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Becoming a brand doctor -D

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Diagnosing the health of brands and prescribing healthy medicines for them by applying the David Aakers principles

Diagnosing the health of brands and prescribing healthy medicines for them by applying the David Aakers principles

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  • 1. Becoming A Brand DoctorBecoming A Brand Doctor -the anatomy of brands/ Applying the David Aakers principles Olu Akanmu Association of Advertising Practitioners of Nigeria March 2002Olu Akanmu AAAN March 2002
  • 2. What are brands? • “…a name, term, sign, symbol or design or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods and services of a seller and to differentiate them from other competitors…” – Philip Kotler • Definition above is very simplistic • The summation of the relationships between the offering and its consumer – Brands makes a promise to its consumer – A covenant of promise and price • “…a name, term, sign, symbol or design or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods and services of a seller and to differentiate them from other competitors…” – Philip Kotler • Definition above is very simplistic • The summation of the relationships between the offering and its consumer – Brands makes a promise to its consumer – A covenant of promise and price Olu Akanmu AAAN March 2002
  • 3. Determining the health of the brand • Diagnostics- measure its brand equity • “..a set of assets and liabilities linked to a brand name and symbol that adds to or subtract from the value provided by the product or service to its customers..” – Aaker • Diagnostics- measure its brand equity • “..a set of assets and liabilities linked to a brand name and symbol that adds to or subtract from the value provided by the product or service to its customers..” – Aaker Olu Akanmu AAAN March 2002
  • 4. Four Brand Equity Dimensions • Brand Awareness – Recognition and recall – Familiarity and opinion • Brand Loyalty – Satisfaction at recent usage – Consistently exceed my expectations – Regular usage even when alternatives are available – Will recommend it to others – Will pay a premium for it over alternatives – Market share • Perceived Quality – Most critical measure of brand equity – Degree of price premium – Esteem and respect • Brand Associations – Different from others in relevant ways – It is an interesting personality. We do have a a relationship – Perceived value-value for money relative to its price – I trust the firm behind the brand • Brand Awareness – Recognition and recall – Familiarity and opinion • Brand Loyalty – Satisfaction at recent usage – Consistently exceed my expectations – Regular usage even when alternatives are available – Will recommend it to others – Will pay a premium for it over alternatives – Market share • Perceived Quality – Most critical measure of brand equity – Degree of price premium – Esteem and respect • Brand Associations – Different from others in relevant ways – It is an interesting personality. We do have a a relationship – Perceived value-value for money relative to its price – I trust the firm behind the brand Olu Akanmu AAAN March 2002
  • 5. Dissecting the Brand The Brand Identity Principle Brand Brand as Product Brand as Organization Brand as Person Brand as Symbol Olu Akanmu AAAN March 2002
  • 6. Brand as Product • Product Scope or Category – Beverage ,Powdered Milk • Product Attributes – Sweet, good tea whitener • Quality/Value – High in protein – Value for money relative to next low nutritious alternatives • Uses and Use Occasions – Morning, office • Users – ABC users, • Country of Origin – From Holland – Strong heritage of quality dairy products – Beer – Ireland, – Wine –Champagne, France – Electronics- Japan • Product Scope or Category – Beverage ,Powdered Milk • Product Attributes – Sweet, good tea whitener • Quality/Value – High in protein – Value for money relative to next low nutritious alternatives • Uses and Use Occasions – Morning, office • Users – ABC users, • Country of Origin – From Holland – Strong heritage of quality dairy products – Beer – Ireland, – Wine –Champagne, France – Electronics- Japan Olu Akanmu AAAN March 2002
  • 7. Brand as Organization • Organization attributes – Culture, values and people – Innovation, trust and integrity – Customer champions • Local or Global • Very difficult to copy by competitors • Provide credibility to brand value proposition • Drive internal alignment with brand values • Corporate brands and pay offs • Reason why many brand communications from banks lack credibility • Is your PR machine working for the brand or the MD? • Organization attributes – Culture, values and people – Innovation, trust and integrity – Customer champions • Local or Global • Very difficult to copy by competitors • Provide credibility to brand value proposition • Drive internal alignment with brand values • Corporate brands and pay offs • Reason why many brand communications from banks lack credibility • Is your PR machine working for the brand or the MD? Olu Akanmu AAAN March 2002
  • 8. Brand as Person • Brand is like a person. – demographic and lifestyle descriptions • Brand Personality can be created by – User imagery (may be different from actual user profile) – Sponsorships – Age in the market (keep your brand forever young) – Symbols- Michellin (ruggedness) • Brand is like a person. – demographic and lifestyle descriptions • Brand Personality can be created by – User imagery (may be different from actual user profile) – Sponsorships – Age in the market (keep your brand forever young) – Symbols- Michellin (ruggedness) Olu Akanmu AAAN March 2002
  • 9. Brand as a Person • Personality descriptors – Genuine, energetic, upwardly mobile, intelligent, funny • Reflects the user’s ideal or actual personality concept • Guinness (male macho competence) • Forms an emotional relationship with consumer e.g friendly • Signal the functional benefit derived -Michellin • Personality descriptors – Genuine, energetic, upwardly mobile, intelligent, funny • Reflects the user’s ideal or actual personality concept • Guinness (male macho competence) • Forms an emotional relationship with consumer e.g friendly • Signal the functional benefit derived -MichellinOlu Akanmu AAAN March 2002
  • 10. Brand as Symbol • Visual imageries – Graphics and colors – Guinness is brown/ the harp – Gulder’s damask – Coke’s bottle – Nike’s swoosh – Even non-literates/ children recognize brand • Metaphors – Mystiques associated with brand – Star- brightness – Guinness male macho competence metaphors • When in enter body, eye go clear, na the big one me dey like • Brand Heritage – Can it be stout if it is not from Ireland? • Visual imageries – Graphics and colors – Guinness is brown/ the harp – Gulder’s damask – Coke’s bottle – Nike’s swoosh – Even non-literates/ children recognize brand • Metaphors – Mystiques associated with brand – Star- brightness – Guinness male macho competence metaphors • When in enter body, eye go clear, na the big one me dey like • Brand Heritage – Can it be stout if it is not from Ireland? Olu Akanmu AAAN March 2002
  • 11. Brand Value Proposition • Brand Identity should be distilled into a unique value proposition to the consumer • “…the brand value proposition is the summation of the unique functional and emotional benefits delivered by the brand to the customer which drives the purchase decision…” • Brand Identity should be distilled into a unique value proposition to the consumer • “…the brand value proposition is the summation of the unique functional and emotional benefits delivered by the brand to the customer which drives the purchase decision…” Olu Akanmu AAAN March 2002
  • 12. Brand Value Proposition contd. • Functional benefits are usually linked to product dimensions of brand identity • Strong brands deliver more than functional benefits – they connect with consumer emotions by leveraging the other three parts of the brand identity • Functional benefits are usually linked to product dimensions of brand identity • Strong brands deliver more than functional benefits – they connect with consumer emotions by leveraging the other three parts of the brand identity Olu Akanmu AAAN March 2002
  • 13. Brand Value Proposition • Emotional benefits – Positive consumer feelings enabled by the brand – Link back to functional benefits as reason why • Self-expressive benefit – What does it say about me? – How does it make me feel? • Price can be a good signal of the value proposition – should be fair relative to the value or benefit delivered to get a purchase decision. – Unfair price can weaken the brand value proposition. • Emotional benefits – Positive consumer feelings enabled by the brand – Link back to functional benefits as reason why • Self-expressive benefit – What does it say about me? – How does it make me feel? • Price can be a good signal of the value proposition – should be fair relative to the value or benefit delivered to get a purchase decision. – Unfair price can weaken the brand value proposition.Olu Akanmu AAAN March 2002
  • 14. Brand Positioning • “…the part of the brand identity and value proposition that is to be actively communicated to the target audience and that demonstrates an advantage over competing brands…” (Aakers) – How should the target audience see or perceive your brand relative to competing brands? • “…the part of the brand identity and value proposition that is to be actively communicated to the target audience and that demonstrates an advantage over competing brands…” (Aakers) – How should the target audience see or perceive your brand relative to competing brands? Olu Akanmu AAAN March 2002
  • 15. Brand Image and Position • Brand image is not necessarily brand position • Brand Image is the current perception • Brand position is the perception that the brand manager desires to create in the mind of the target market? • Reinforce the image if desirable • Augment current image with new dimensions from the brand identity to create the desired perception • Diffuse, soften or delete the image if undesirable • Brand image is not necessarily brand position • Brand Image is the current perception • Brand position is the perception that the brand manager desires to create in the mind of the target market? • Reinforce the image if desirable • Augment current image with new dimensions from the brand identity to create the desired perception • Diffuse, soften or delete the image if undesirable Olu Akanmu AAAN March 2002
  • 16. Brand Positioning • Let it drive drive everything you do with brand – Pricing, product and package strategy, channel and access strategy and communication • Develop a tracking system to measure the key dimensions of brand equity • Let it drive drive everything you do with brand – Pricing, product and package strategy, channel and access strategy and communication • Develop a tracking system to measure the key dimensions of brand equity Olu Akanmu AAAN March 2002
  • 17. Some reasons for why brands go sick? • Poor investment in sustaining what makes the brand different. – Innovation- Panadol and Emzor – Aspiration and Image- Gulder • Long term strategy gets compromised by short term gains – Over sales promotion which destroys non-price differentiation edge- 7UP – Salesmen take over brand management • Milking a brand too early – Lucozade • Poor investment in sustaining what makes the brand different. – Innovation- Panadol and Emzor – Aspiration and Image- Gulder • Long term strategy gets compromised by short term gains – Over sales promotion which destroys non-price differentiation edge- 7UP – Salesmen take over brand management • Milking a brand too early – Lucozade Olu Akanmu AAAN March 2002
  • 18. Some reasons why brands go sick • When the brand does not stay young – Guinness had to re-invent itself with Michael Power • Frequently changing brand positions • Other elements of the marketing mix do not work in tandem with brand positioning • Over extending the brand into new categories and markets – Lack of focus – Spreading thin over many areas competing with deeply entrenched competitors • When the brand does not stay young – Guinness had to re-invent itself with Michael Power • Frequently changing brand positions • Other elements of the marketing mix do not work in tandem with brand positioning • Over extending the brand into new categories and markets – Lack of focus – Spreading thin over many areas competing with deeply entrenched competitors Olu Akanmu AAAN March 2002
  • 19. Some reasons why brands go sick • Sales men take over brand management – The brand is moved to become everything to everybody – Differentiation and uniqueness is lost • Failure to take advantage of new media – Media clutter - • Sales men take over brand management – The brand is moved to become everything to everybody – Differentiation and uniqueness is lost • Failure to take advantage of new media – Media clutter - Olu Akanmu AAAN March 2002
  • 20. Brand Identity Exercise • Pick two competing brands familiar to you • Draw a detailed brand identity structure for the brands • Distill into a value proposition and positioning statement • Justify your thoughts by presenting to the group • Pick two competing brands familiar to you • Draw a detailed brand identity structure for the brands • Distill into a value proposition and positioning statement • Justify your thoughts by presenting to the group Olu Akanmu AAAN March 2002
  • 21. So Brand Doctor-what injection will you prescribe? •Thank you•Thank you Olu Akanmu AAAN March 2002