Scaling and Corrosion Residue Identification Characterize Residue Deposits on Pipes and Valves

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Scaling and Corrosion Residue Identification Characterize Residue Deposits on Pipes and Valves

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BTX Profiler details: http://bit.ly/15PsxfK ...

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Corrosion is primarily found as “scaling”, a build-up inside of pipes and valves, or as “rusting” a wearing away of the pipes and valves. The corrosive residue is analyzed to identify the specific phases/compounds involved. Common phases/ compounds of corrosion include magnetite, barite, calcium carbonate, and gypsum. All of these, and more, are quickly and easily analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD).

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  • 1. Common Corrosion Compounds/Phases: • Carbon Steel piping: Magnetite (Fe3O4), Goethite (α-FeO(OH)), Ferrihydrite (Fe5O7(OH)x4H2O), Lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH), Feroxyhyte (FeO(OH)), Akaganeite (FeO(OH)), Hematite (Fe2O3), Wuestite (FeO) • Sulphur Reducing Bacteria (SRB): pyrrhotite, pyrite • Offshore/Oceanside: Akaganeite (FeO(OH)) – especially in the presence of chlorides • Oil Well: Barium sulphate (barite), calcium carbonate (calcite), calcium sulphate (anhydrite, gypsum), strontium sulphate (celestite), iron oxides/carbonates/hydroxides, lead sulphide and zinc sulfide • Municipal Water: quartz, albite, gypsum, chlorite, illite, actinolite, microcline, struvite, jarosite, iron precipitates and carbonates Analytical Instruments X-ray Diffraction Corrosion is primarily found as “scaling”, a build-up inside of pipes and valves, or as “rusting” a wearing away of the pipes and valves. The corrosive residue is analyzed to identify the specific phases/compounds involved. Common phases/ compounds of corrosion include magnetite, barite, calcium carbonate, and gypsum. All of these, and more, are quickly and easily analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Once the phase/compound involved is identified, the conditions that formed it can be determined, such as dissolved element mix, temperature, pH, presence of bacteria, and/or oxygenation. This information can then be used to determine how to remediate the corrosion and/or prevent further corrosion. The portable Olympus TerraTM XRD Analyzer is fully ruggedized to take out to the field to identify the forms of corrosion taking place at the actual location. The Terra incorporates patented technologies from NASA and Olympus to perform the XRD analysis. Its unique sample handling system simultaneously collects structural (mineralogy/phase) and cursory elemental (chemistry) information and combines with an exclusive method for rapid and easy collection and processing of XRD data. The user combines this vast amount of information to identify the sample using a dedicated application database. The portable Terra XRD Analyzer can identify corrosive compounds/phases including that found on carbon steel piping, offshore or oceanside, at oil wells, around municipal Scaling and Corrosion Residue Identification Characterize Residue Deposits on Pipes and Valves Corrosion Compound (Phase) Identified by Terra XRD is Magnetite water, and from sulfur reducing bacteria. It is simple to use and quickly and easily identifies the corrosive residue.
  • 2. 2 Patented Technology from NASA and Olympus Corrosion Inspection Analysis with the Olympus Terra XRD Analyzer Fast and Easy Sample Preparation The corrosion samples received were sieved to 120-140 mesh and inserted into the patented sample chamber as shown below. Sample preparation with Terra is truly easy, requiring only that the sample pass through a 100 µm sample sieve as shown below. Analysis The Olympus TERRATM XRD instrument was used to analyze 4 samples of various pipeline corrosion materials. The samples were analyzed for approximately 15 minutes each and evaluated with the standard supplied Olympus software Xpowder. The relative intensity ratio method was used for the purpose of quantifying the identified minerals. All 4 samples’ analysis results are presented with identifying diffraction peaks. The Olympus TERRA Smart Sense output allows for more definition and clarity of peaks in contrast to the standard output. Smart Sense is a unique feature available on Terra which allows for optimum peak to back ground performance. As the Terra CCD is both energy and position sensitive, Smart Sense is able to reject any photons impinging on the CCD which are not related to the X-ray diffraction experiment. As such, no unwanted “noise” from stray X-ray photons are used for the analysis. Conclusion Corrosion residue identification is a very straight forward application for Terra. All identified phases are well within the performance capabilities of Terra making this application easy and subsequently accurate. The portable Terra is an ideal tool for on-site corrosion inspections. The benchtop BTX or BTX Profiler is ideal for laboratory analysis Initially conceived to perform chemical and min­eralogical testing for NASA’s Mars Science Labo­ratory (MSL) mission, Olympus’ Terra is a rugged, fully portable field instrument which harnesses advanced dual XRD/XRF technology and renders it for earth­bound applications. Combining both Olympus and NASA innovation, Terra brings to life a new way of performing full powder X-ray diffraction and cursory X-ray fluorescence measurements. Using a specifically developed direct excitation charge coupled device (CCD) “camera”, Terra is able to collect X-ray photon data for both X-ray diffraction and cursory X-ray fluorescence simultaneously. This is the result of the integrated camera’s ability to detect both photon position and photon energy at the same time. With energy resolution of ~200 eV (5.9 keV), Terra makes cursory XRF analysis as simple as viewing the software spectrum display.
  • 3. 3 Sample 3: Major phase identified includes Magnetite Sample 4: Major phase identified is Barite Terra Sample Analysis Data Sample 1: Major phase identified is Aragonite, a form of Calcium Carbonate Sample 2: Major phase identified is Gypsum All four samples’ analysis results are presented below with the phase reference fingerprints overlaid on the graphic. Customized library searches can be made with Terra sample data analysis.
  • 4. www.olympus-ims.com is ISO 9001 and 14001 certified *All specifications are subject to change without notice. All brands are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners and third party entities. The Bluetooth® word mark and logos are registered trademarks owned by Bluetooth SIG, Inc. and any use of such marks by Olympus Corporation is under license. Copyright © 2013 by Olympus. Terra_PipeCorrosion_AppNote_EN_201308_ • Printed in the USA • P/N: 920-265-EN Rev. A 48 Woerd Avenue, Waltham, MA 02453, USA, Tel.: (1) 781-419-3900 12569 Gulf Freeway, Houston, TX 77034, USA, Tel.: (1) 281-922-9300 For inquiries - contact www.olympus-ims.com/contact-us TerraTM Portable XRD The TerraTM Portable XRD for single sample measurements in the field has full XRD analysis capabilities; one sample is loaded into the chamber at a time. The XRF technology for the Terra is rudimentary; it aids the XRD analysis, but does not provide full XRF elemental analysis. User interface is through PC operation. BTX II The BTX Benchtop XRD System is a fast, low cost, small footprint, benchtop XRD for full phase ID of major, minor and trace components and quick XRF scan of elements Ca – U. Its unique, minimal sample prep technique and sample chamber allow for fast, benchtop analysis rivaling the performance of large costly lab units. The BTX operates off software embedded in the unit itself. The user accesses the operating system through a wireless connection (802.11 b/g). This unique method of operation allows for a wide degree of flexibility in controlling the instrument and subsequent data handling. BTX Profiler for Multiple Samples The BTX Profiler with an integrated autosampler has full XRD and XRF analysis capabilities with unattended measurement of up to twenty samples. It is ideal for situations that require longer analysis time or the collection of analytical data without the presence of an operator. The base unit is provided with four sample trays; additional sample trays are optional. This configuration of the BTX Profiler can be provided with an optional Helium purge mechanism allowing for optimum analysis of light elements. Portable and Benchtop XRD Configurations Terra Portable XRD Specifications XRD resolution 0.25° 2θ FWHM XRD range 5-55° 2θ Detector type 1024 × 256 pixels - 2D Peltier-cooled CCD XRF energy resolution 250 eV at 5.9 keV XRF energy range 3 to 25 keV Sample grain size <150 μm crushed minerals – (100 mesh screen, 150 μm) Sample quantity ~15 mg X-ray target material Cu or Co (Cu standard) X-ray tube voltage 30 kV X-ray tube power 10 W Data Storage 40 GB - Ruggedized internal hard drive Wireless Connectivity 802.11b/g for remote control from web browser Operating Temperature -10 °C to 35 °C Weight 14.5 kg with four batteries Size 48.5 cm × 39.2 cm × 19.2 cm (19.1 in. × 15.4 in. × 7.6 in.) Enclosure IP67, MIL C-4150J rugged case Field autonomy ~4 hours (hot swap batteries)