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On The European (Digital) Library, 03-04-2007, Library of Congress, Washington DC, USA

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In this presentation Olaf Janssen - Project Manager at The European Library - introduces the national libraries of Europe. ...

In this presentation Olaf Janssen - Project Manager at The European Library - introduces the national libraries of Europe.

He outlines the history, organisational and technical foundations of The European Library, the collaborative platform and website of the 48 national libraries of Europe.

He outlines the benefits of collaboration between these institutions and explains how The European Library has established technical and metadata interoperability across Europe.

He discusses the ingredients for a successful European Digital Library (to be called Europeana) and assess the current state of play and the remaining challenges.

The conclusions are:
* Common and open standards for access and interoperability are essential for a European Digital Library
* The European Library is the forerunner
* Building a European Digital Library is a much a political & social game as it is a technological
* The willingness to collaborate is key!!

I held this talk at the Library of Congress, Washington DC, USA, on 03-04-2007

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On The European (Digital) Library, 03-04-2007, Library of Congress, Washington DC, USA On The European (Digital) Library, 03-04-2007, Library of Congress, Washington DC, USA Presentation Transcript

  • Olaf D. Janssen The European Library Office The Hague, The Netherlands The European (Digital) Library LoC, 03-04-07
    • 1. National libraries in Europe
    • 2. The European Library 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Common standards
    • 3. Ingredients for successful European Digital Library
    Structure of presentation
  • Europe – relevant institutions
    • European Union (EU) - Founded 1992 - 27 members states - Major project funder More  www.eu.int
    • Council of Europe (CoE) - Founded 1949 - 46 member states, 800M people - Aim: to achieve a greater unity between its members. More  www.coe.int
    1. National libraries in Europe
    • Collaboration since 1987, since 1995 online
    • CENL : C onference of E uropean N ational L ibrarians (directors of NLs)
    National libraries in European context
    • Mission of CENL: reinforce role of national libraries in Europe
    • Latest collaborative project is The European Library
    • National library  British Library, LoC
    • 47 official national libraries – 45 countries (Council of Europe)
    1. National libraries in Europe
    • 1. National libraries in Europe
    • 2. The European Library 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Common standards
    • 3. Ingredients for successful European Digital Library
    Structure of presentation
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 The European Library relies on common standards
    • A. Access protocols
    • B. Metadata
    • C. Collection descriptions
    • D. Multi-linguality
    2. The European Library
  • TheEuropeanLibrary.org = - service of all 47 European national libraries - to provide access to their - catalogues & digital collections - via 1 central multi-lingual web interface - (= portal) What is The European Library? 2.1 Introduction to The European Library
  • www.TheEuropeanLibrary.org
  • Background
    • Origin in 2001: TELproject : 2.5y feasibility study funded by EU and led by The British Library
    • Intended to create operational service from start, so business plan was part of TELproject
    • The European Library is live since 17 March 2005 (beta)
    • Currently owned by CENL, funded by the national libraries ( NOT EU)
    • Development + maintenance by The European Library Office (Netherlands – 9 FTE)
    2.1 Introduction to The European Library
  • Two types of participants
    • Full Participants : libraries whose catalogues and digital collections are included in The European Library portal ( 23 )
    • Basic Participants : catalogues and digital collections not yet included ( 24)
    2.1 Introduction to The European Library
  • Current + future Full Participants
    • Now : 250+ collections from 23 national libraries: Austria, UK, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Italy(2x), Latvia, Netherlands, Portugal, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Poland, Cyprus, Malta, Lithuania, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia
    • End 2007 : 330 collections from 34 libraries Spain, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Belgium, Bulgaria & Roumenia
    • Mid 2009 : 400 collections from 44 libraries Russia (2x), former Sovjet republics, Albania, Bosnia…..
    2.1 Introduction to The European Library
  • What’s Good about The European Library
    • For end-users
      • Have integrated access to catalogues & digital collections of national libraries of Europe
      • Quality-controlled deep web resources
      • 250+ collections, 2.0M digital objects and 50M metadata records
      • For the national libraries
        • International showcase for collections
        • Wider access to their collections & content
        • Combined political mass  greater marketing and negotiation power.
        • Platform for collaboration
    2.1 Introduction to The European Library
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 The European Library relies on common standards
    • A. Access protocols
    • B. Metadata
    • C. Collection descriptions
    • D. Multi-linguality
    2. The European Library
    • The European Library = hybrid portal = federated search tool
      • Overall goal of The European Library = COLLABORATION  Low implementation barrier for libraries is key!!
      • Different libraries demand different access protocols to access their collections
      • TEL infrastructure uses 4 protocols : OAI-PMH, Z39.50, SRU, OpenURL
      • The European Library portal queries  1 central index (90 harvested collections, OAI-PMH)  160 remote databases (Z39.50 & SRU)
    2.2.A Access protocols in The European Library
  • Techniques / protocols used (I)
    • 1. OAI-PMH ( O pen A rchives I nitiative P rotocol for M etadata H arvesting)
      • OAI enabled collections have their metadata harvested, indexed and stored in TEL central index
      • Queries in these collections are queries in TEL central index
    2.2.A Access protocols in The European Library
  • Harvesting via OAI-PMH
    • <?xml version=&quot;1.0&quot; encoding=&quot;UTF-8&quot;?><?xml-stylesheet type='text/xsl' href='/static/celestial.xsl'?><OAI-PMH xmlns=&quot;http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/&quot; xmlns:xsi=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance&quot; xsi:schemaLocation=&quot;http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/ http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/OAI-PMH.xsd&quot;> <responseDate>2006-11-02T14:43:52Z</responseDate> <request verb=&quot;ListRecords&quot; metadataPrefix=&quot;oai_dc&quot;>http://celestial.eprints.org/oai/Academic%20Archive%20On-line</request> <ListRecords> <record> <header> <identifier>oai:DiVA.org:umu-117</identifier> <datestamp>2006-03-19</datestamp> <setSpec>umu</setSpec> <setSpec>postgraduateTheses</setSpec> <setSpec>comprehensiveTheses</setSpec> <setSpec/> </header> <metadata> <oai_dc:dc xmlns:oai_dc=&quot;http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/oai_dc/&quot; xmlns:dc=&quot;http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/&quot; xsi:schemaLocation=&quot;http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/oai_dc/ http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/oai_dc.xsd&quot;> <dc:title>Mixing Oil and Water : Studies of the Namibian Economy</dc:title> <dc:creator>Stage, Jesper</dc:creator> <dc:subject>Namibia</dc:subject> <dc:subject>energy use</dc:subject> <dc:subject>structural decomposition analysis</dc:subject> <dc:subject>hedonic pricing</dc:subject> <dc:subject>townships</dc:subject> <dc:subject>groundwater use</dc:subject> <dc:subject>fisheries</dc:subject> <dc:subject>bioeconomic modelling</dc:subject> <dc:description>This thesis consists of four papers studying economic aspects of natural resource and environmental management in Namibia.Paper [I] analyses changes in Namibian energy use patterns between 1980 and 1998. The study finds that, unlike their counterparts in many other developing countries where energy use has been studied, Namibian energy users appear to have been quite flexible in changing to energy-saving technologies and to technologies using different energy sources altogether. One explanation for this difference may be that Namibia has had relatively high energy prices and has had high taxes on oil-based fuels, which may have made Namibian energy users more interested in potential energy savings.Paper [II] studies variables affecting property pricing in the township areas of Windhoek, Namibia’s capital city. Plots close to a garbage dump sell at substantial discounts, while plots close to a recreation area sell at premium prices. These results suggest that environmental quality may be more important for households in township areas than has previously been believed. Neglecting issues of environmental quality in town planning for township areas may thus be a serious omission.Paper [III] uses Namibian farm price data to study the impact of groundwater access on farm profitability. Potentially, groundwater can function both as an extra source of water in areas with low rainfall and as a buffer source of water in areas where rainfall is higher but variable. If groundwater mainly functions as a buffer source of water in high-rainfall areas, it could be replaced by various means of water storage fairly easily. Providing extra water by other means in low-rainfall areas, on the other hand, is likely to be prohibitively expensive. The study does not provide clear-cut results, suggesting that on precautionary principles one should assume that groundwater will be difficult to replace with other water sources.Paper [IV] studies optimal allocation between commercial and recreational fishing for one of Namibia’s fish species, the kob. The biological dynamics of the kob are modelled using an age-class model with age-specific mortalities, in order to capture the fact that the two fisheries target different age classes. The length of the planning horizon is crucial for the results: If a short planning horizon is used, the results indicate that a large share of the catches should be allocated to commercial fishing. With a longer planning horizon, however, the higher profitability of recreational angling leads to the conclusion that it would be preferable to limit commercial fishing in order to permit kob stocks to recover and improve angling success.</dc:description> <dc:publisher>Umeå University, Sweden</dc:publisher> <dc:date>2003</dc:date> <dc:format>text/html</dc:format> <dc:format>application/pdf</dc:format> <dc:format>application/xml</dc:format> <dc:identifier>http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117</dc:identifier> <dc:identifier>urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117</dc:identifier> <dc:type>text.thesis.doctoral</dc:type> <dc:source>91-7305-508-5</dc:source> <dc:language>en</dc:language> <dc:rights>Copyright Jesper Stage </dc:rights></oai_dc:dc> </metadata> <about> <provenance xmlns=&quot;http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/provenance&quot; xsi:schemaLocation=&quot;http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/provenance http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/provenance.xsd&quot;> <originDescription altered=&quot;false&quot; harvestDate=&quot;2006-06-07T15:20:12Z&quot;> <baseURL>http://www.diva-portal.org/oai/OAI</baseURL> <identifier>oai:DiVA.org:umu-117</identifier> <datestamp>2006-03-19</datestamp> <metadataNamespace>http://www.openarchives.org/OAI/2.0/oai_dc/</metadataNamespace> </originDescription> </provenance> </about> </record>
    TEL server(s) TEL central index (90 coll.) OAI-PMH harvester OAI-PMH collection OAI-PMH collection OAI-PMH collection
  • Harvesting via OAI-PMH TEL server(s) OAI-PMH TEL central index OAI-PMH collection OAI-PMH collection OAI-PMH collection
    • 2. SRU ( S earch R etrieve via U rl)
      • SRU enabled collections are queried on-the-fly using this protocol
      •  Direct communication with TEL-portal
    • 3. Z39.50
      • Z39.50 enabled collections are queried on-the-fly via a Z39.50/SRU gateway
      • Z39.50/SRU gateway = translator (housed on TEL server)
      • Translates SRU requests to Z39.50 session vv.
      • Translates TEL portal search language (CQL) into search language of Z39.50 target.
      • Converts record format of Z39.50 target into TEL metadata format
      • Does character set conversions (Unicode)
    Techniques / protocols used (II) 2.2.A Access protocols in The European Library
    • 4. OpenURL for linking to external webservices
    Techniques / protocols used (III) 2.2.A Access protocols in The European Library
    • 5. AJAX
      • XHTML and CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) for marking up and styling information on a web-page
      • Using the DOM (Document Object Model) to dynamically display and interact with information presented
      • XMLHttpRequest object to exchange data between a client and server
      • Allows for browser page to be updated according to user actions without reloading the page
        • Re-writing of portal interface in user-chosen language
        • Executing federated searches across chosen collections and updating the pages with returned results
    Techniques / protocols used (IV) ( A synchronous J avaScript A nd X ml) 2.2.A Access protocols in The European Library
  • Loading the TEL-portal TEL server(s) http://www.theeuropeanlibrary.org TEL portal only speaks & understands SRU central index web server
  • Loading translations and collections (I) TEL server(s) http://www.theeuropeanlibrary.org central index web server
  • Loading translations and collections (II)
    • translations.xml : all translations needed to display the interface in the chosen language (20)
    • collections.xml : all collection descriptions needed to execute searches across the different collections
    translations.xml collections.xml SRU Z39.50
  • A. Search/retrieve in TEL central index via SRU TEL server(s) query OAI-harvested metadata = TEL central index SRU SRU TEL portal only speaks & understands SRU web server
  • B. Search/retrieve in SRU enabled remote collection TEL server(s) query central index SRU SRU TEL portal only speaks & understands SRU web server
  • C. Search/retrieve in Z39.50 enabled remote collection TEL server(s) query central index SRU Z39.50/SRU gateway SRU Z39.50 TEL portal only speaks & understands SRU web server
  • Search/retrieve – all at once! TEL server(s) query central index SRU SRU Z39.50/SRU gateway SRU Z39.50 SRU web server
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 The European Library relies on common standards
    • A. Access protocols
    • B. Metadata
    • C. Collection descriptions
    • D. Multi-linguality
    2. The European Library
    • All 50M records in The European Library are in same metadata format!!
    • Metadata  TEL Application Profile for objects
    • Basis = Dublin Core + Expanded with elements from other metadata sets + Custom TEL elements
    • Mappings from MARC to TEL Application Profile
    • Metadata elements  functionality in TEL portal
    2.2.B Metadata in The European Library
  •  
  • More info about TEL Application Profile for objects The European Library Handbook  www.theeuropeanlibrary.org/handbook 2.2.B Metadata in The European Library
  • The European Library Handbook www.theeuropeanlibrary.org/handbook
  •  
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 The European Library relies on common standards
    • A. Access protocols
    • B. Metadata
    • C. Collection descriptions
    • D. Multi-linguality
    2. The European Library
    • All 250+ collection descriptions in The European Library are in same format!!
    • Collection descriptions  TEL Application Profile for collections Basis = Dublin Core + Expanded with elements from other metadata sets + Custom TEL elements
    • XML files describing each collection (name, content etc)
    • Each collection description translated in 20 languages
    • Helps users to select collections they want to search in
    2.2.C Collection descriptions in The European Library
  •  
  • More info about TEL Application Profile for collections The European Library Handbook  www.theeuropeanlibrary.org/handbook 2.2.C Collection descriptions in The European Library
  • The European Library Handbook www.theeuropeanlibrary.org/handbook
  •  
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 The European Library relies on common standards
    • A. Access protocols
    • B. Metadata
    • C. Collection descriptions
    • D. Multi-linguality
    2. The European Library
    • Multi-lingual access
    • Portal interface in 20 languages : done!
    • Portal help texts in 20 languages : done!
    • Collection descriptions in 20 languages : done!
    • Multi-lingual search & retrieve
    • Subject headings / controlled vocabularies : pilot underway  prototype 2008
    • Free text / uncontrolled vocabularies : major challenge!!
    2.2.D Multi-linguality in The European Library
  • Portal interface in 20 languages : English 2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European Library
  • Portal interface in 20 languages : Danish 2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European Library
  • Portal interface in 20 languages : Greek 2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European Library
  • Portal helptexts in 20 languages : English 2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European Library
  • Portal helptexts in 20 languages : Estonian 2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European Library
  • Collection descriptions in English 2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European Library
  • Collection descriptions in Maltese 2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European Library
    • 1. National libraries in Europe
    • 2. The European Library 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Common standards
    • 3. Ingredients for successful European Digital Library
    Structure of presentation
      • European Digital Library =
      • - yet to be built
      • - pan-European
      • - multi-lingual portal
      • - giving access to digital cultural heritage
      • - from European libraries AND museums & archives
      • The European Library =
      • - operational
      • - pan-European
      • - multi-lingual portal
      • - giving access to digital cultural heritage
      • - from European libraries only
    3. Ingredients for a successful European Digital Library
    • December 2004 : Google announces its Google Print initiative (digitse 4 major US libraries + Oxford UK)
    • January 2005: comments by Jean-No ël Jeanneney (president BnF) : Anglo-American dominance
    • Large press coverage: “Europe’s cultural war with Google”
    • French call for safeguarding the European cultural heritage: Backing from the leaders of six countries and 24 national libraries (CENL)
    • EU 2005 : “ Creation of a European Digital Library is a strategic priority “
    Short historical context 3. Ingredients for a successful European Digital Library
  • EU 2006 : “ The European Library is a good starting point for a European Digital Library” Timeline & Vision of the EU 3. Ingredients for a successful European Digital Library
  • Towards a European Digital Library
    • Why is The European Library a good starting point for a European Digital Library?
    • The European Library already has already created
      • Operational technological platform (portal)
      • Based on common open standards for metadata & access
      • Firm cooperative organisational framework (CENL - 20 years)
    3. Ingredients for a successful European Digital Library
      • BUT…
      • A successful European Digital Library needs more ingredients ……
      • Look at 7 of them…. challenges
    3. Ingredients for a successful European Digital Library
      • Challenge 1 Mass-digitisation of as many materials as possible
      • Challenge 2 Long-time digital preservation of these digitised materials
    Challenges to tackle (1,2) 3. Ingredients for a successful European Digital Library
      • Mass-digitisation & preservation
      • Problem
      • Only 4% of content in The European Library are digital objects
      • Even lower %-tage is digitally preserved
      • Solutions
      • Mass-digitisation & preservation programmes  Europe-wide network of centres of competence
      • Hurdles
      • Organisational : create synergies, avoid duplication of effort, create public-private collaboration.
      • Content selection : choose from 1000s kms of printed materials; Ms hours of film
      • Technical : lower costs for digitisation & preservation while maintaining a high quality.
      • Legal : deal with the copyright issues
    Challenges to tackle (1,2) 3. Ingredients for a successful European Digital Library
  • Challenge 3 More partners , esp. museums, archives, AV Challenge 4 Multilingual search & retrieval facilities  Searching in German, finding texts in Spanish  Start with controlled vocabularies (subject headings), uncontrolled vocabularies/free texts will be next step. Challenge 5 OAI + central index : prefer OAI-PMH + central index over Z39.50 or SRU remote collections - speed - sorting - ranking - de-duplication - virtual collections Challenges to tackle (3,4,5) 3. Ingredients for a successful European Digital Library
  • Challenge 6 Organisational models Ownership / governance Funding models Sustainability Challenge 7 Copyright issues, publishers  All of these challenges are addressed in a series of EU co-funded projects 2007-2011 Challenges to tackle (6,7) 3. Ingredients for a successful European Digital Library
  • Summary
    • Common and open standards for access and interoperability are essential for a European Digital Library
    • The European Library is the forerunner
    • Building a European Digital Library is a much a political & social game as it is a technological
    • Willingness to collaborate is key!!
    3. Ingredients for a successful European Digital Library
  • www.TheEuropeanLibrary.org [email_address]