Theories and Codes
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Theories and Codes






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    Theories and Codes Theories and Codes Presentation Transcript

    • Theories and Codes
    • VladmirPropp VladmirPropp was a formal scholar who analysed components of the plots of Russian folk tales to identify their simplest narrative elements VladmirPropp claimed that a majority of Folk tales were similar in a variety of areas. From this observation, Propp created a theory called „Narrative Functions‟ According to VladmirPropp: 1. All characters have a function 2. Characters implement a structure for the text
    • Narrative Functions VladmirPropp concluded that all characters can be understood through seven broad functions. 1. Hero/ Victim / Seeker Hero – Listens to the Donor, then wins the quest and ends up marrying the princess 2. Villain – Opposes and challenges the Hero. 3. Donor – Prepares the Hero or gives the Hero a magical object 4. Dispatcher – Makes the Hero aware of the quest and send the Hero off
    • 5.Princess/ Prize/ Princess’s Farther-The Hero and Princess are supposed to be together throughout the story . However, they are forced to be apart due to the unfair evil mainly caused by the villain. The Hero‟s journey generally ends when the villain is beaten and he marries the Princess 6. Magical or Ordinary Helper – Helps the Hero in their adventure 7. False Hero – Takes credit for the Hero‟s actions or attempts to marry the princess
    • Functions In a battle scene VladmirPropp has suggested this theory: • There is a battle between the hero. (Picture from the Short Film called „Lazy Teenagers‟) • • The Hero wins The Villain loses
    • • A state of order is then restored
    • In the reconciliation scene VladmirPropp stated this theory: • At this moment in the short film the hero is identified (Shown in action films, like Pirates of the Caribbean) • Or the false hero or villain is unmasked and therefore revealed (Common in horror film scenes)
    • • False hero or villain could be punished in this scene • Hero attains the reward ( like the princess or kingdom). Then they live happily ever after ( frequently shown in fairy tales)
    • Levi Straus Levi Strauss was a French anthropologist who lived in the early 1900‟s. He viewed the way people comprehend certain words depends on our understanding of the difference between the word and its „opposite‟ or as Strauss referrers it to „Binary Opposites‟
    • Binary Opposites In Strauss‟s theory, binary oppositions are sets of opposite codes, which expose the structure of media texts. An example would be good and evil, normally this concept is understood of good as being the opposite of evil. Levi –Strauss was not so interested in looking at the order in which events were arranged in the plot. He looked instead for deeper arrangements of themes. This theory also connects in with something called Dominant Ideology. Dominant ideology is the set of common values and beliefs shared by most people in a given society, framing how the majority think about a range of topics. The left hand side of the list below falls into the category of dominant ideology.
    • An example of Binary Opposition The word „villain‟ is juxtaposed with “hero” within many medium. Binary opposites are used regularly in films, particularly in horror films. For example, good and evil, sane and insane, rational and irrational and human and supernatural.
    • Batman is continually seen as the protagonist in the film „Batman.‟ Having witnessed his parents death, he swears revenge on all criminals who try to unsettle peace in Gotham City. Batman is challenged against the insane criminal the Joker who wants Batman dead. The film poster is very powerful because it asserts the huge contrast between the two characters, distinctively to the audiences. The Joker looks very devious, while holding a card, which shows Batman dead,. This film poster could represent good verses evil, sane verses insane or hero verses villain.
    • Verbal and Technical Code Technical Code is defined as how technology is used to create meaning. This can include camera angles, sound and lighting. Verbal Code is the approach of secretly communicating knowledge to another character by using certain words that represents information
    • Examples of Technical and Verbal Codes from short films An example is from the romantic short film called „Strangers, again‟. From this image, we can tell from the two characters verbal code that they are in love with each other. In this scene, we hear the voiceover from the male saying, “It was a dream come true”. Moreover, from their expressions and body language, it shows that they are very happy together and their smiles tell a million words.
    • An example of the technical code can be seen in the short film about victims of domestic violence, called „Thank‟s Dad‟. From the image of this scene below, it shows that a hand-held camera was used and the saturation was in black and white. This type of technical code symbolised reflected the very dark, intense story behind the film because the wife is scared of her husband.