A2 G&P propositions, referendums, recall


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A2 G&P propositions, referendums, recall

  1. 1. A2 G&P US Government and Politics Propositions, Referendums and Recall
  2. 2. UNIT 3A : OUTLINE: KEY CONCEPTS KEY CONCEPTS  Open, closed and invisible primaries  The caucus system  The balanced ticket  Candidate and issue centred campaigns  Momentum  Soft and hard money  Negative campaigning  Insider and outsider candidates  Fixed terms  Swing states
  3. 3. OUTLINE: KEY IDEAS Answering questions on this topic requires knowledge of:  The main characteristics of presidential and congressional elections and campaigns.  The main influences on their outcomes.  Candidate selection and nomination through the primary and caucus system and the role of the national nominating conventions  Debates concerning the workings and outcomes of the Electoral College and its impact on campaigns
  4. 4. OUTLINE: KEY IDEAS Answering questions on this topic requires knowledge of:  The significance of money as a factor in electoral success.  The impact of the media on campaigns and candidates  Direct democracy at State level through the use of referendums  Initiatives, propositions and recall elections, and debates concerning their use  Comparisons with the UK electoral process to illustrate arguments
  5. 5. Propositions and Initiatives  Propositions is a way that citizens in some states can change laws or amend the state constitution without having to wait for the state legislature to do so.  In states like California, laws can be proposed directly by the people, as can constitutional amendments.  When citizens propose an amendment to a law or to the state Constitution it is called an initiative.
  6. 6. Propositions and Initiatives  In California it is possible to propose to overturn a law through a petition that contains signatures of at least 5% of the number who voted in the last governor elections.  If the right number of signatures is present then the proposal to change the law is put to the people.  If more than 50% of those who vote ‘yes’ or ‘no’ agree then the proposition become law.
  7. 7. Propositions and Initiatives  In California, it is important that the ‘yes’ vote is larger than the ‘no’ vote for something to change and for this reason the 50% majority is only made up from those who actually vote ‘yes’ or ‘no’. Spoilt ballots are not counted in the quota.  Examples of California propositions include the right of same sex couples to marry (2008) to the treatment of farm animals (2008).
  8. 8. Propositions and Initiatives  One important measure in 2010 was Proposition 14 which removed primary elections from that state.  Propositions through initiatives and referendums represent an additional form of direct democracy in several US states.
  9. 9. Proposition 14 The End of Primaries in California?  It was not widely noticed at the time, but California’s Proposition 14 voted that party primaries in that state would be replaced in 2011 with more open elections.  The two candidates with the highest votes – whatever the party – would face a general election. This could well encourage more third party candidates and higher turnout.
  10. 10. Recall Elections  Recall elections are a procedure by which voters can opt to remove an office holder before the next scheduled elections.  In some states like Alaska and Montana it is necessary to have proof of wrong-doing.  In fact, only two state governors have ever been recalled and one of those led to the election of Arnold Swarzenegger as Governor of California in 2003.
  11. 11. Recall Elections  Most recalls have led to the removal of state legislature members, but the numbers have not been large.
  12. 12. Examples of Elected Posts for State and Local Government CALIFORNIA (divided into 58 counties)  Governor – four year term, limited to two terms.  Executive includes a Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State and a Treasurer.  State Legislature – two houses (Assembly and Senate)  Assembly – 80 representatives, two year term, limited to three. It has speaker, Majority and Minority leaders.  Senate – 40 senators, serving four year terms, limit of 2, elected in two cycles. Led by President and had majority/minority leaders.  Supreme Court – seven justices – 12 year terms.