Chapter 9


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Chapter 9

  1. 1. Chapter 9 Exploring Programs, Models, Structures, and Organizations for Elementary and Secondary Gifted Learners Anna Goins
  2. 2. Why do we need organizing models and programs? ● ● ● ● ● The level of educational achievement in a traditional classroom spans 4 to 8 years. The average teacher plans the instructional program to meet the needs of the on grade level students. Students who are below grade level receive modifications. Gifted and talented students often repeat material already mastered. This can result in a loss of their abilities. Using an educational structure can provide opportunities that are appropriate for the gifted learner.
  3. 3. Programs found in the full inclusion classroom ● It is not true that teachers can teach all students in the same classroom, with the same materials, in the same way. ● ● ● Gifted students need to have the appropriate educational opportunities and learning experiences. Suggested modifications include: team teaching, gifted clusters,regular meetings with the gifted students,proper placement in subjects where students are accelerated, and community service projects. Brain research says that students must be challenged at the level of their development.
  4. 4. Administrative and curricular modifications ● Enrichment can be implemented by: adding disciplines or areas of learning not normally in the curriculum using more advanced or in-depth material to enhance the core curriculum expanding the teaching strategies used to present information. ● ● The most frequently used modification, but when used alone and for a limited time, presents the least change in the learning opportunities. It is the least expensive option. Most effective when student needs have been assessed, and used as a part of a differentiated curriculum plan.
  5. 5. Acceleration ● Acceleration can be administered by: seeking early entrance to formal schooling moving through age-graded classes in less time by skipping grades, completing cross-age grouped classes in 2 instead of 3 years, or taking advanced placement classes moving through curriculum materials,skills,and concepts at an accelerated rate ● ● ● Research has been positive about the results. Parents and students are in favor of it, teachers and administrators frequently oppose the use. For highly and profoundly gifted students,opportunities for acceleration are essential as they are able to learn at a faster pace.
  6. 6. Groupings by ability and need ● ● ● Grouping in any form does not solve problems caused by poor teaching or an inappropriate curriculum. Grouping is a way to allow students to be placed with students of similar abilities in order to facilitate learning. Some types of grouping include: a) clusters Five to seven gifted students are placed in the same classroom where differentiation, content enrichment, and high order thinking skills are used to deliver the instruction. b) heterogeneous Students of all achievement levels and abilities are in one group. c) homogeneous Students are grouped by similar levels of ability or achievement.
  7. 7. Groupings continued d) flexible The pace of learning, range of interests, and academic possibilities of the gifted learners determine the group placement for the time being. ● Practices that should be avoided when grouping students 1. Using recorded test scores without observing the students or their specific needs. 2. Tracking learners into all advanced classes without considering where their abilities need to be advanced. 3.Keeping students in the same groupings for the entire year, or longer. ● 4. Grouping without assessing ability, interest, or pace of learning.
  8. 8. Conceptual frameworks Taxonomy of Educational Objectives ● ● Cognitive domain Use Bloom's cognitive taxonomy to plan learning experiences at many levels so as to meet the needs of various learners. Most classrooms present instruction at the lower levels. Gifted learners need to work at all levels of the taxonomy because they can not analyze information that they do not understand. Since the gifted learners may have large amounts of background knowledge, they should receive instruction at higher levels. Affective domain A list of objectives to sequence behaviors that would indicate growth in emotional areas of function such as receiving, responding,valuing,
  9. 9. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives continued organization of a value structure, and characterization by a value. This could be used by gifted learners to analyze and create motivated learning experiences. ● The Structure of the Intellect Model This model gave psychology a multifaceted view of intelligence, while introducing creativity as a major part of the concept of intelligence. SOI has three dimensions of intellectual abilities 1.contents 2.operations 3.products ● Using the dimensions and their subdivisions gave this model a way to show interrelationships between and among 120 specific mental abilities.
  10. 10. Structure of Intellect Model continued ● ● ● ● Guilford devised a test that included each identified mental ability and found 180 abilities in all. Meeker used this information as a basis for diagnosticprescriptive tools in the teaching for 90 kinds of thinking skills. Her thought was that the needs of students could be better met by using the model for curriculum development. This could be accomplished through the use of identification, diagnostic profiling, and remediation or more skill development with the use of training modules developed by Meeker for the gifted student.
  11. 11. Educational Models Schoolwide Enrichment Model (SEM) ● ● ● ● ● The most widely known enrichment program in gifted education is an evolved model created from the Enrichment Triad Model and the Revolving Door Model. It is an program model as well as a curriculum model. It was primarily used as a pull out program that would use a resource room to provide enrichment to meet the unique needs of gifted students. A wide array of goals, strategies, and procedures are provided as enrichment services to encourage students to show evidence of and to develop gifted behaviors. SEM has a unique view of giftedness in that it assumes that the concept of giftedness is a behavior and that gifted behaviors can be developed.
  12. 12. SEM continued ● ● ● ● Gifted behavior is the result of an interaction between above-average general and/or specific abilities, high levels of task commitment, and high levels of creativity. The gifted behaviors are not always present so that special services should be provided only when those behaviors are shown. Opportunities can be provided to elicit those behaviors. SEM emphasizes a schoolwide approach to the selection and programming for students with talents in every classroom. Three levels of enrichment are provided. The first two are all students being delivered appropriate learning experiences by the classroom teacher. The third type of service is provided by independent study or in a small group that is facilitated by a specialist.
  13. 13. SEM continued ● ● ● SEM has a large variety of support materials, forms, and procedures for elementary and secondary schools. SEM is extensively used. SEM uses detailed information to deliver the program with the hope that all teachers and students at all levels can benefit from this program. For more information see The Schoolwide Enrichment Model (Renzulli &Reis, 1997)
  14. 14. The Grid or Kaplan's Model ● ● ● ● ● The Grid includes and organizes all of the various components needed in a differentiated curriculum. The purpose of this model are to 1) translate the general principles that govern an appropriately differentiated curriculum into practice and 2) to define the specific process for the construction of differentiated learning experiences. The components of the Grid are content, processes,(for example, productive thinking skills, research skills, and basic skills),and products that are based upon a theme. Affective concerns, descriptions of the learning experiences and activities are vital parts of the plan. The learning experiences can be implemented in a heterogeneous class, a small homogeneous group, or for individual students.
  15. 15. The Grid or Kaplan's Model continued ● ● ● ● ● The activities or learning experiences may be teacher led or student centered. To begin planning the curriculum, it is necessary to have a theme, rather than a topic as the organizing element. Topics may limit the learning possibilities of the students. Themes such as Extinction, Effects of Systems, Knowledge as Power provide a wide variety of topics and allow students to learn to generalize or see relationships. Content is the knowledge and information that is useful, important, timely,and interesting to learn. To implement processes, Kaplan suggests integrating various categories of processes into the planning and integration of the curriculum.
  16. 16. The Grid or Kaplan's Model continued ● The product is a tool for learning as well as proof that the learning has occurred. Products can be oral, visual, or in a written format.
  17. 17. The Autonomous Learning Model (ALM) ● ● ● ● Developed to meet both the social -emotional and cognitive needs of gifted high school students. It has changed to now include all students in all grade levels. The goals are to have students become independent, creative, responsible learners; develop a positive self -concept and social skills ; and increase their knowledge base. This model can be implemented in the elementary classroom for all students but the gifted can work with an advanced model. In the secondary schools, this model can become an elective or special class. This model's approach is that the schools are failing, not always the student.
  18. 18. The Autonomous Learning Model continued ● There are five dimensions. 1.The Orientation acquaints students, parents, and teachers with the model and the expectations. 2. Individual development emphasizes attitudes and concepts needed for lifelong learning. 3. Enrichment is a vehicle for students to explore content that is not normally a part of the curriculum. Exploration, investigation, and cultural trips are examples of methods. 4. The Seminar permits student groups to choose topics of interest to research and then present their findings to a larger group. 5. In-depth study provides students with long term opportunities to study areas of interests. The students determine all facets of the study.
  19. 19. Other models ● ● The Theory of Multiple Intelligences concluded that there are 8 areas of intelligence, or abilities. These include verbal/linguistic; visual/spatial; musical/rhythmic: bodily/kinesthetic; interpersonal; intrapersonal; and naturalistic. The model encourages teachers to address multiple expressions of intelligence and ability. The Triarchic Componential Model is a theory that attempts to identify components of the cognitive aspects of giftedness, in order to improve differentiated curriculum planning. The triarchy consists of analytical thinking, creative thinking, and practical thinking. This model has been shown to improve achievement across all grade levels, in areas that were examined, across a range of socioeconomic and achievement levels.
  20. 20. Other models continued ● ● ● Parallel Curriculum Model (PCM) is a guide for teachers to develop appropriate curriculum experiences and learning opportunities for the gifted learner. There are four different curriculum models that can be used together or intertwined as a single plan. The PCM provides the depth, novelty, and complexity needed for a richer learning experience for all students at an appropriate level of instruction. The four parallels presented are 1. The Core Curriculum Parallel 2. The Curriculum of Connections 3. The Curriculum of Practice Parallel 4. The Curriculum of Identity Parallel
  21. 21. Program organizations for elementary schools ● ● ● Gifted students have not typically been identified prior to third grade because of the belief that standardized testing is too unstable and not valid until a student is older. Advanced abilities and accelerated thinking can be evident very early, and providing differentiated curricula can boost a student's intellectual stimulation, which is important for growth and development. Planning for services should be based on the level of giftedness in the population that needs to be served; the training and skills of teachers; the educational philosophy of the administration; and the cooperation of parents and the community at large.
  22. 22. Program organizations for elementary schools continued ● An appropriate, quality education requires 1.differentiation 2. flexible grouping 3. continuous progress 4. intellectual peer interaction 5. continuity 6. teachers with knowledge and ability in gifted education ● ● Limitations as well as strengths of the setting must be considered. Figure 9.2 provides a visual of the organizations for he elementary student.
  23. 23. Program organizations for middle and high school learners ● ● ● ● After the sixth or seventh grades, schools tend to departmentalize their curriculum and differentiation and continuous progress are not utilized. Large numbers of students who must be served by a teacher, along with time constraints, tend to limit the interactions between the different teachers who serve a student. Tracking students, regardless of their needs and abilities, does not represent true differentiation. A higher leveled class (or classes) for gifted and talented students does not constitute a complete program that meets the needs of this population of students. Some form of ability grouping of students should be used to provide a challenging program for advanced students.
  24. 24. Program organizations for middle and high school continued ● ● ● Some program structures that are used in the secondary schools are; Schools within a school allow the gifted to have a more flexible setting while in the regular school building. This is a low cost solution in which an accelerated curriculum with a higher level of of complexity is utilized for these students. Governor's schools are established for the gifted learner's pursuit of enrichment and acceleration in a variety of subject areas. Students are selected to attend. NC has a residential program in Durham, which emphasizes math and science.
  25. 25. Program organizations for middle and high schools continued Advanced Placement is a program that offers high academic classes that may permit the student to earn college credits once an AP exam has been passed, while still in high school. The classes are more in depth and require more effort, and usually take more time. International Baccalaureate Program is a two year program that usually demands mastery at a high level. Schools can develop their own program based on the strengths and interests of the students involved. Proficiency in a second language is a major component. Many universities give college credit for these classes. Secondary Triad Model is a pull out program that is a component of the Schoolwide Enrichment Program.
  26. 26. Program organizations for middle and high school continued Purdue Secondary Model offers a wide range of choices and structures to meet the needs of the gifted learner in the cognitive and affective areas. There are many options such as counseling, AP or honors classes, and correspondence classes available. Accelerated College Enrollment and Early Entrance Program serves seventh through ninth grade students by offering lower level college classes one night a week, or in the summer. PACE allows tenth through eleventh graders the opportunity to concurrently take college courses with high school classes. ● In general, the academic performance of the students is impressive.
  27. 27. Programs and organizations for middle and high schools continued ● ● ● ● John Hopkins University's Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) is a program which combines early entrance with content acceleration. First developed in 1979, the program is available in several states and universities to serve a very specific population of highly gifted students. Programs are accelerated, and the program requires highly able,achieving, and motivated students. A program for accelerated language arts is also available. High School at Moorpark College offers afternoon classes that allow gifted eleventh and twelfth graders to receive high school and college credit. Afternoon classes were chosen based on studies that show adolescents learn better late in the day. It is a small program which serves students thought to be eccentric or seriously troubled, who would not fit in traditional schools very well.
  28. 28. Organizing for optimal learning ● ● ● ● Response to Intervention Information about each student's strengths and needs are used to design and deliver instruction in order to ensure that students have successful learning. This model was a part of the Individuals with Disablilites Education Improvement Act (2004) The model has a three tiered approach which is focused on early intervention and providing appropriate instruction while using a collaborative structure. This model matches high quality instructional strategies and student needs in an appropriate and timely manner. The model depends on the use of teams of professionals for consultation and instruction, along with the involvement and support of parents.
  29. 29. The Integrative Model- using brain research to optimize learning ● ● Integration of brain functions in the educational process creates powerful support for teaching and learning. The purpose of the Integrative Education Model is to provide an organized guide to use brain research in the classroom. This model can be used in any classroom, at any level of schooling. There are seven components to this model. 1. use data on brain development as the basis for teaching and learning. 2. Create a responsive learning environment. 3. Integrate the intellectual processes. 4. Establish a continuum of learning. 5. Assess the student's level of mastery on the continuum of learning.
  30. 30. 6. Differentiate and individualize the processes of teaching and learning. 7. Evaluate the results of the teaching and learning. Reflect and readjust the learning plan. ● For detailed information about this model, see the textbook, pages 325 to 334. Homeschooling as an alternative approach ● ● Some gifted learners can not benefit from traditional schools. They may learn too rapidly, or think at levels of abstraction and complexity so that no materials are easily available for them. These students may benefit from homeschooling. Benefits include quality of learning, individualization, and alternatives to the rigidity of traditional schools.
  31. 31. Question ● There are so many different models, structures, and programs available for use, how will you determine the one(s) that you will implement in your classroom? What will drive your decision?