarms. This alarm engineer. He has participated in several SAOO control priority is not aligned with the best industry practices system upgrade projects. Bandar is assigned to lead Alarm Management System installation as a Pilot Testing and as defined in SAER-5895, 5% Emergency, 15% High, develop a deployment plan to the rest of NGPD facilities. and 80% Low. Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007 41
  • 42. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n !Automatic Valve Characterization –Why didn’t we think of that?Author: Patrick S. Flanders, Rienk TuinControl valves and their performance play a major role in the automation of SaudiAramco facilities. The need to adjust or correct the off-the-shelf flow characteristicof a control valve to achieve linear control action once installed in the process is nota new problem.This problem has plagued the process control engineer since the installed valve flow characteristic would be modified toautomation was first implemented in continuous processing provide a linear relationship between the input signal to thefacilities. Conventional attempts to address control valve positioner and the flow through the control valve (refer to“non-linearities” involved manual adjustments known as Fig. 1). Using this new approach difficult non-linear control“characterization” within the valve controller or valve applications will be more easily tuned to provide safemechanically through the selection and installation of special and robust automatic control (refer to Fig. 2).valve internals. AVC Device Architecture Input SignalAlthough possible in theory, the conventional approachesproved impractical as they required manual readjustment to Process Digital Valve Controller Measurementcontrol valve behavior every time the process changed (Flow or Differential AVC Pressure)(entire process including the valve and all other equipment inthe loop). Matching the valve characteristic to the process Valve Position Feedbackrequirement was difficult enough but each time piping Pneumaticmodifications were made, pumps turned on or turned off, Output to Valveproduct build up within the process piping or wear oncontrol valve internals changed the pressure drop seen at thecontrol valve, the process of valve re-characterization was Control Valve AVC provides a linear relationship between the input signal to therequired again. If not re-adjusted, non-linearity would be positioner and the flow through the control valve.introduced with negative impact on the overall control loop Figure 2 AVC Device Architectureperformance.To address this problem, Process and Control Systems The invention was documented in a Saudi Aramco patentEngineers, Patrick Flanders and Rienk Tuin proposed a new application entitled “Automatic Valve Characterization ofinnovative solution. They envisioned a new smart valve Digital Valve Positioners.” The patent was granted under UScontroller that could perform the required corrections in real Patent # US 7,178,783 on February 20, 2007. Two majortime by combining the computing power of advanced smart instrumentation and control system suppliers have shownvalve controllers, continuous feedback of valve stem interest in developing a prototype device jointly with Saudiposition, and process data available at the field level. Aramco. As testament to the innovative potential of Saudi Aramco, one supplier commented,With the new Automatic Valve Characterization controller, “Where do you guys come up with such great ideas?” Another stated, “Why didn’t we think of that?” Patrick S. Flanders is an Engineering Specialist within the Instrumentation Unit of P&CSD. He is named on 6 patent applications and is credited with the development of three commercialized products. He is a registered professional engineer in the State of South Dakota, USA. Rienk Tuin is an Engineering Consultant within the Instrumentation Unit of PID. He joined AOC in Holland in 1981 and then transferred to SAO in 1987. He is the Figure 1 AVC Valve Performance Correction Method instructor for the control valve courses PCI-103 and PCI-204. 42 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 43. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation!Key Elements for Oil & Gas Wireless NetworksAuthor: Abdullah Al-Nufaii, Dr. Abdelghani DaraisehMost Oil & Gas companies today are exposed to one of the most complex anddiverse business environments in process automation history.With a globally distributed design/build process andsupply chain, a demand-driven market, the rapid needs to Factors Influencing Use of Wirelessdeploy technologies such as wireless to enhancenetworking capabilities. With the need for secure real-time response across the process control and enterprisenetworks, companies are facing difficult challenges andcomplex integration.A shift is taking place across all of the process automationindustries. Information itself is becoming the engine that Percentageruns the operation. From product developmentengineering to production operations and extended to • Support mesh topology.distribution, information from all domains must be • Low latency.shared across the operation stages and lifecycle, and • Operate in extreme environment “high temperature andthroughout the enterprise networks. humidity.To that extent, the SP100 (wireless for automation • Have a strong level of wireless security, as described in SP100.systems) is expected to becoming a basic building block of • Provision for device to be battery operatedthe plant networks and a means for carrying information • Employ frequency hopping to reduce the effect of interference and fadingwithin and outside the oil and gas plant premises. Thisarticle will tap on the wireless key elements for process • Scalable for additional nodes • Can support different types of physical connections, e.g.,automation networks and show the coming industrial Ethernet, serial, etc.wireless standards in addition to addressing therequirements for oil and gas applications Conclusion Wireless data reliability and security are the most criticalISA SP100 aspects of SP100 design, as seen by the users. ProperSP100 is a work group within ISA (Instrumentation, wireless design practices, cost effectiveness, and businessSystems and Automation society) tasked with developing needs mandate that a single wireless network witha new wireless standard for process automation system. multiple applications is used as a model for our plants. ForThe SP100 wireless standard for process automation the first phase, we anticipate that most applications usingsystems is applicable to industry such as oil & gas, wireless will be for monitoring and alerting. There arepetrochemical and manufacturing. The standard of SP100 few plans in the market to eventually use wireless foris under development and is intended to be used in 2.4 control. Many wireless applications are new – notGHz band in the first release. previously measured with wired devices.Key Elements for Wireless PlantNetworks: Abdullah Al-Nufaii is a Communications Engineer within CCNU of P&CSD. He joined Saudi Aramco in 1994 with moreThe key factors of selecting wireless for an application are than eleven years of experience. He has a Masters Degree in Telecommunications and an SDP candidate.single industrial standard, reliability of data, wirelesssecurity, sensor battery life, and single network for manyapplications as seen in the above figure.In several wireless projects in Saudi Aramco, there are a number of Dr. Abdelghani Daraiseh is an Engineering Specialist withinrequirements in any future wireless system that should be factored CCNU of P&CSD. He has 17 years of industrial experience ininto connecting various plant equipment or systems, as follow: wireless networks and security. Previous to joining Saudi Aramco, he worked in the USA with Nortel Networks, and a• The wireless system should be certified to work in a hazardous Center for Wireless R&D. area. Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007 43
  • 44. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n !Industrial Time SynchronizationFor Oil and Gas Process Automation NetworksAuthors: Majed M. Al-Subaey, Soliman Al-Walaie, and Mohammed A. Al-SaeedIndustrial communications and data networking equipment such as routers,switches, wireless devices and access points are used to interconnect PANinfrastructures. Because of the multiple systems and applications, it is very crucialto use precise and common master time reference to synchronize all systems andensure accurate time stamping consistency for all Oil and Gas plants operations.This will guarantee same clocking reference is used forthe various industrial process applications such as SCADA,DCS, VMS, PMS, etc. Lack of a coordinated accurate timestamping for recorded events makes any reconstructionof a timeline difficult and time consuming, if notimpossible.Time synchronization and accuracy might not beimportant to some organizations especially those whohave mostly stand-a-alone and closed application servers.For other organizations that depend on distributed andinteracted systems to automate their work such as oilrefineries and oil/gas plants, time synchronization is a keyissue that needs to be always maintained across allapplications and devices in PAN. There are different waysto provide time synchronization over industrial datanetworks. Two popular ways are Network Timing Protocol(NTP) and the newly released IEEE protocol PrecisionTiming Protocol (PTP). Figure 1 NTP timing architecture For other organizations that The NTP (RFC1305) is a protocol for synchronizing industrial equipment’s clocks across the network to depend on distributed and standard time. These equipments and devices should be Ethernet-based, e.g. workstations, HMI, RTU, PLC, interacted systems to automate Wireless Gateways, Switches, Routers etc. their work such as oil refineries NTP version 4 can provide time accuracy of 10 milliseconds over the Internet but can maintain time accuracy of less and oil/gas plants, time than 200 microseconds over Local Area Networks. synchronization is a key issue NTP architecture consists of hierarchical stratums levels that needs to be always (fig.1), which defines the distance and accuracy from the reference clock. maintained across all The primary stratum (stratum 0) consists of devices such as applications and devices in PAN. GPS, atomic, or radio clocks. The next stratum level (stratum 1) contains servers that are directly connected to 44 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 45. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation! In conclusion, both timing protocol standards (NTP and The main challenge with NTP is PTP) can be deployed on PAN to provide precisely accurate common timing for the various process that its timing signals are applications such as DCS, SCADA, PMS, TMS, etc. This solution can be integrated seamlessly with the existing delayed by the Operating System network infrastructure as well as providing a robust and efficient mechanism to support timing over IP (OS) since its packets go through applications. Both NTP and PTP protocol can be extended in any deployment by utilizing the Global Positioning the physical and Data Link OSI System (GPS). NTP and PTP with GPS are now widely used in closely coupled real-time control systems that require Layers in the network switch as synchronization in the range of mili-to micro-seconds. Furthermore, PTP is more used in motion control any other data packets. automation systems such robotics, and other manufacturing applications.the primary stratum while stratum 2 consists of industrial Furthermore, PTP is more useddevices that send NTP requests to stratum 1 servers and soon as shown on the following figure. in motion control automation systems such robotics, andJu‘aymah Gas Plant (JGP) expansion project is an examplewhere NTP is implemented for accurate and consistent other manufacturingtime stamping for all sequence of events (SOE) andalarming. Time synchronization was accomplished by applications.employing NTP time sync approach for plant wide systemsand applications. Majed M. Al-Subaey is a Computer Engineer working forIn JGP expansion project, NTP server with GPS antenna Saudi Aramco in Process & Control Systems Department/ Process Instrumentation Division. He graduated with areceiver will be installed and configured to be connected Bachelor of Science degree in Computer Engineering fromto Vnet/IP layer 2 switches. NTP server will act as a KFUPM in 2000 and obtained a Master degree in IT Universitycommon master clock server over the Vnet/IP network of Liverpool, UK in 2005. Currently, he is pursuing Ph.D in Nova Southeastern University, Florida, USA in Informationwhile clients connected to the Vnet/IP network will be Systems, area of interest Information Security. He is an MCSEequipped with SNTP client function to time synchronize since 2001 and a Sun Certified Programmer in Java since (SCPJ) 2004.with NTP server on the same Vnet/IP network. Othersubsystems that are not on the Vnet/IP network can besynchronized by directly connecting them to the NTP Soliman Al-Walaie is a communication engineer within theserver via LAN ports (Ethernet) or serial ports (RS232). communications Unit of P&CSD. He is a certified wireless networks professional (CWNP) engineer and has twelve yearsThe main challenge with NTP is that its timing signals are of experience. He is the instructor of Communicationdelayed by the Operating System (OS) since its packets go Transmission Systems (CTR205)through the physical and Data Link OSI Layers in thenetwork switch as any other data packets. Thus, this haslead to the development Precision Timing Protocol (PTP). Mohammed A. Al-Saeed is working for Saudi Aramco in Process & Control Systems Department/ Process Instru-The PTP provides better timing accuracy by resolving the mentation Division. He graduated from King Saud University in 1995 with a bachelor degree in Computer Science inNTP problem using hardware Time Stamping Unit (TSU). Information Systems. He first worked with Saudi ArabianThis unit is placed between the Data Link and physical Texaco Inc. as a Network Specialist for six years. In 2001, he joined Saudi Aramco in P&CSD as Industrial Computerlayers to monitor the packets over the inbound and Engineer. He obtained a Master of Business Administrationoutbound traffics and issue a precision time stamp when (MBA) and five technical certifications, Certified Wireless Security Professional (CWSP), Cisco Certified Designa PTP packet is recognized. PTP is applicable to be used in Professional (CCDP), Advanced Wireless LAN Design Specialistapplications that have high demands on accuracy and (AWLDS), Cisco Certified Design Associate (CCDA), Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA). His specialty is Processusing dedicated networks. NTP is used for applications Plant Networking and Systems Engineering. He is a memberusing Local Area Network, Wide Area Network, and of ISA and IEEE professional societies.Internet. Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007 45
  • 46. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n !Trim Integrity for Compressor Anti-surge ValvesAuthor: Mohammed Al-JuaibRecently, performance analysis of anti-surge valves is focused on the quality ofresponse (speed, overshoot, set point tracking, etc.) The research work, addressingthe above, is predominantly concerned with the actuating system (actuator,positioner, boosters, etc), with very little or no emphasis on the selection of thevalve internal components (mainly the trim parts). Concerns, such as valvevibration, noise, trim damage, plug jam and loss of the tight shutoff, need to beaddressed and resolved.Process ChallengesValve trim parts are expected to continue in operation(with minimum wear and tear) until the next plant orequipment turndown. They have to be selected to becapable of handling the following process challenges:• flow induced noise and vibration• sudden flow gust Figure 2 The Spoked Plug Design• high energy dissipation• spare flowing capacity 2. The Skirt Plug Design (Figure 1)• seating area leakage The skirt plug design overcomes plug weight concerns• low travel throttling and therefore helps achieving better stroke speeds. The design however is more susceptible to vibration.Analysis 3. The Spoked Plug Design (Figure 2)I) Plug Designs The spoked plug design is considered the optimal plug1. The Solid Plug Design design. Weight and susceptibility to vibration are top-The solid plug design is rugged, less susceptible to quality. Because of its difficult geometry, this design facesvibration and friendly to machining. Its excessive weight, manufacturing challenges.however, makes it economically unattractive. II) Plug/Stem Connection Methods 1. The Screw & Pin Method (Figure 3) Because of its simplicity and suitability to sour and sweet Drilled Figure 1 The Skirt Plug Design Figure 3 The Screw & Pin Stem/Plug Connection Method 46 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 47. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation! Drilled Hole Cage (outwards tapered) Cage Flow in Flow in PLUG Drilled Hole Cage (inwards tapered) Figure 5 A Typical Drilled-Hole Cage Design Pi • Small hole sizes reduce noise better than large ones but reduce capacity. Smaller holes introduce higher frequency jets which are harmless to the valve and its surroundings (piping/structure). Seat • Large hole spacing reduces noise better than small hole spacing but reduces capacity. Larger hole spacing minimizes the probability of jet interactions. When Figure 4 The Effect of Clearance Flow jets interact, they produce combined jets that vibrate at the low frequency spectrum.process conditions, the screw & pin method is the mostfavorable plug/stem connection method. Designers are • Tapered outwards (Figure 5) holes tend to vibrate atcautioned when specifying this method for high higher frequencies but minimize capacity. TaperedDifferential pressure (DP) applications as the screw & pins inwards holes have exactly the opposite effect.integrity degrades significantly. Conclusion2. Welding Method It is essentially important to:Welding the stem to the plug is a more robust connectionmethod. It is limited to sweet services since welding • carefully verify process conditionsintroduces complications with the corrosion resistance of • thoroughly review vendor proposal(s)the base metal. • communicate with vendors to resolve design uncertaintiesIII) Plug to Cage Clearance • before shipment, conduct necessary factory testingMinimum clearance (between the plug and the cage) is and inspection to validate selectionrequired to ensure negligible frication and to keep • conduct online site testing, monitor performance andclearance flow to minimum. Clearance flow (Figure 4) log deficienciescauses series trim damage particularly in high DPapplications as it causes plug vibration and rotation. Thiscan be eliminated using tighter clearances or if plugmodifications, like including a lower piston ring, areimplemented.(IV) Cage Design Mohammed Al-Juaib is an instrumentation engineer withCage design primarily addresses noise reduction and the Instrumentation Unit/PID. He has 13 years experienceenergy dissipation. In a typical drilled-hole cage design, with Saudi Aramco. He worked as an instrumentation engineer in Ju‘aymah Gas Plant, Riyadh Refinery andthe size and spacing of the holes impact valve capacity Haradh Gas Plant.and noise in the following manner: Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007 47
  • 48. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n !Industrial Wireless LAN SecurityFor Oil & Gas Process Automation NetworksAuthor: Soliman Al-Walaie, Mohammed A. Al-Saeed,Majed M. Al-SubaeyIndustrial Wireless Technology can be applied in several process automationapplications such as oil/gas well heads automation and vibration monitoringsystem. This solution must ensure security, interoperability, coexistence, quality ofservice, reliably and scalability.While security remains to be the major concern, it should Since WLAN broadcast data into the air using “radiobe robust following a well defined standard and meeting signals,” securing WLAN networks becomes very crucialthe industrial safety and security regulations including for process automation networks and systems.premises protection and detection of rogue nodes.Industrial WLAN technologies include four main suites The three key wireless security factors are authentication,namely IEEE802.11a, b, g and n (known as WiFi). encryption and data integrity.Currently, there are three dominant WLAN standards inthe market 802.11a, b, and g as shown in Fig.1. On the Wireless Access Authenticationother hand, IEEE802.11n is a newly developed standard Authentication is a process of verifying users or devices“final approval stage” that will boost WLAN capacity to identity and credentials. Users or devices should present200Mbps and above. WLAN is an open standard solution credentials such as passwords or digital certificates to forand can be considered as “Wireless Ethernet” since it uses verification. Media Access Control (MAC) address ispretty similar to the original Ethernet access mechanism considered as a weak verification identity since it can be“CSMA/CA.” spoofed and changed easily. 802.11a 802.11b 802.11g 802.11n Successful authentication of user and device would result IEEE Ratification 1999 1999 2003 2008 in authorizing that specific user or device to grant access RF Technology OFDM DSSS DSSS/OFDM DSSS/OFDM to network resources and services. (Fig.2) Max Data Rate 54 Mbps 11 Mbps 54 Mbps 200+Mbps Frequency 5 GHz 2.4 GHz 2.4 GHz 2.4/5 GHz Encryption and Data Integrity Data confidentiality and integrity of transmitted dataSeveral remote facilities, processes and field operations over the air can be achieved by applying encryptionmay utilize this connectivity to access a PAN which would techniques.result in improving productivity, less downtime, fasterand more accurate data analysis and reduced capital and There are two main encryption mechanisms in Wirelessoperating expenditures. This technology is the most LAN solution which are:extensive deployment in the industrial environment andhas a potential to be deployed more in the future. Due to • Rivest’s Cipher (RC) which is being used in the Wiredits flexibility, fast deployment, cost reduction, and Equivalency Privacy (WEP) and the Temporal Keysimplicity, it is considered to be an attractive solution to Integrity Protocol (TKIP) or Dynamic WEP. Due to itsindustry. encryption weakness, WEP encryption algorithm did not provide the level of security necessary forSecurity Threats in Industrial WLAN corporate and critical process automation applications.Securing and protecting industrial networks and systems • Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) which provides ais very critical. First of all, these systems are mission-critical robust enhancement to the aforementioned TKIP andand should be up and running round-the-clock. Also, the its RC encryption. AES encryption algorithm performsnew technologies are changing rapidly as well as moving hashing as well as advanced encryption.to open standard in terms of protocols and operatingsystems. In addition, recent studies reported a significant The new IEEE802.11i WLAN security standard wasincrease in virus attacks and hacking incidents over the approved in June 2004 and addresses robust securityInternet. protocols and encryption algorithm (AES). This resulted in 48 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 49. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation! Figure 2 WLAN Authentication architecture WLAN is an open standard Mohammed A. Al-Saeed is working for Saudi Aramco in Process & Control Systems Department/ Process Instru- solution and can be considered mentation Division. He graduated from King Saud University in 1995 with a bachelor degree in Computer Science in Information Systems. He first worked with Saudi Arabian as “Wireless Ethernet” since it Texaco Inc. as a Network Specialist for six years. In 2001, he joined Saudi Aramco in P&CSD as Industrial Computer uses pretty similar to the Engineer. He obtained a Master of Business Administration (MBA) and five technical certifications, Certified Wireless Security Professional (CWSP), Cisco Certified Design original Ethernet access Professional (CCDP), Advanced Wireless LAN Design Specialist (AWLDS), Cisco Certified Design Associate (CCDA), Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA). His specialty is Process mechanism “CSMA/CA.” Plant Networking and Systems Engineering. He is a member of ISA and IEEE professional societies.overcoming attacks on privacy, integrity, andauthentication. Soliman Al-Walaie is a communication engineer in P&CSD/CCNU. He is a certified wireless networks professional (CWNP) engineer and has twelve years of experience. He isConclusions the instructor of Communication Transmission Systems (CTR205).Modern Industrial WLAN security has matured bycombining data confidentiality and integrity,authentication and access control as well as intrusiondetection and protection mechanisms. The securitymethods used by the original 802.11 standard proved to Majed Al-Subaey is a Computer Engineer working inbe relatively weak. The 802.1X standard was adapted for PID/CCNU. He graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in Computer Engineering from King Fahd University of802.11 wireless networks to provide much stronger Petroleum and Minerals in 2000 and obtained a Mastersauthentication and automated encryption key degree in Information Technology from the University of Liverpool, UK in 2005. Currently, he is pursuing his Ph.D inmanagement. It is recommended to use WPA2 product Nova Southeastern University, Florida, USA in Informationcertification for the security features of the IEEE 802.11i Systems, area of interest Information Security. He is astandard. That includes mandatory use of AES for Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE) since 2001 and a Sun Certified Programmer in Java since (SCPJ) 2004.encryption and data integrity. Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007 49
  • 50. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation!Process Automation Focus Team UpdateAuthor: Douglas S. EsplinThe Process Automation Focus Team (PAFT) has been organizations. Funding and logistical support foractive this year. One significant technology item, technology items is provided by the Engineering ServicesAdvanced MVC/PID Performance Monitoring, was technology program.successfully implemented and closed in February. Theresults and recommendations have been published as Currently there are 12 active process automationSAER 6166. In addition, four new technology items have technologies and PAFT is actively seeking to identify newalready been approved in 2007 with another item in the technologies that have the potential for high potential tofinal stages of approval. This represents a significant improve economic or safety performance of ourupswing in technology program activity and underlines operations.the emphasis that management has placed on technologydevelopment and implementation. Douglas S. Esplin is a registered Professional Engineer in theThe Process Automation Focus Team (PAFT) actively state of Utah and has 25 years of process control experience.identifies and sponsors new process automation He has been with Saudi Aramco for a total of 13 yearstechnologies that can be successfully implemented in working in the RT Refinery and P&CSD. He is an Engineering Consultant with the Process Automation Systems Unit inpartnership with operating organizations throughout P&CSD and the leader of the Process Automation FocusSaudi Aramco. All new technology items are led by a team Team.of engineers from both P&CSD and partnering operating Item Number Technology Title End Date Team Members Programming for Commercialization of Nasser Y. Assiry, Deraid Herling, John PRA-01-/03-T 9/30/2007 PAS Obsolescence (SAEP135) JAM#3327 Grainger, Gregg Skinner, Others Local Emergency Isolation Valve 9/30/2008 Patrick S. Flanders PRA-01/04-T Controller with FF-S15 Communications Natural Gas Liquids Recovery Othman Taha, Salah A. Al-Ali, Henry PRA-01/05-T Improvement via Empirical Experimental 6/30/2008 H. Chan., Method Mohammed Salim, Abdelghani A. Automating Gas Custody Transfer 6/30/2008 Daraiseh, Hassan A. Amer, Abdullatif PRA-02/05-T Measurement Systems A. Saadoun. Suryanarayana Vedula, Khali PRA-01/07-T Online Mercury in Natural Gas Analyzer 6/30/2008 Jehairan Welhead Flowing Protection System with Patrick S. Flanders, Mohmmed K. Al- PRA-02/07-T 12/31/2010 Automatic Testing and Diagnostics Juai, AbdulJail A. Al-Hawai Evaluation of Nanotechnology Metal PRA-03/07-T Oxide Semiconductor (NTMOS) H2S Gas 3/31/2008 Saeed M. Al-Abeediah, Saad Al-Ali Detector On-line Oxygen Analyzer for Thermal 6/30/2008 Suryanarayana Vadula, Riyadh H. PR-05/07-T Oxidizer Fares High Speed Digital Subscriber Loop Soliman M. Aimadi, Soliman A. Al- PCD-04/04-T (HDSL)/Wireless Remote Monitoring for 6/30/2007 Walaie, Mohammed Salim, D.W. Ultrasonic Liquid Flow Sensing Meter Burkel/S. Al-Twaijri Field Mounted Gas Chromatograph Suryanarayan Vedula, James L. PCD-06/04-T 12/31/2007 Spranque Standards and Deployment of Wireless Abdelghani Daraiseh, Rushdi H. PCD-01/02-J 3/31/2007 Muammar, Khalid S. Al-Ghamdi, Local Area Networks Abdullah S. Nufail Soliman M. Almadi, Soliman A. Al- PCD-02/03-3 Packet Communications 12/31/2007 Walaie, Hussain A. Al-Salem, Fouad M. Khabbaz Figure 1. Active Process Automation Technology Items Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007 51
  • 51. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n ! Engineering the Future Authors: Saleh Al-Qaffas, Luay Al Awami, John Kinsley, Patrick Flanders Prepare the workforce Process & Controls Systems Department recently for the Future participated in the first ISA-KFUPM Student Project Competition. The event was held on May 21 during KFUPMs Workshop on Industrial Systems and Control (WISC-2007) and was attended by more than 300 professionals. The event was coordinated between the Systems Engineering Department of King Fahd University Automation and Innovation. A representative from each of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) and the of the sponsor companies was selected to serve on the Instrumentation, Systems and Automation society (ISA). Judges Panel. P&CSD manager, Saleh Al Zaid represented P&CSD engineers from the Process Instrumentation Division and the Process Controls Division serve as board Saudi Aramco on the judges panel. Other members of the members of the local Saudi Arabian section of ISA and judge’s panel included: Mr. Abdulaziz Al-Najim, Manager, were responsible for organizing the event. Saudi Aramco Engineering and Project Management Department, was one of six sponsor companies which generously SABIC; Mr. Toshiaki Shirai San, Vice President, Research & provided funding for the competition. SABIC, Yokogawa, Development, Yokogawa; Mr. Salem Al Khaldi, Business Invensys, Honeywell and Emerson also participated in Development Manager, Invensys Saudi Arabia; Mr. Abbas sponsoring the event. Alelg, Senior Engineer, Honeywell Advanced Process Solutions; and Andrew Dennant, Technical Manager, The competition enabled the students to put their Emerson Process Systems. theoretical studies to work solving real world industrial problems. The focus of their work was to apply the All of the students worked very hard on their projects and principles of industrial control and automation to produced excellent work. The judges had a challenging enhance industrial processes. As part of the mandatory time selecting the best from the six projects presented. engineering curriculum, students are required to Each student was presented with a plaque for their complete a project in their field of study. These projects participation and the winners received a trophy and gift. served as the basis for the competition which featured a The winner in the category of Innovation was Ashraf demonstration and presentation of six student projects. Dasah for his project on "Inherent Flow Characteristics." Projects were pre-selected by the KFUPM faculty prior to He developed a method to programmatically adjust flow the competition. Dr. Fouad Al Sunni and Moustafa El- characteristics of a control valve. The system monitored Shafei from the Systems Engineering department were line pressure and automatically adjusted the valve responsible for pre-selecting the six projects. During the signature curve to compensate for fluctuations. This competition, each student provided a demonstration of enables the valve and therefore the control system to his project and was required to give a 15 minute maintain accurate flow control over a wide range of line presentation to discuss the nature of his work. Projects pressures. KFUPM has filed for a patent with the U.S. were judged based on technical content and Patent and Trademark Office to obtain intellectual presentation. A panel of judges scored each project and property rights for that idea. The university is hoping to winners were chosen in two categories; Applied partner with local manufacturers in the commercialAshraf Dasah explains the benefits of his project to Luay Al Awami, left, Vice President of theISA section President Saleh Al-Qaffas and Saudi Instrumentation, Systems and Automation Society,Aramco, Process & Controls Systems Department presents the award in the category of Applied KFUPM students gather with other event participantsManager Saleh A. Al-Zaid. Automation to Mohamed Khan. for a group photo. 52 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 52. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation!development of the technology and eventually market tube submersed in the tank. The equipment and controlthe idea to petrochemical companies, including Saudi algorithm were designed and built by the students.Aramco. The final project was an automatic syringe for chemicalThe winner in the category of Applied Automation went applications. This project was developed by Wael Khalidto a project that involved automation of an assembly line. Zaitouni and Abdelrahman Shbair. The system automatedThis project was developed by Munir Kulaib and the measurement of very small and precise quantities ofMohamed Khan, based on work done during an liquid using a syringe. The operator enters the quantity ofinternship assignment with Al-Zamil Company at an air liquid material desired into a computer system. Theconditioner manufacturing facility. The students computer then automatically controlled the amount ofdeveloped a system to automate tracking and quality fluid drawn into the syringe and then applied the fluid toassurance checks during the assembly process. This work a vessel.was being recorded manually by workers at themanufacturing plant. Individual components were ISA is a worldwide professional society forscanned as they entered the assembly line and monitored Instrumentation and Controls professionals. There areas they moved through the assembly line. Quality checks over 30,000 ISA members worldwide. The Saudi Arabiandone during the assembly process were automatically section or ISA has over 250 members from many differentlogged into the system and stored in a database against companies across the Kingdom as well as KFUPM facultythe actual part. This enabled a complete record of each members. P&CSD engineers from both theair conditioner to be automatically recorded during the Instrumentation and Controls Divisions are boardassembly process and automatic generation of shift members for the Saudi Arabian section of ISA. They areproduction reports. The students estimated that there responsible for organizing monthly technical meetingswould be a net gain of 7% in production efficiency by for ISA members across the Kingdom. Board members ofimplementing the system while minimizing the potential the ISA Saudi Arabia section include: Saleh Al-Qaffas,for human error. Based on this work, Zamil decided to go President; Luay Al Awami, Vice President; John Kinsley,ahead and implement the system at their actual Secretary ;and Patrick Flanders, Treasurer. Themanufacturing plant. competition was organized to try to build a stronger bond between industry and academia. The event wasOther projects which were not selected included successful in accomplishing this goal and ISA is planning"Multivariable Controller of Single Screw Extruder for to continue this event on a yearly basis.Polymer Applications,” developed by Waleed Abdul-Ate.He developed a multi-loop control algorithm to controlextruder temperature. A mini-extruder was built using Saleh Al-Qaffas is an Engineering Consultant with Process &electric heaters fixed to the screw in three stages. Waleed Control Systems Department. He holds a BS degree in Electrical Engineerin from the Universsity of Pittsbirgh, USAimplemented a feed-forward algorithm enable final exit and an MBA degree from the university of Hull, UK. Saleh istemperature to be more precisely controlled. This type of the Chairman of the Process Control Standards Committee with Saudi Aramco and the Presidient of the Saudi Arabiacontrol could potentially be used by SABIC and other Section of the Instrumentation, Systems & Automationpetrochemical companies. Society (ISA).Another student developed a system to monitor vibration Luay Al Awami is an Engineering Specialist with the Instrumentation Unit of P&CSD. He is also the Vice Presidentlevels in rotating equipment. The system used a simulator of the Saudi Arabian section of the Instrumentation, Systemswhich enabled him to manually manipulate vibrations on and Automation Society.a rotating shaft. Input sensors captured the vibrationsignatures at various levels and were stored at in thesystem. Once vibration signatures were captured atseveral levels, the system then compared the real-time John Kinsley is an Engineer with the Process Automationlevels against those stored in the database. The system Systems Unit of P&CSD. He is also the Secretary of the Saudithen produced a alarm to alert the operator when Arabian section of the Instrumentation, Systems and Automation Society.vibration levels exceeded preset values.Another project involved a simulated heat exchangersystem and was developed by a team of four students.The system utilized a cascade control scheme which used Patrick Flanders is an Engineering Specialist with the Instrumentation Unit of P&CSD. He is also the Treasurer oftank temperature as the primary control variable. The the Saudi Arabian section of the Instrumentation, Systemsprimary temperature control was tied to a flow controller, and Automation Society.which adjusted the flow of hot water running through a Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007 53
  • 53. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n !Safety of the IssueAuthor: Gabriel T. FernandezCaution on relief valve design for fire incidents Are we safe?Relief valve relieving rates are based on several criteria If there is liquid in the vessel as assumed in the design,that lead to overpressure in vessels. The cause of then we have a wetted surface that will ensure the vesseloverpressure without going into detail can be attributed wall temperature does not rise excessively as liquid insidefor example to: reflux failure, utility failure like electrical the vessel evaporates. This however will increase vaporpower, cooling water, instrument air, failure due to rate in the vessel leading to increased pressure in theaccidental fires outside vessels, etc. The relieving load for vessel. If we have a control system it will relieve excessan individual relief valve is then based on any one or pressure to the flare, but if pressure keeps rising the RVcombination of the above cases that is controlling; in will pop eventually and relieve the pressure. The systemsome cases the fire case (fire outside vessel) is the will be protected. The above scenario is what is normallycontrolling case. This paper suggests engineers to be envisaged by the designer based on assumptions thatcautious about how though the limiting case may be the there will be liquid level inside the vessel. If the vessel hadfire case, the relief valve could still be ineffective to negligible or no liquid in it, the vessel wall temperatureprotect the vessel as designed, and the vessel may fail will rise and temperatures could soon reach above 1000˚ F,prematurely to everyone’s surprise. consequently the vessel wall will not be able to contain the stress from the normal operating pressure and couldAccidental fires outside vessels have a catastrophic failure at operating pressure.In a plant a pressure vessel may be exposed to externalfire due to ignition of hydrocarbons that leaked in thearea. The heat released from the open free burning firewill be absorbed by the vessel by radiation or by directimpingement of flame/hot gases on the vessel wall.Caution on relief valve design for fire caseAre we safe?The answer depends on the design engineer on how he HOT SPOTapplies the Standard (SAES/API). When reviewing design,one must exercise caution as follows:Caution:Many a times simulation calculations will show someliquid being knocked off in the separator vessel; typicallybased on the simulation, design contractor will assume awetted surface (liquid level in the vessel) within 25 ft Figure 1 Vessel Drumelevation from grade, irrespective of the rate at whichliquid builds up in the vessel; but in reality the vessel insome cases may have negligible or no liquid, so in short To explain this further let us look at an example- refer tothere is no wetted surface1 inside the vessel. The relieving Figure 1:rate for the relief valve (RV) is then calculated for fire case Vessel size: 78 in (d) x 14ft 6 in (h)as if there was liquid in the vessel and this rate is used for Vessel wall: 1.1875 in thick.RV design if it is the controlling case; consequently the Design Pressure: 440 psigvessel is designed with no external fire protection aswetted surface is assumed. Operating Pressure: 330 psig Design Temp: 200FLet us assume that we have an non-insulated KO drum RV set at 440 psig.that is subject to accidental fire outside the vessel. Theheat released will be absorbed by the vessel and wall Service: Fuel Gastemperature will begin to rise. Vessel has no insulation. 54 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 54. MISSION - We i n n o v a t e a n d o p t i m i z e o p e r a t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e t h r o u g h l e a d e r s h i p and professional services in process engineering and process automation! Vessel wall temp vs Max internal pressure 600 500 400 pressure psig 300 200 100 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 temp F Figure 2 The allowable vessel pressure vs wall temperatureIn the event of an accidental fire outside the vessel, the from the vessel such that there is no accumulationheat released will be absorbed by radiation or by direct under the vessel.impingement of flame/hot gases on the vessel wall. With • It is important to verify these points early in theno liquid inside the vessel (no wetted surface), wall design to avoid future compromise solutions andtemperature will begin to rise with negligible effect on schedule/cost impact.the vessel pressure. Figure 2 shows the allowable vessel Though information regarding proper design is availablepressure vs wall temperature. in Saudi Aramco and API standardsRef, the designersWe notice that beyond 650˚F the allowable vessel interpretation may not necessarily meet the intent of thepressure drops very steeply. At 1000˚F the vessel cannot standards. The above caution is intended to focus theoperate above 75 psig, this implies that if the process attention of the design review team to such lapses.continues to operate at normal operating pressure of 330psig it could have a catastrophic failure once the walltemperature exceeds 800˚F. Referenced Standards data The article was prompted from the review of several designs madeshows this could happen in less than 10 minutes. by reputed design contractors that missed such analysis to ensure protection was indeed guaranteed. Please refer your concerns toTo avoid such lapses in design, the reviewing/ Flare and Relief Systems Unit.design engineer must verify if the vessel designed for a 1 Wetted surface of a bare vessel is where the liquid content lies against the inside surface of the outer wall of the vessel.fire incident will contain liquid under normal operations, References: for further information;and this is based on experience. If it does not contain a • SAES-J-600wetted surface then ensure the following for a safe • SAES-B-006 Section 6design. • API 521 5th edition; Section 5.15.• Design should include remotely controlled depres- surizing control besides an inlet ZV.• Providing insulation on vessels such that the insulation will not be removed from the surface due Gabriel T. Fernandez is a Professional Engineer working as a Process Engineering Specialist in the Upstream Process to fire. This will effectively limit heat input. Engineering Division of P&CSD. He holds a Bachelors degree in Chemical Engineering from IIT Kanpur, and has a• If no insulation was provided then ensure that the Professional Engineers license from Alberta, Canada vessel can be cooled with water either from properly (APEGGA). placed fire monitors or deluge/spray systems. His 30 years of experience has been in design/plant engineering and operations of Crude Oil processing, Oil• Ensure drainage is provided, and it must be away sands, Lube Refining, Utilities & Offsites, and Process engineering with Engineering Company. Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007 55
  • 55. VISION - To b e c o m e l e a d e r s i n p r o c e s s e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a u t o m a t i o n ! Viewpoint I recently had the opportunity to get to know a strong group of professionals when asked to cover the Manager position for three months. Although I have been with the Company for 14 years, many of the technology areas within P&CSD were unknown to me. Actually, what I realized is that frequently P&CSD operate in the background by providing support to other departments. The heart of our plant operations is composed of processes and control systems, and P&CSD is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that the Engineering Standards are kept up to date and are at the leading edge of technology, “The wealth of especially in the arena of control systems. knowledge in P&CSD far The wealth of knowledge in P&CSD far surpassed my expectations, this department truly has talented individuals. surpassed my Their experience has been gained through plant operations in expectations, oil production, gas processing and refining. One of the key this department support functions is toward capital programs, by working with truly has Facilities Planning and Project Management. With the size of talented the current capital program, P&CSD is vital to the success of all of these projects. individuals.” I not only gained knowledge during my assignment, but also increased my network of experts within the Company. It was a privilege to work with the professionals that comprise P&CSD, but also the overall Engineering Services of the Company. Roy A. Debellefeuille56 Process & Control Systems Department Issue No. 8 – Special Edition 2007
  • 56. Answer to last QuizIbrahim M. Orainy from the Marine Department is the winner of the last P&CSD News Letter Quiz. His entry was randomly selectedfrom among four correct answers submitted.The question asked whether a process operating in a cycle could produce a net positive amount of work by applying energy to a fluidand then extracting more energy than had been put in and repeating this in a cycle.This violates the first and second laws of thermodynamics and therefore any claim to have invented a process to do this is impossible.The Quiz Master
  • 57. Quote of the issueOn Innovation & Technology… “Not all innovation is technology; yet technology is a result of innovation. Both must produce tangible results. Just look around yourself and imagine the vast number of prod- ucts and their manufacturing processes that transform one or a multitude of raw materials into a very different, useful prod- ucts. Either the end or the intermediate products, or their production steps are likely the subject of a ‘patent’ at some- time in their life span. To secure a patent, an inventor must prove that the invention is not only novel, reproducible and useful, but it is also not obvious to a person skilled in the understanding of all related prior knowledge (published, patented or practiced). The distinct ‘unobviousness’ require- ment places an inventor on a higher plateau than securing a PhD… hence the personal satisfaction of achievement and recognition. Inventing is easy; but it requires self-confidence and discipline, true willingness to learn and respect others’ knowl- edge, and an intense curiosity for in-depth understanding of the problem before seeking a solution. Inv. Yuv R. Mehra, LPE, P&CSD … holder of 28 US Patents related to processing of natural gas, Altraiki P. Press – Fax: 8471412 refining and petrochemicals & polymers. About 40% of Mehra’s patents are in commercial use in three segments of the hydrocarbon processing industry, including Saudi Aramco.

×