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Workshop on Philosophy and Engineering – October 2008, London


               Hydraulic engineering reflected in 
       ...
Overview

                        Technology – A Cultural Approach

                        Two Styles of Hydraulic Engine...
I. Technology – A Cultural Approach




               General Ideas 
                     Technology as a cultural undert...
I. Technology – A Cultural Approach



                      Culture
                            can be identified in the ...
I. Technology – A Cultural Approach




          Technology as cultural undertaking allows insights in the following dire...
I. Technology – A Cultural Approach



                 Intended technological action and technological behaviour 
       ...
I. Technology – A Cultural Approach


                 Intended technological action and behaviour (II)
                 1...
I. Technology – A Cultural Approach




                   Technology as thesis of society 
                         Techn...
II. Two Styles and their Cultural Roots




                II. Two Styles of Hydraulic Engineering and their Cultural Roo...
II. Two Styles and their Cultural Roots



                             Massivwasserbau



                               ...
II. Two Styles and their Cultural Roots



                             Massivwasserbau



                               ...
II. Two Styles and their Cultural Roots


              Research approach (in the framework of my PhD thesis 2003‐2006)
  ...
II. Two Styles and their Cultural Roots




                Results – in general
                      A lot of significan...
II. Two Styles and their Cultural Roots



                                             Results – differences in world vie...
II. Two Styles and their Cultural Roots

                                              Results – differences in world view...
II. Two Styles and their Cultural Roots


                                             Considered ‘dimensions of technolog...
II. Two Styles and their Cultural Roots



                                             Results – differences in world vie...
III. Suggestions for a Future Practice




            III. Suggestions for a Future Practice of Hydraulic Engineering [HE...
III. Suggestions for a Future Practice




                      Cultural HE

                                no more focu...
II. Two Styles and their Cultural Roots



                       ‘Dimensions of technology’ to be covered




           ...
III. Suggestions for a Future Practice




                      Cultural HE

                      Reasonable HE

       ...
III. Suggestions for a Future Practice




                      Cultural HE

                      Reasonable HE

       ...
III. Suggestions for a Future Practice




                      Cultural HE

                      Reasonable HE

       ...
The End




                                             Thank you.




                                               KIT...
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Hydraulic engineering reflected in the humanities

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Presentation at Workshop on Philosophy and Engineering, October 2008, Royal Academy of Engineering, London, GB

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Transcript of "Hydraulic engineering reflected in the humanities"

  1. 1. Workshop on Philosophy and Engineering – October 2008, London Hydraulic engineering reflected in  the humanities Dr. phil. Dipl.-Ing. Oliver Parodi Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis (ITAS) Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Germany parodi@itas.fzk.de KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 1 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  2. 2. Overview Technology – A Cultural Approach Two Styles of Hydraulic Engineering and their Cultural Roots Suggestions for a Future Practice of Hydraulic Engineering KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 2 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  3. 3. I. Technology – A Cultural Approach General Ideas  Technology as a cultural undertaking / a cultural approach Technology in a wider sense can be seen as a material, institutional  and mental/spiritual product under the conditions of culture Technological practice and hydraulic engineering can be seen as an  action (doing, forming, producing) under the conditions of culture KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 3 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  4. 4. I. Technology – A Cultural Approach Culture can be identified in the presence of collectivity, communication and convention (concept of culture by Hansen 2002) an interplay of collective and individual institution, materiality and mind/spirit as items of culture basic, collectively shared interpretive patterns of the world  (“world views”) are laid down in every culture  Technology (in the broader sense) here: not only artefacts (machines, buildings/constructions) but also eco‐socio‐technological systems and processes the quintessence of “technology” as reproducible intended action KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 4 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  5. 5. I. Technology – A Cultural Approach Technology as cultural undertaking allows insights in the following directions: on technological action and technological behaviour on the relation between collective and technology on the link between technology (as artefacts, institutions) and world views KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 5 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  6. 6. I. Technology – A Cultural Approach Intended technological action and technological behaviour  Development of technology is not only driven by intended goals and rational  consideration, or by societal framework conditions but also – and above all – by  certainties and values in the cultural background and the collective unconscious Technology design combines rational and arational elements So the development of technology (and also the use of technology) can be  understood as layers of action and behaviour  An engineer acts in respect of: scientific‐technological details (sometimes also in  respect of economic and legal aspects) of artefacts and systems An engineer – as a professional – behaves (more or less) according to value of and  meaning behind technology 1. grade: he responds to the societal framework conditions (laws, economic  regulations, ethical restrictions) 2. grade: he acts against the background of internalised cultural certainties  (e.g. materialism, prosperity, autonomy of human beings, nature as object of  human use etc.) KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 6 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  7. 7. I. Technology – A Cultural Approach Intended technological action and behaviour (II) 1) Ethics of technology and/or engineering: Together with culture, the programme of internalisation always and  fundamentally takes place:  Culture as implication of proven, as ‘mechanism of  neglect’. Ethics: here as an enlightening programme of rationality, against the (cultural)  neglect, tries to explain the implicit and put it up for discussion. 2) The question whether technological development in general is determined  or can be shaped: Determinism or the possibility to (completely) shape technology can be identified  from the cultural perspective as overemphasis intended technological action or  behaviour. The evolvement of technology (which can indeed be observed) does not happen,  as often assumed, genuinely but is determined by culture, subject to cultural  attitudes and cultural ‘regulartities’. ‐>  The ‚evolution of technology’ opens up to a certain degree of formation,  does not remain mere fate, something that irrevocably happens to the  human being.   KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 7 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  8. 8. I. Technology – A Cultural Approach Technology as thesis of society  Technology – even large‐scale technology like hydraulic engineering – is  reflecting to a high degree the certainties of a society, and namely not only  in the form of obtained knowledge but also in the form of collectively  shared imaginations, worldviews and unscrutinised convictions  Large‐scale technology is only a thesis of society – not its truth, the thesis can of course be put up for discussion (cf. nuclear energy) KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 8 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  9. 9. II. Two Styles and their Cultural Roots II. Two Styles of Hydraulic Engineering and their Cultural Roots The two styles – differences on the level of artefacts: Massivwasserbau (‘massive hydraulic engineering’): compactness of the  building material and massive technological interference with nature  and/or ecology Naturnaher Wasserbau (‘ecological’ or ‘near‐natural hydraulic  engineering’): biogenic materials that are typical for the waters, much  ‘smoother’ interferences with nature (examples: ‘renaturalised waters’)  Their world views?  And their relations to our culture and history of ideas? KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 9 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  10. 10. II. Two Styles and their Cultural Roots Massivwasserbau Naturnaher Wasserbau Photos: Bernhart KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 10 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  11. 11. II. Two Styles and their Cultural Roots Massivwasserbau Naturnaher Wasserbau Photos: Grober KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 11 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  12. 12. II. Two Styles and their Cultural Roots Research approach (in the framework of my PhD thesis 2003‐2006) Goal: Reconstruction of world views supported by an (ad hoc) concept of world views based on epistemology and action  theory  Interpretation of sources from the cultural undertakings ‘Massivwasserbau’ (~1950s) and ‘Naturnaher Wasserbau’ (~2000s): Central laws and regulations (Federal Water Act) Buildings, constructions and river landscapes (or photos of them) Handbooks and technical textbooks Curricula, examination regulations and university calendars of the hydraulic  engineering course of studies Leitbilder (role models: programmatic writings of public authorities on the design  of waters) Interviews with hydraulic engineers Secondary literature on hydraulic engineering Comparison of more than 200 sources (1950 | 2000)  compared with motives of occidental culture and our history of ideas KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 12 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  13. 13. II. Two Styles and their Cultural Roots Results – in general A lot of significant differences can be identified in the world views of  Massivwasserbau and Naturnaher Wasserbau There is a considerable relation between the characteristics of our  technology and our cultural history of ideas KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 13 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  14. 14. II. Two Styles and their Cultural Roots Results – differences in world views (I) Massivwasserbau Naturnaher Wasserbau Motives of ‘nature’ and ‘human being’ (1) Possessive concept of nature Sympathetic concept with possessive aspects Perfect nature Imperfect nature Is imitated by the human being Is being improved by the human being The human being interferes with natural development The human being as master of nature The human being as guardian and partner The human being is afraid of nature The human being feels guilty and obliged to nature natura naturans natura naturata (most of the time) Nature is moving, alive and teleological Human being is creative, moves nature Nature is creative Nature as subject/instrument Nature as end in itself Exploitation of nature Restricted use of nature No moral obligation towards nature Moral (and legally defined) obligation towards nature Emphasis on explanation of nature Emphasis on understanding of nature The human being as creation’s crowning glory The human being as ecological Mängelwesen* * imperfect being, lacking ecological conduct KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 14 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  15. 15. II. Two Styles and their Cultural Roots Results – differences in world views (II) Massivwasserbau Naturnaher Wasserbau Motives of technology Eutop concept of technology Differentiated dystop concept of technology Technology as chance Technology also as threat Mechanistic understanding of technology Complex understanding of technology Technology is unambiguous, static and determined Stochastic, dynamic, multifaceted Machine as role model Organism as role model machina mundi systema mundi Predominant physical-chemical perspective Predominant ecological perspective Exact description, strictly mathematical Fuzzy description, also by words and pictures Expertocratic concept of technology (predominant) Democratic concept of technology (predominant) Control of technological development Autonomy of technological development Wish for intended – normative, limiting – public Do what is possible regulation Other Motives Extended anthropocentrism to ecocentrism Anthropocentrism Attribute values to non-human entities and inherent Attribute values to human existence value of nature Linear patterns of thinking Cyclical patterns of thinking Linear patterns of movement predominant in time and Cyclical patterns of movement predominant in time and space space Generalisation Individualisation Analyses (predominantly) Synthesis (increasingly, predominantly), holisitc view KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 15 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  16. 16. II. Two Styles and their Cultural Roots Considered ‘dimensions of technology’ in Massivwasserbau in Naturnaher Wasserbau (Figure according to Ropohl) KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 16 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  17. 17. II. Two Styles and their Cultural Roots Results – differences in world views (III) Massivwasserbau Naturnaher Wasserbau Motives of ‘nature’ and ‘human being’ (2) Me-it-relation to nature Rising me-we-relation to nature Strive for nature, protection of nature Overcoming of nature, control of nature The human being threatens also nature and has to be Nature threatens the human being restrained To work against the river To work with and for the river The fight of the human being against nature Leave free space to nature The human being in search of the distance to nature The human being in search of nearness to nature Dichotomous separation of nature and culture Econature as all-embracing Nature as part of the world Culture as part of econature The perspective on nature from an external observer The perspective on econature from a participant Natural growing and fading has to be prevented Natural growing and fading is appreciated Mathematical or mathematically describable nature, Mathematical description of nature is limited Variety and strictness of geometry as a symbol for the rule Variety of nature can never be completely reached and of the human mind over nature understood by human beings The human being as scheduler and designer Human b. as initiator and participant in creation KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 17 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  18. 18. III. Suggestions for a Future Practice III. Suggestions for a Future Practice of Hydraulic Engineering [HE]  Cultural HE Reasonable HE Hermeneutical HE Perceptible Technology KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 18 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  19. 19. III. Suggestions for a Future Practice Cultural HE no more focused on the dealing with nature has sensitivity and sensorium for cultural aspects of hydraulic  engineering and the world changed by it the importance of a culture‐sensitive hydraulic engineering increases,  the more ‘culture’ and technification are getting ahead Reasonable HE Hermeneutical HE Perceptible Technology KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 19 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  20. 20. II. Two Styles and their Cultural Roots ‘Dimensions of technology’ to be covered (Figure according to Ropohl) KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 20 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  21. 21. III. Suggestions for a Future Practice Cultural HE Reasonable HE understanding of the (hydraulic engineerings’) world by head, hand  and heart  a moderate and reasonable dealing with nature and self‐image now and then the achievement of hydraulic engineering is lying in the  renunciation of technology to preserve man from the restricting consequences of his own careless  doings Hermeneutical HE Perceptible Technology KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 21 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  22. 22. III. Suggestions for a Future Practice Cultural HE Reasonable HE Hermeneutical HE dialogue (with the given situation) and  distance (to the planners’ action) back stepping of the results performing subject  appropriate and reflected technological solutions would be enabled Perceptible Technology KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 22 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  23. 23. III. Suggestions for a Future Practice Cultural HE Reasonable HE Hermeneutical HE Perceptible Technology technology as artefact should be perceptible and ‘transparent’ Technology as artefact is witnessing our dealing with our “Umwelt”,  “Nachwelt” and “Mitwelt” Possibility to ask: is this dealing still appropriate? KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 23 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)
  24. 24. The End Thank you. KIT – die Kooperation von Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH 24 | Dr. Oliver Parodi | ITAS | 12.11.2008 und Universität Karlsruhe (TH)

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