Annexations presentation (slideshare)

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A legal continuing education seminar on annexation law and the interplay between annexations, urban planning, and jurisdictional relations (December 2012).

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  • Make funny crack about “love triangle”
  • Promise the crowd there is definitely no love triangle going on here.
  • Press F5 or enter presentation mode to view the poll\r\nIn an emergency during your presentation, if the poll isn't showing, navigate to this link in your web browser:\r\nhttp://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/MTAxNjAyODE1MwIf you like, you can use this slide as a template for your own voting slides. You might use a slide like this if you feel your audience would benefit from the picture showing a text message on a phone.
  • Press F5 or enter presentation mode to view the poll\r\nIn an emergency during your presentation, if the poll isn't showing, navigate to this link in your web browser:\r\nhttp://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/LTE1MjgzODExNzEIf you like, you can use this slide as a template for your own voting slides. You might use a slide like this if you feel your audience would benefit from the picture showing a text message on a phone.
  • Press F5 or enter presentation mode to view the poll\r\nIn an emergency during your presentation, if the poll isn't showing, navigate to this link in your web browser:\r\nhttp://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/MTY3MjAyMzE5MwIf you like, you can use this slide as a template for your own voting slides. You might use a slide like this if you feel your audience would benefit from the picture showing a text message on a phone.
  • Annexations presentation (slideshare)

    1. 1. Annexations and Urban Planning The Intersection of Law, Planning, and Jurisdictional Relations
    2. 2. www.millermillercanby.com Jody Kline jskline@mmcanby.com Soo Lee-Cho slcho@mmcanby.com Damon Orobona damon@mmcanby.comIntroduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    3. 3. The Green Bible – How Many Pages Devoted to Annexations?Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    4. 4. Annexations Seem to be More of a Legal TopicIntroduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    5. 5. "What do we want?" "A mutually agreed upon border acknowledged by the county planning division." "When do we want it?" "Now!" http://gaithersburg.patch.com/articles/border-wars-gaithersburg-rockville-fight-over-shady-grove-siteIntroduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    6. 6. National Institute of Science and Technology – Surrounded by Gaithersburg, MDIntroduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    7. 7. Audience Snap Poll
    8. 8. The Annexation of Puerto Rico – The Little Giants (1994) [Video clip removed. Not supportable on SlideShare.]Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    9. 9. History of AnnexationsIntroduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    10. 10. Annexation History in the RegionIntroduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    11. 11. Constitution Establishes Power in the StatesIntroduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    12. 12. The Dillon RuleIntroduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    13. 13. The Dillon RuleIntroduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    14. 14. The Dillon Rule – Authored by John Forrest Dillon (1868)• In contrast to the powers of states, which are unlimited but for express restrictions under the state or federal constitution, municipalities only have the powers that are expressly granted to them.• Virginia follows the Dillon Rule – VA has not delegated annexation powers to its cities. Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    15. 15. Virginia• Until 1902, annexations in Virginia could only occur through an act of state legislature• Today, the state relies on a three-judge panel to review annexation requests (i.e., the state has still not delegated annexation power to local governments to figure out for themselves).• A moratorium has been in place on city-county annexations since 1987. Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    16. 16. Maryland• In contrast, Maryland has delegated the power to local governments. Maryland allows local counties and cities to work out where municipal boundaries should be drawn• Much more fun process as you’ll see in the case studies later!• Although Baltimore, an independent city, is prohibited from annexing additional land Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    17. 17. District of Columbia• As always, DC is its own animal• Organic Act of 1801 – Put DC under the control of the US Congress• 1847, returned portion of DC to VA due to slave trade and the development requirement to place federal buildings north of the Potomac River• DC cannot add additional land area because annexations do not cross state lines Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    18. 18. Societal Views on Annexation Over Time• Pre-Rail – Annexation wasn’t a big concern for many years because of the desire to live and work in the city to be close to jobs (outlying areas looked upon as unfavorable)• With Rail, then automobile, many moved to the “more spacious areas” that were still tied to the city. Suburbs still lacked amenities such as sidewalks, public water, and good schools. People moving to suburbs starting desiring annexation into central cities• Post WWII – Fast suburban growth increased class distinction between city and suburb. Suburban developments did not want to fund less affluent portions of city. Annexation initiatives become much more common from the city while the county (suburbs) are resistant.• Voting Rights Act of 1965 – Federal government examines annexation proposals southern states with history of racial discrimination – ensuring that annexations do not dilute voting power of African-Americans as annexing suburb to central city may add more Caucasian voters. Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    19. 19. The Pros and Cons of AnnexationIntroduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    20. 20. Perspective from CityPros Cons• Additional vacant land for future • Requires extension of services town growth – and control over the growth in this adjoining area - the cost of which may exceed• Additional tax revenue from potential revenues existing development • May require that new municipal• Additional population to: – Improve the economies of scale of elections be held services • Involves administrative and – Participate in municipal affairs and to serve on boards and legal reviews and a successful commissions. outcome is not guaranteed• Increases the city‟s influence in state affairs • Disrupts city-county relations. Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    21. 21. In Their Own Words… Mayor Lamb of Sullivan City, Indiana [Video clip removed. Not supportable on SlideShare.]Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    22. 22. Perspective from Residents Outside City LimitsPros Cons• Extension of city services • Loss of control over local• Higher “prestige” of being in a affairs City jurisdiction • Loss of individuality of community • Increased tax burden • May consider municipal services to be unneeded, undesirable, or duplicative. Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    23. 23. In Their Own Words… Residents Against Annexation, Goldsboro, North Carolina [Video clip removed. Not supportable on SlideShare.]Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    24. 24. Annexation LawsIntroduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    25. 25. Legislative Determination Legislative Determination./data/media/5/state_capital_sacramento_picture.jpg Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    26. 26. Popular Determination Popular Determinationhttp://www.youthkiawaaz.com/2010/12/wisdom-of-the-crowd-and-the-internet/ Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    27. 27. Popular DeterminationAnnexationAgreement Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    28. 28. Municipal Determination Municipal DeterminationIntroduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    29. 29. Judicial Determination Judicial Determinationhttp://longislandbankruptcyblog.com/long-island-bankruptcy-judges-appointed/ Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    30. 30. Boundary Review Commission Boundary Review CommissionIntroduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    31. 31. Case StudiesIntroduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    32. 32. California Case Study1,100 acres of former orange grovessurrounded by CityKnown as the “Donut Hole”City wants residential and limitedcommercial developmentOwners want regional mall but needservicesCity spent millions on water / sewerupgrades to service Donut HoleState law requires County toreimburse City for infrastructure costsif County provides services Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    33. 33. Audience Snap Poll
    34. 34. City of Redlands, California City BoundaryIntroduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    35. 35. City of Redlands, California Donut Hole City BoundaryIntroduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    36. 36. Citrus Plaza, Redlands CaliforniaIntroduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    37. 37. Citrus Plaza, Redlands CaliforniaIntroduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    38. 38. Maryland Case Study 4+ acre site - former car dealershipCity B Owners want to build 417 unit multi-family units County Waste County Master Plan limited to Transfer non-residential use Station ½ mile from Metrorail Station Property Within 200 feet of Waste Transfer Station City A Contiguous to City A and within expansion limits City A under residential development moratorium Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    39. 39. Audience Snap Poll
    40. 40. Silverwood Annexation, Maryland City ofGaithersburg County Waste Transfer Station Silverwood Property City of Rockville Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    41. 41. Silverwood Annexation, MarylandIntroduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    42. 42. Trammell Crow Annexation, Maryland Trammell Crow Property City of RockvilleIntroduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    43. 43. Sears Annexation, Maryland City ofGaithersburg Sears / Great Indoors Site City of Rockville Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    44. 44. Sears Annexation, Maryland City of Gaithersburg Proposed AnnexationGaithersburg Sears / Great Indoors Site City of Rockville Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    45. 45. Sears Annexation, Maryland City of Gaithersburg Proposed AnnexationGaithersburg Gaithersburg Maximum Expansion Limits Sears / Great Indoors Site City of Rockville Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    46. 46. Sears Annexation, Maryland City of Gaithersburg Proposed AnnexationGaithersburg Gaithersburg Maximum Expansion Limits Rockville Maximum Expansion Limits Sears / Great Indoors Site City of Rockville Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    47. 47. Sears Annexation, Maryland City of Gaithersburg Proposed AnnexationGaithersburg Gaithersburg Maximum Expansion Limits Rockville Maximum Expansion Limits Rockville Annexation Area of Shady Grove Rd Sears / Great Indoors Site City of Rockville Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    48. 48. Town of La Plata, Maryland Charles County • Current case pending before MD Court of Appeals (highest court in MD) • In 2006, La Plata annexed Jennings Parcel into townProperties • In 2011, La Plata annexed JohelProposed to be property into townAnnexed into La • Walmart controls bothPlata properties; plans to build a 180,000 sf supercenter acrossTown of La Plata property lineBoundaries • Charles Co. zoning doesn„t allow retail over 100,000 sf without special exception • Although 5 years have passed on Jennings parcel, time limitation still applies to Johel parcel. Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    49. 49. If You Learned Nothing Else Today… [Video clip removed. Not supportable on SlideShare.]Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A
    50. 50. Questions?Introduction History Lesson Pros & Cons Annexation Laws Case Studies Q&A

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