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A2 G&P propositions, referendums, recall

A2 G&P propositions, referendums, recall






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    A2 G&P propositions, referendums, recall A2 G&P propositions, referendums, recall Presentation Transcript

    • A2 G&P US Government and Politics Propositions, Referendums and Recall
    • UNIT 3A : OUTLINE: KEY CONCEPTS KEY CONCEPTS  Open, closed and invisible primaries  The caucus system  The balanced ticket  Candidate and issue centred campaigns  Momentum  Soft and hard money  Negative campaigning  Insider and outsider candidates  Fixed terms  Swing states
    • OUTLINE: KEY IDEAS Answering questions on this topic requires knowledge of:  The main characteristics of presidential and congressional elections and campaigns.  The main influences on their outcomes.  Candidate selection and nomination through the primary and caucus system and the role of the national nominating conventions  Debates concerning the workings and outcomes of the Electoral College and its impact on campaigns
    • OUTLINE: KEY IDEAS Answering questions on this topic requires knowledge of:  The significance of money as a factor in electoral success.  The impact of the media on campaigns and candidates  Direct democracy at State level through the use of referendums  Initiatives, propositions and recall elections, and debates concerning their use  Comparisons with the UK electoral process to illustrate arguments
    • Propositions and Initiatives  Propositions is a way that citizens in some states can change laws or amend the state constitution without having to wait for the state legislature to do so.  In states like California, laws can be proposed directly by the people, as can constitutional amendments.  When citizens propose an amendment to a law or to the state Constitution it is called an initiative.
    • Propositions and Initiatives  In California it is possible to propose to overturn a law through a petition that contains signatures of at least 5% of the number who voted in the last governor elections.  If the right number of signatures is present then the proposal to change the law is put to the people.  If more than 50% of those who vote ‘yes’ or ‘no’ agree then the proposition become law.
    • Propositions and Initiatives  In California, it is important that the ‘yes’ vote is larger than the ‘no’ vote for something to change and for this reason the 50% majority is only made up from those who actually vote ‘yes’ or ‘no’. Spoilt ballots are not counted in the quota.  Examples of California propositions include the right of same sex couples to marry (2008) to the treatment of farm animals (2008).
    • Propositions and Initiatives  One important measure in 2010 was Proposition 14 which removed primary elections from that state.  Propositions through initiatives and referendums represent an additional form of direct democracy in several US states.
    • Proposition 14 The End of Primaries in California?  It was not widely noticed at the time, but California’s Proposition 14 voted that party primaries in that state would be replaced in 2011 with more open elections.  The two candidates with the highest votes – whatever the party – would face a general election. This could well encourage more third party candidates and higher turnout.
    • Recall Elections  Recall elections are a procedure by which voters can opt to remove an office holder before the next scheduled elections.  In some states like Alaska and Montana it is necessary to have proof of wrong-doing.  In fact, only two state governors have ever been recalled and one of those led to the election of Arnold Swarzenegger as Governor of California in 2003.
    • Recall Elections  Most recalls have led to the removal of state legislature members, but the numbers have not been large.
    • Examples of Elected Posts for State and Local Government CALIFORNIA (divided into 58 counties)  Governor – four year term, limited to two terms.  Executive includes a Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State and a Treasurer.  State Legislature – two houses (Assembly and Senate)  Assembly – 80 representatives, two year term, limited to three. It has speaker, Majority and Minority leaders.  Senate – 40 senators, serving four year terms, limit of 2, elected in two cycles. Led by President and had majority/minority leaders.  Supreme Court – seven justices – 12 year terms.