The evolution of british cinematography


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The evolution of british cinematography

  1. 1. Historical background
  2. 2. The French Lumière brothers invented cinema in 1892. And their touring show first came to London in 1896.
  3. 3. However, the first moving picture was shot in Leeds by Louis Le Prince ("Father of Cinematography“) in 1888 and the first moving pictures developed on celluloid film were made in Hyde Park, London in 1889 by William Friese Greene, a British inventor, who patented the process in 1890.
  4. 4. The first people to build and run a working 35 mm camera in Britain were Robert W. Paul and Birt Acres. They made the first British film ‘Incident at Clovelly Cottage’ in February 1895, who built and ran their own movie camera.
  5. 5. Another British fellow called George Albert Smith devised the first colour system, Kinemacolor, in 1908.
  6. 6. By the mid-twenties the British film industry was losing out to heavy competition from Hollywood, the latter helped by having a much larger home market - in 1914 25% of films shown in the UK were British, but by 1926 this had fallen to 5%. The problem with the British film industry was it did not keep pace with the advances being made abroad and quickly became technically out of date. The films also remained very theatre orientated, filming a play exactly as it had been performed on stage and with the same actors and sets.
  7. 7. Starting with John Grierson's Drifters, the 1930s saw the emergence of a new school of realist documentary films: the Documentary Film Movement. Many of the most important British productions of the 1930s were produced by London Films, founded by Alexander Korda. He had failed in Hollywood, and when the boom started in the UK, he decided to try his luck there. He founded London Films and built, reputedly, the finest studios in the world at Denham.
  8. 8. The Second World War caused a small miracle to happen to movie making in the UK. New realism in wartime pictures and a demand for documentaries gave a whole new look to British films. Among the best known of these films are In Which We Serve (1942), Went the Day Well? (1942), We Dive at Dawn (1943). Two Cities Films, an independent production company also made some important films including This Happy Breed (1944), Blithe Spirit (1945) and Sir Laurence Olivier's Henry V (1944) and Hamlet (1948).
  9. 9. J. Arthur Rank-the founder of the Rank Organization The company logo After the war, the Rank Organization became the dominant force in the industry. The shift was to make British films more acceptable to the audiences outside of the UK.
  10. 10. Television was just beginning to have an effect on the film industry. During the 1950' and early 60's Films had to learn to be more exportable and welcome to foreign audiences. Many achieved both of these criteria among them works by David Lean, Carol Reed and the Ealing Comedies.
  11. 11. In the 1960s British studios began to enjoy major success in the international market with a string of films that displayed a more liberated attitude to sex, capitalising on the "swinging London" image propagated by Time magazine. Films like Darling, Alfie, Georgy Girl, and The Knack …and How to Get It all explored this phenomenon, while Blowup, Repulsion and later Women in Love, broke taboos around the portrayal of sex and nudity on screen.
  12. 12. The first film about James Bond Dr. No was a sleeper hit in the UK in 1962, and the second, From Russia with Love (1963), a hit worldwide.
  13. 13. The Stagnation of the 70’s The 1970s US & UK Recession - American studios cut back on domestic production, and in many cases withdrew from financing British films altogether. The British horror boom of the 1960s also finally came to an end by the mid-1970s. Stanley Kubrick made Clockwork Orange, Dr Strangelove and 2001: A Space Odyssey. In mainstream terms pure British cinema was diminishing and was to get worse before it got even worse.
  14. 14. The 1980s began with the worst recession the British film industry had ever seen. In 1980 only 31 UK films were made, down 50% on the previous year, and the lowest output since 1914. This decade also started the downward trend in self financing British movies. The 1980s soon saw a renewed optimism, led by companies such as Goldcrest (and producer David Puttnam), Channel 4, Handmade Films and Merchant Ivory Productions. David Puttnam
  15. 15. Film production in Britain hit one of its all-time lows in 1989. While cinema audiences were climbing in the UK in the early 1990s, few British films were enjoying significant commercial success, even in the home market. The surprise success of the Richard Curtis-scripted comedy Four Weddings and a Funeral (1994), especially in the United States, lead to renewed interest and investment in British films, and set a pattern for British-set romantic comedies, including Sliding Doors (1998), Notting Hill (1999) and the Bridget Jones films.
  16. 16. The first decade of the 21st century was a relatively successful one for the British film industry. Many British films found a wide international audience due to funding from BBC Films, Film 4 and the UK Film Council, and some independent production companies, such as Working Title, secured financing and distribution deals with major American studios.
  17. 17. The new decade saw a major new film series in the US-backed but British-made Harry Potter films, beginning with Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone in 2001.
  18. 18. British Film Studios
  19. 19. Amalgamated Studios – Borehamwood, Hertfordshire
  20. 20. Bray Studios – Windsor, Berkshire
  21. 21. Dragon International Film Studios (under construction) – Llanilid, Wales
  22. 22. Ealing Studios – Ealing, London
  23. 23. Elstree Studios (Associated British Picture Corporation) – Borehamwood, Hertfordshire
  24. 24. Gainsborough Studios (formerly known as Islington Studios) – Hoxton, London
  25. 25. Lime Grove Studios – Shepherd's Bush, London
  26. 26. Merton Park Studios – South Wimbledon, London
  27. 27. MGM-British Studios – Borehamwood, Hertfordshire
  28. 28. Pinewood Studios – Iver Heath, Buckinghamshire
  29. 29. Riverside Studios – Hammersmith, London
  30. 30. Southall Studios – Southall, London
  31. 31. Shepperton Studios – Shepperton, Surrey
  32. 32. Twickenham Film Studios – Twickenham, London
  33. 33. Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden – Hertfordshire
  34. 34. Famous directors
  35. 35. Alfred Hitchcock Date of birth:13 August 1899 Date of death:29 April 1980 Location: Leytonstone, London, England Hitchcock was nicknamed the "Master of Suspense" for employing a kind of psychological suspense in his films, producing a distinct viewer experience. Best known for: Psycho, Rear Window, Vertigo, North By Northwest, Rebecca.
  36. 36. Charlie Chaplin Date of birth : 16 April 1889 Date of death: 25th December 1977 Location: London, England Best known for: Modern Times, City Lights, The Great Dictator, The Gold Rush, The Circus. Charlie Chaplin was a comedic British actor who became one of the biggest stars of the early 20th century's silent film era. " Life is a tragedy when seen in closeup, but a comedy in long-shot.“ "A day without laughter is a wasted day."
  37. 37. Carol Reed Date of birth: 30 December 1906 Date of death: 26 April 1976 Location: Putney, London, England Best known for: The Third Man, Oliver, Odd Man Out, Mutiny On The Bounty (remake), The Fallen Idol.
  38. 38. David Lean Date of birth : 25 March 1908 Date of death: 16 April 1991 Location: Croydon, Surrey, England Best known for: Lawrence Of Arabia, The Bridge On The River Kwai, A Passage To India, Doctor Zhivago.
  39. 39. Anthony Minghella Date of birth:6 January 1954 Date of death:18 March 2008 Location: London, England Best known for: The Talented Mr. Ripley, The English Patient, Cold Mountain. “I had never thought of myself as a director and found out that I was not. I am a writer who was able to direct the films that I write.”
  40. 40. Ridley Scott Date of birth: 30 November 1937 Location: South Shields, Tyne and Wear, England Best known for: Gladiator, Alien, Blade Runner, Black Hawk Down, Thelma & Louise. Scott has his own atmospheric, highly concentrated visual style, which has influenced many directors.
  41. 41. Christopher Nolan Date of birth: 30 July 1970 Location: London, England Best known for: The Dark Knight, The Dark Knight Rises, Memento, Inception, Batman Begins, The Prestige. Has been nominated three times
  42. 42. Guy Ritchie Date of birth: 10 September 1968 Location: Hatfield, Hertfordshire, England Best known for: Snatch, Lock, Stock And Two Smoking Barrels, RocknRolla, Sherlock Holmes. Guy Ritchie became famous for directing witty and suspenseful films including Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels and Snatch.
  43. 43. Actors
  44. 44. Daniel Day Lewis • Daniel Day Lewis is one of the most awarded famous English actors. A notoriously picky actor, Lewis has starred in only ten movies since winning his first Oscar for “My Left Foot” in 1989. Out of those ten movies, he picked up four Oscar nominations.
  45. 45. Liam Neeson Liam Neeson – Liam Neeson earned an Oscar nomination for his role in the 1994 film “Schindler’s List.” Since that time, he has become one of the most famous English actors thanks to roles in the “Star Wars” prequels as well as remakes of “The A-Team” and “Clash of the Titans.”
  46. 46. Gary Oldman • Gary Oldman – Since turning heads with his role as Sid Vicious in the biopic “Sid and Nancy,” Gary Oldman has appeared in many popular movies, normally as one of the best actors in them. He has appeared in “Dracula,” “The Dark Knight” and the “Harry Potter” movie franchise.
  47. 47. Anthony Hopkins – Anthony Hopkins remains one of the most respected English actors in the history of cinema. He has appeared in many prestigious roles, including a supporting turn in “Amistad” but won his sole Academy Award for his performance in the thriller movie “Silence of the Lambs.”
  48. 48. Ralph Fiennes Ralph Fiennes turned a lot of heads with his Oscar nominated performances in “Schindler’s List” and “The English Patient.” However, the one role that made him one of the most famous English actors working today is the role of Lord Voldemort in the “Harry Potter” franchise.
  49. 49. Colin Firth Colin Firth – For many years, Colin Firth was known to many movie fans as Mr. Darcy, thanks to his career defining role in the BBC miniseries “Pride & Prejudice.” However, recently he has become more famous thanks to Oscar nominations for “A Single Man” and “The King’s Speech.”
  50. 50. Alan Rickman Alan Rickman became a genre favorite thanks to his role as Hans Gruber in the first “Die Hard” movie. He has since become one of the most famous English actors thanks to his role as Snape in the “Harry Potter” franchise.
  51. 51. Jude Law Jude Law – Known almost as much for his tabloid affairs as his acting, Jude Law remains one of England’s most famous actors. Highlights of his career include supporting roles in films like “Sherlock Holmes” and “A.I.” He has also earned two Oscar nominations for “Cold Mountain” and “The Talented Mr. Ripley.”
  52. 52. James McAvoy James McAvoy became famous in America after appearing in the Oscar nominated “The Last King of Scotland” and used that movie to help launch his Hollywood career. He has since appeared in the blockbuster “Wanted” and will appear in “XMen: First Class” as Professor X.
  53. 53. Ewan McGregor Ewan McGregor – Ewan McGregor’s career grew in popularity thanks to roles in Danny Boyle films, such as “Shallow Grave” and “Trainspotting.” He later became one of the most famous English actors thanks to the role of ObiWan Kenobi in the “Star Wars” prequels.
  54. 54. Vanessa Redgrave Vanessa Redgrave is an Academy Award winner, multitalented stage and movie/tv actress. She is also a political activist and mother of Natasha Richardson (deceased wife of Liam Neeson).
  55. 55. Kate Beckinsale Kate Beckinsale is an English actress who made raves because of her beauty and acting talent. She was famous first in the television series “Emma“ -- the title role. She was also great in the movie “Much Ado About Nothing“
  56. 56. Dame Judith Olivia Dame Judith Olivia "Judi" Dench is an award winning stage and tv/film actress. She is also regarded as one of the greatest British actress and she won the following awards : BAFTAs, 7 Laurence Olivier Awards, 2 Screen Actors Guild Awards, 2 Golden Globe Awards, and one Academy award. She also won a Tony award.
  57. 57. Emma Watson Emma Watson is an English actress/model who played Hermione in the Harry Potter Film series when she was just nine years old. She played six series in that film alongside Radcliffe and Rupert Grint. Emma Watson's role on the Harry Potterseries has earned her several awards. She started her modeling career for Burberry's Autumn/Winter campaign in 2009.
  58. 58. Kate Winslet Kate Winslet is an English actress/singer an is highly commended for her acting talent, She has been nominated for her various roles in several movies in which she appeared. She just won the Best actress in 2008 at Oscars for the movie " The Reader" She has won awards from the Screen Actors Guild, BAFTA, and the Hollywood Foreign Press Association among others, and has been nominated for an Emmy for tv acting.
  59. 59. Helena Bonham Carter Helena Bonham Carter is an English actress and started her career appearing in the movie A pattern of Roses and Lady Jane. She was well acclaimed in her role in the movie A Room With View -- Maria Singer -- in the movies Fight Club, Bellatrix Lestrange in the series of Harry Potter the movie. She was nominated in Oscar for her role as Kate Croy in The Wings of the Dove -- her Golden Globe for he performance as Mrs Lovett in Sweeney Todd : The Demon Barber of Fleet Street.
  60. 60. Dame Elizabeth Taylor Dame Elizabeth Taylor is an Anglo American actress also known as Liz Taylor and has been named by the American film Institute as the number seven on its Female Legends list. She is known for her acting talent beauty and for her lifestyle including the number of marriages she had. Taylor is "considered one of the great actresses of Hollywood's golden years, as well as a larger-than-life celebrity."
  61. 61. Keira Knightley 25 year old English film actress and model. Keira Knightley has risen to international fame with performances in Bend It Like Beckham and Pirates of The Caribbean. But she's also proven herself a world class actress with her work in Pride and Prejudice and Atonement.
  62. 62. Film technology
  63. 63. Superman
  64. 64. Alien
  65. 65. Batman
  66. 66. Animation
  67. 67. Stop-motion animation. In the 1970s and 1980s, British studios established a reputation for great special effects in films such as Superman (1978), Alien (1979), and Batman (1989). Some of this reputation was founded on the core of talent brought together for the filming of 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) who subsequently worked together on series and feature films for Gerry Anderson. Thanks to the Bristolbased Aardman Animations, the UK is still recognised as a world leader in the use of stop-motion animation.
  68. 68. Visual effects
  69. 69. British special effects technicians British special effects technicians and production designers are known for creating visual effects at a far lower cost than their counterparts in the US, as seen in Time Bandits (1981) and Brazil (1985). This reputation has continued through the 1990s and into the 21st century with films such as the James Bond series, Gladiator (2000) and the Harry Potter franchise.
  70. 70. Time Bandits
  71. 71. Brazil
  72. 72. James Bond
  73. 73. Gladiator
  74. 74. Harry Potter
  75. 75. Progressive movement From the 1990s to the present day, there has been a progressive movement from traditional film opticals to an integrated digital film environment, with special effects, cutting, colour grading, and other post-production tasks all sharing the same all-digital infrastructure. The availability of high-speed Internet Protocol networks has made the British film industry capable of working closely with U.S. studios as part of globally distributed productions. As of 2005, this trend is expected to continue with moves towards (currently experimental) digital distribution and projection as mainstream technologies.
  76. 76. Traditional film opticals
  77. 77. Integrated digital film environment
  78. 78. Digital distribution
  79. 79. This is Not a Love Song
  80. 80. Awards
  81. 81. The British Academy Film Awards are presented in an annual award show hosted by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA). It is the British equivalent of the Academy Awards. As of 2008, it has taken place in the Royal Opera House, having taken over from the flagship Odeon cinema on Leicester Square. The British Film Academy was founded in 1947 by David Lean, Alexander Korda, Carol Reed, Laurence Olivier, Michael Powell, Emeric Pressburger, Roger Manvell and other leading figures in the British film industry.
  82. 82. Daniel Craig and Kate Winslet
  83. 83. The Moët British Independent Film Awards Created in 1998 by Raindance founder Elliot Grove, The British Independent Film Awards set out to celebrate merit and achievement in independently funded British filmmaking, to honour new talent, and to promote British filmmaking and British talent to a wider public. Nominations and jury are announced at the beginning of November with the award ceremony taking place in late November or early December.
  84. 84. An Empire Award is an accolade bestowed by Empire, Britain's biggest selling film magazine, to recognize excellence of professionals in the local and global film industry. The awards are voted for by readers of the magazine and in an annual ceremony, the Empire Awards, the winners are presented with the award which is covered by Empire and sometimes also televised. The first Empire Awards ceremony was held on 1996, to honour outstanding film achievements of the 1995 film season.
  85. 85. Gary Oldman Tom Hiddleston