Olaf D. Janssen
The European Library Office
The Hague, The Netherlands
The European (Digital) Library
LoC, 03-04-07
1. National libraries in Europe
2. The European Library
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Common standards
3. Ingredients for successfu...
Europe – relevant institutions
 European Union (EU)
- Founded 1992
- 27 members states
- Major project funder
More  www....
 Collaboration since 1987, since 1995 online
 CENL : Conference of European
National Librarians (directors of NLs)
 Mis...
1. National libraries in Europe
2. The European Library
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Common standards
3. Ingredients for successfu...
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The European Library relies on common standards
 A. Access protocols
 B. Metadata
 C. Collection d...
TheEuropeanLibrary.org =
- service of all 47 European national libraries
- to provide access to their
- catalogues & digit...
www.TheEuropeanLibrary.org
Background
 Origin in 2001: TELproject: 2.5y feasibility study funded by EU
and led by The British Library
 Intended to ...
Two types of participants
 Full Participants : libraries whose catalogues and
digital collections are included in The Eur...
Current + future Full Participants
 Now : 250+ collections from 23 national libraries:
Austria, UK, Croatia, Denmark, Est...
What’s Good about The European Library
For end-users
 Have integrated access to catalogues & digital collections
of natio...
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The European Library relies on common standards
 A. Access protocols
 B. Metadata
 C. Collection d...
The European Library = hybrid portal = federated search tool
 Overall goal of The European Library = COLLABORATION
 Low ...
Techniques / protocols used (I)
1. OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative Protocol for
Metadata Harvesting)
 OAI enabled colle...
Harvesting via OAI-PMH
TEL server(s)
OAI-PMH
collection
TEL central index
(90 coll.) OAI-PMH
harvester
OAI-PMH
collection
...
TEL server(s)
TEL central index
OAI-PMH
OAI-PMH
collection
OAI-PMH
collection
OAI-PMH
collection
Harvesting via OAI-PMH
2. SRU (Search Retrieve via Url)
SRU enabled collections are queried on-the-fly using this protocol
 Direct communication...
4. OpenURL
for linking to external webservices
2.2.A Access protocols in The European
Library
Techniques / protocols used ...
Loading the TEL-portal
TEL server(s)
central index
web server
http://www.theeuropeanlibrary.org
TEL portal only
speaks &
u...
Loading translations and collections (I)
TEL server(s)
central index
web server
http://www.theeuropeanlibrary.org
Loading translations and collections (II)
 translations.xml : all translations
needed to display the interface in
the cho...
A. Search/retrieve in TEL central index via SRU
TEL server(s)
web server
query
OAI-harvested metadata
= TEL central
index ...
B. Search/retrieve in SRU enabled remote
collection
TEL server(s)
web server
query
central index
SRU
SRU
TEL portal only
s...
TEL server(s)
web server
query
central index
SRU
Z39.50/SRU
gateway SRU Z39.50
TEL portal only
speaks &
understands SRU
C....
Search/retrieve – all at once!
TEL server(s)
web server
query
central index
SRU
SRU
Z39.50/SRU
gateway SRU Z39.50
SRU
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The European Library relies on common standards
 A. Access protocols
 B. Metadata
 C. Collection d...
All 50M records in The European Library are in
same metadata format!!
 Metadata  TEL Application Profile for objects
Bas...
More info about TEL Application Profile
for objects
The European Library Handbook
 www.theeuropeanlibrary.org/handbook
2....
The European Library Handbook
www.theeuropeanlibrary.org/handbook
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The European Library relies on common standards
 A. Access protocols
 B. Metadata
 C. Collection d...
All 250+ collection descriptions in The
European Library are in same format!!
 Collection descriptions  TEL Application ...
More info about TEL Application Profile
for collections
The European Library Handbook
 www.theeuropeanlibrary.org/handboo...
The European Library Handbook
www.theeuropeanlibrary.org/handbook
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The European Library relies on common standards
 A. Access protocols
 B. Metadata
 C. Collection d...
Multi-lingual access
1. Portal interface in 20 languages : done!
2. Portal help texts in 20 languages : done!
3. Collectio...
Portal interface in 20 languages : English
2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European
Library
Portal interface in 20 languages : Danish
2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European
Library
Portal interface in 20 languages : Greek
2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European
Library
Portal helptexts in 20 languages : English
2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European
Library
Portal helptexts in 20 languages : Estonian
2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European
Library
Collection descriptions in English
2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European
Library
Collection descriptions in Maltese
2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European
Library
1. National libraries in Europe
2. The European Library
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Common standards
3. Ingredients for successfu...
European Digital
Library =
- yet to be built
- pan-European
- multi-lingual portal
- giving access to digital
cultural her...
 December 2004 : Google announces its Google Print initiative
(digitse 4 major US libraries + Oxford UK)
 January 2005: ...
EU 2006 : “The European Library is a good starting point for a
European Digital Library”
Timeline & Vision of the EU
3. In...
Towards a European Digital Library
Why is The European Library a good starting
point for a European Digital Library?
The European Library already has already...
BUT…
A successful European Digital
Library needs more ingredients ……
Look at 7 of them…. challenges
3. Ingredients for a s...
Challenge 1
Mass-digitisation of as many materials as
possible
Challenge 2
Long-time digital preservation of these digitis...
Mass-digitisation & preservation
Problem
 Only 4% of content in The European Library are digital objects
 Even lower %-t...
Challenge 3
More partners, esp. museums, archives, AV
Challenge 4
Multilingual search & retrieval facilities
 Searching i...
Challenge 6
Organisational models
Ownership / governance
Funding models
Sustainability
Challenge 7
Copyright issues, publi...
Summary
 Common and open standards for access and
interoperability are essential for a European Digital
Library
 The Eur...
www.TheEuropeanLibrary.org
olaf.janssen@kb.nl
On The European (Digital) Library, 03-04-2007, Library of Congress, Washington DC, USA
On The European (Digital) Library, 03-04-2007, Library of Congress, Washington DC, USA
On The European (Digital) Library, 03-04-2007, Library of Congress, Washington DC, USA
On The European (Digital) Library, 03-04-2007, Library of Congress, Washington DC, USA
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On The European (Digital) Library, 03-04-2007, Library of Congress, Washington DC, USA

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In this presentation Olaf Janssen - Project Manager at The European Library - introduces the national libraries of Europe.

He outlines the history, organisational and technical foundations of The European Library, the collaborative platform and website of the 48 national libraries of Europe.

He outlines the benefits of collaboration between these institutions and explains how The European Library has established technical and metadata interoperability across Europe.

He discusses the ingredients for a successful European Digital Library (to be called Europeana) and assess the current state of play and the remaining challenges.

The conclusions are:
* Common and open standards for access and interoperability are essential for a European Digital Library
* The European Library is the forerunner
* Building a European Digital Library is a much a political & social game as it is a technological
* The willingness to collaborate is key!!

I held this talk at the Library of Congress, Washington DC, USA, on 03-04-2007

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  • A service for all European national libraries to provide access to their deep web content (catalogs and collections) via one central multi-lingual web-interface.
    For Libraries:
    Alternative point of access to their collections.
    A means of exposing a wider audience to their collections
    Amongst libraries:
    A platform for collaboration
    For users:
    A convenient point of access
    A one stop shop where they can search multiple libraries from different countries simultaneously
  • A service for all European national libraries to provide access to their deep web content (catalogs and collections) via one central multi-lingual web-interface.
    For Libraries:
    Alternative point of access to their collections.
    A means of exposing a wider audience to their collections
    Amongst libraries:
    A platform for collaboration
    For users:
    A convenient point of access
    A one stop shop where they can search multiple libraries from different countries simultaneously
  • A service for all European national libraries to provide access to their deep web content (catalogs and collections) via one central multi-lingual web-interface.
    For Libraries:
    Alternative point of access to their collections.
    A means of exposing a wider audience to their collections
    Amongst libraries:
    A platform for collaboration
    For users:
    A convenient point of access
    A one stop shop where they can search multiple libraries from different countries simultaneously
  • And here it is
    Version 1.2
    This is the current version since last week. Where we have kept a simple user face, in line with user wishes but have tried to give more ways of accessing the information i.e. to make the shop window more representative of the goods inside. Again searching for content is the dominant function. It has clear navigation with tabs at the top – and you can find via the treasures the other members of CENL and you can change the interface language
  • Users
    Content – can therefore be used elsewhere
  • A service for all European national libraries to provide access to their deep web content (catalogs and collections) via one central multi-lingual web-interface.
    For Libraries:
    Alternative point of access to their collections.
    A means of exposing a wider audience to their collections
    Amongst libraries:
    A platform for collaboration
    For users:
    A convenient point of access
    A one stop shop where they can search multiple libraries from different countries simultaneously
  • The European Library is a hybrid portal that runs in the browser.
    Different libraries demand different communication protocols or techniques to access their collections.
    The TEL portal is a very friendly piece of web development.
    It accommodates the different libraries by using several overlapping protocols and techniques to connect with all the different libraries and their collections.
     OAI
  • OAI-PMH protocol developed by the Open Archives Initiative
    Used to “harvest” or “collect” the metadata from data providers – in our case the repositories of the national libraries.
    The data is transported as XML over the HTTP protocol layer and then indexed and stored on one of our servers
    SRU is a standard search protocol for Internet search queries.
    It utilizes CQL (Common Query Language) for representing queries.
    The results from these queries is also transported as xml over the HTTP protocol layer.
    SRU is seen as the replacement for the much older – pre web - protocol Z39.50. And even though Z39.50 is by internet standards considered ancient, it is still the protocol most used by libraries.
  • The loading of the central index is done with OAI-PMH
    A very basic illustration of the method is shown here. And I mean very basic just to illustrate the principle for those not familiar with it.
    A connection is made from our server holding the central index to OAI enabled partner libraries.Their meta-data is harvested and stored in our central index which is then used to answer queries concerning their collections.
  • In order to accommodate Z39.50 systems, a gateway was developed.
    Two types of gateways:
    CENTRAL – running on the TEL server
    LOCAL – running on the partner library server
    Gateway translates SRU query to a Z39.50 session
    Not only does it translate the SRU into a Z39.50 session, it is also able to:
    Do character set conversions
    Add additional information not originally present in the Z39.50 record.
  • In order to accommodate Z39.50 systems, a gateway was developed.
    Two types of gateways:
    CENTRAL – running on the TEL server
    LOCAL – running on the partner library server
    Gateway translates SRU query to a Z39.50 session
    Not only does it translate the SRU into a Z39.50 session, it is also able to:
    Do character set conversions
    Add additional information not originally present in the Z39.50 record.
  • AJAX is a catchy term that was first coined in 2005 by Jesse James Garret (an information architect and founder of Adaptive Path)
    Stands for: Asynchronous JavaScript and XML.
    For the last couple of years this technique has been closely associated with the whole WEB 2.0 idea. But in actual fact the use of the techniques that fall under this name have been around for quite some time.
    The technique involves a combination of the following:
    XHTML and CSS for marking up and styling information
    The DOM (Document Object Model) to dynamically display and interact with the information presented
    XMLHttpRequest object to exchange data between the client and server.
    It allows for content on a webpage to be updated without having to reload the page.
    changing the display language of the interface
    Executing federated searches across chosen collections and updating the pages with returned results.
  • Loading the portal.
    User enters URL
  • As the portal loads, a script executes a request back to the server for two xml files – This is done with the AJAX method mentioned earlier.
  • One is the xml file contains the translation terms. With this file loaded into the browser the user can switch the language in which the interface is rendered.
    More importantly for searching is the collections file. This file contains all the collection descriptions.
    As the portal is loading, it uses this file to build up javascript objects which contain the basic information to let the portal send queries to them.
    So now the portal has the intelligence to see if a collection is accessed via our central index, via a remote SRU server, or through a Z39.50 gateway.
  • Searching the central index
  • Sru enabled library
  • Central gateway
  • Local gateway
  • A service for all European national libraries to provide access to their deep web content (catalogs and collections) via one central multi-lingual web-interface.
    For Libraries:
    Alternative point of access to their collections.
    A means of exposing a wider audience to their collections
    Amongst libraries:
    A platform for collaboration
    For users:
    A convenient point of access
    A one stop shop where they can search multiple libraries from different countries simultaneously
  • And here it is
    Version 1.2
    This is the current version since last week. Where we have kept a simple user face, in line with user wishes but have tried to give more ways of accessing the information i.e. to make the shop window more representative of the goods inside. Again searching for content is the dominant function. It has clear navigation with tabs at the top – and you can find via the treasures the other members of CENL and you can change the interface language
  • A service for all European national libraries to provide access to their deep web content (catalogs and collections) via one central multi-lingual web-interface.
    For Libraries:
    Alternative point of access to their collections.
    A means of exposing a wider audience to their collections
    Amongst libraries:
    A platform for collaboration
    For users:
    A convenient point of access
    A one stop shop where they can search multiple libraries from different countries simultaneously
  • And here it is
    Version 1.2
    This is the current version since last week. Where we have kept a simple user face, in line with user wishes but have tried to give more ways of accessing the information i.e. to make the shop window more representative of the goods inside. Again searching for content is the dominant function. It has clear navigation with tabs at the top – and you can find via the treasures the other members of CENL and you can change the interface language
  • A service for all European national libraries to provide access to their deep web content (catalogs and collections) via one central multi-lingual web-interface.
    For Libraries:
    Alternative point of access to their collections.
    A means of exposing a wider audience to their collections
    Amongst libraries:
    A platform for collaboration
    For users:
    A convenient point of access
    A one stop shop where they can search multiple libraries from different countries simultaneously
  • A service for all European national libraries to provide access to their deep web content (catalogs and collections) via one central multi-lingual web-interface.
    For Libraries:
    Alternative point of access to their collections.
    A means of exposing a wider audience to their collections
    Amongst libraries:
    A platform for collaboration
    For users:
    A convenient point of access
    A one stop shop where they can search multiple libraries from different countries simultaneously
  • Users
    Content – can therefore be used elsewhere
  • Being able to search across cultural heritage institutions, so therefore search across and within their data, works, metadata and in all the languages of Europe, representing sound, text, video, objects
  • Users
    Content – can therefore be used elsewhere
  • Users
    Content – can therefore be used elsewhere
  • On The European (Digital) Library, 03-04-2007, Library of Congress, Washington DC, USA

    1. 1. Olaf D. Janssen The European Library Office The Hague, The Netherlands The European (Digital) Library LoC, 03-04-07
    2. 2. 1. National libraries in Europe 2. The European Library 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Common standards 3. Ingredients for successful European Digital Library Structure of presentation
    3. 3. Europe – relevant institutions  European Union (EU) - Founded 1992 - 27 members states - Major project funder More  www.eu.int • Council of Europe (CoE) - Founded 1949 - 46 member states, 800M people - Aim: to achieve a greater unity between its members. More  www.coe.int 1. National libraries in Europe
    4. 4.  Collaboration since 1987, since 1995 online  CENL : Conference of European National Librarians (directors of NLs)  Mission of CENL: reinforce role of national libraries in Europe  Latest collaborative project is The European Library National libraries in European context  National library  British Library, LoC  47 official national libraries – 45 countries (Council of Europe) 1. National libraries in Europe
    5. 5. 1. National libraries in Europe 2. The European Library 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Common standards 3. Ingredients for successful European Digital Library Structure of presentation
    6. 6. 2.1 Introduction 2.2 The European Library relies on common standards  A. Access protocols  B. Metadata  C. Collection descriptions  D. Multi-linguality 2. The European Library
    7. 7. TheEuropeanLibrary.org = - service of all 47 European national libraries - to provide access to their - catalogues & digital collections - via 1 central multi-lingual web interface - (= portal) What is The European Library? 2.1 Introduction to The European Library
    8. 8. www.TheEuropeanLibrary.org
    9. 9. Background  Origin in 2001: TELproject: 2.5y feasibility study funded by EU and led by The British Library  Intended to create operational service from start, so business plan was part of TELproject  The European Library is live since 17 March 2005 (beta)  Currently owned by CENL, funded by the national libraries (NOT EU)  Development + maintenance by The European Library Office (Netherlands – 9 FTE) 2.1 Introduction to The European Library
    10. 10. Two types of participants  Full Participants : libraries whose catalogues and digital collections are included in The European Library portal (23)  Basic Participants : catalogues and digital collections not yet included (24) 2.1 Introduction to The European Library
    11. 11. Current + future Full Participants  Now : 250+ collections from 23 national libraries: Austria, UK, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Italy(2x), Latvia, Netherlands, Portugal, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Poland, Cyprus, Malta, Lithuania, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia  End 2007 : 330 collections from 34 libraries Spain, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Belgium, Bulgaria & Roumenia  Mid 2009 : 400 collections from 44 libraries Russia (2x), former Sovjet republics, Albania, Bosnia….. 2.1 Introduction to The European Library
    12. 12. What’s Good about The European Library For end-users  Have integrated access to catalogues & digital collections of national libraries of Europe  Quality-controlled deep web resources  250+ collections, 2.0M digital objects and 50M metadata records For the national libraries  International showcase for collections  Wider access to their collections & content  Combined political mass  greater marketing and negotiation power.  Platform for collaboration 2.1 Introduction to The European Library
    13. 13. 2.1 Introduction 2.2 The European Library relies on common standards  A. Access protocols  B. Metadata  C. Collection descriptions  D. Multi-linguality 2. The European Library
    14. 14. The European Library = hybrid portal = federated search tool  Overall goal of The European Library = COLLABORATION  Low implementation barrier for libraries is key!!  Different libraries demand different access protocols to access their collections  TEL infrastructure uses 4 protocols : OAI-PMH, Z39.50, SRU, OpenURL  The European Library portal queries  1 central index (90 harvested collections, OAI-PMH)  160 remote databases (Z39.50 & SRU) 2.2.A Access protocols in The European Library
    15. 15. Techniques / protocols used (I) 1. OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting)  OAI enabled collections have their metadata harvested, indexed and stored in TEL central index  Queries in these collections are queries in TEL central index 2.2.A Access protocols in The European Library
    16. 16. Harvesting via OAI-PMH TEL server(s) OAI-PMH collection TEL central index (90 coll.) OAI-PMH harvester OAI-PMH collection OAI-PMH collection
    17. 17. TEL server(s) TEL central index OAI-PMH OAI-PMH collection OAI-PMH collection OAI-PMH collection Harvesting via OAI-PMH
    18. 18. 2. SRU (Search Retrieve via Url) SRU enabled collections are queried on-the-fly using this protocol  Direct communication with TEL-portal 3. Z39.50 Z39.50 enabled collections are queried on-the-fly via a Z39.50/SRU gateway Z39.50/SRU gateway = translator (housed on TEL server) • Translates SRU requests to Z39.50 session vv. • Translates TEL portal search language (CQL) into search language of Z39.50 target. • Converts record format of Z39.50 target into TEL metadata format • Does character set conversions (Unicode) 2.2.A Access protocols in The European Library Techniques / protocols used (II)
    19. 19. 4. OpenURL for linking to external webservices 2.2.A Access protocols in The European Library Techniques / protocols used (III)
    20. 20. Loading the TEL-portal TEL server(s) central index web server http://www.theeuropeanlibrary.org TEL portal only speaks & understands SRU
    21. 21. Loading translations and collections (I) TEL server(s) central index web server http://www.theeuropeanlibrary.org
    22. 22. Loading translations and collections (II)  translations.xml : all translations needed to display the interface in the chosen language (20)  collections.xml : all collection descriptions needed to execute searches across the different collections translations.xml collections.xml SRU Z39.50
    23. 23. A. Search/retrieve in TEL central index via SRU TEL server(s) web server query OAI-harvested metadata = TEL central index SRUSRU TEL portal only speaks & understands SRU
    24. 24. B. Search/retrieve in SRU enabled remote collection TEL server(s) web server query central index SRU SRU TEL portal only speaks & understands SRU
    25. 25. TEL server(s) web server query central index SRU Z39.50/SRU gateway SRU Z39.50 TEL portal only speaks & understands SRU C. Search/retrieve in Z39.50 enabled remote collection
    26. 26. Search/retrieve – all at once! TEL server(s) web server query central index SRU SRU Z39.50/SRU gateway SRU Z39.50 SRU
    27. 27. 2.1 Introduction 2.2 The European Library relies on common standards  A. Access protocols  B. Metadata  C. Collection descriptions  D. Multi-linguality 2. The European Library
    28. 28. All 50M records in The European Library are in same metadata format!!  Metadata  TEL Application Profile for objects Basis = Dublin Core + Expanded with elements from other metadata sets + Custom TEL elements  Mappings from MARC to TEL Application Profile  Metadata elements  functionality in TEL portal 2.2.B Metadata in The European Library
    29. 29. More info about TEL Application Profile for objects The European Library Handbook  www.theeuropeanlibrary.org/handbook 2.2.B Metadata in The European Library
    30. 30. The European Library Handbook www.theeuropeanlibrary.org/handbook
    31. 31. 2.1 Introduction 2.2 The European Library relies on common standards  A. Access protocols  B. Metadata  C. Collection descriptions  D. Multi-linguality 2. The European Library
    32. 32. All 250+ collection descriptions in The European Library are in same format!!  Collection descriptions  TEL Application Profile for collections Basis = Dublin Core + Expanded with elements from other metadata sets + Custom TEL elements  XML files describing each collection (name, content etc)  Each collection description translated in 20 languages  Helps users to select collections they want to search in 2.2.C Collection descriptions in The European Library
    33. 33. More info about TEL Application Profile for collections The European Library Handbook  www.theeuropeanlibrary.org/handbook 2.2.C Collection descriptions in The European Library
    34. 34. The European Library Handbook www.theeuropeanlibrary.org/handbook
    35. 35. 2.1 Introduction 2.2 The European Library relies on common standards  A. Access protocols  B. Metadata  C. Collection descriptions  D. Multi-linguality 2. The European Library
    36. 36. Multi-lingual access 1. Portal interface in 20 languages : done! 2. Portal help texts in 20 languages : done! 3. Collection descriptions in 20 languages : done! Multi-lingual search & retrieve 1. Subject headings / controlled vocabularies : pilot underway  prototype 2008 2. Free text / uncontrolled vocabularies : major challenge!! 2.2.D Multi-linguality in The European Library
    37. 37. Portal interface in 20 languages : English 2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European Library
    38. 38. Portal interface in 20 languages : Danish 2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European Library
    39. 39. Portal interface in 20 languages : Greek 2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European Library
    40. 40. Portal helptexts in 20 languages : English 2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European Library
    41. 41. Portal helptexts in 20 languages : Estonian 2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European Library
    42. 42. Collection descriptions in English 2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European Library
    43. 43. Collection descriptions in Maltese 2.2.D Multi-lingual access in The European Library
    44. 44. 1. National libraries in Europe 2. The European Library 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Common standards 3. Ingredients for successful European Digital Library Structure of presentation
    45. 45. European Digital Library = - yet to be built - pan-European - multi-lingual portal - giving access to digital cultural heritage - from European libraries AND museums & archives 3. Ingredients for a successful European Digital Library The European Library = - operational - pan-European - multi-lingual portal - giving access to digital cultural heritage - from European libraries only
    46. 46.  December 2004 : Google announces its Google Print initiative (digitse 4 major US libraries + Oxford UK)  January 2005: comments by Jean-Noël Jeanneney (president BnF) : Anglo-American dominance  Large press coverage: “Europe’s cultural war with Google”  French call for safeguarding the European cultural heritage: Backing from the leaders of six countries and 24 national libraries (CENL)  EU 2005 : “Creation of a European Digital Library is a strategic priority“ Short historical context 3. Ingredients for a successful European Digital Library
    47. 47. EU 2006 : “The European Library is a good starting point for a European Digital Library” Timeline & Vision of the EU 3. Ingredients for a successful European Digital Library
    48. 48. Towards a European Digital Library
    49. 49. Why is The European Library a good starting point for a European Digital Library? The European Library already has already created  Operational technological platform (portal)  Based on common open standards for metadata & access  Firm cooperative organisational framework (CENL - 20 years) 3. Ingredients for a successful European Digital Library
    50. 50. BUT… A successful European Digital Library needs more ingredients …… Look at 7 of them…. challenges 3. Ingredients for a successful European Digital Library
    51. 51. Challenge 1 Mass-digitisation of as many materials as possible Challenge 2 Long-time digital preservation of these digitised materials 3. Ingredients for a successful European Digital LibraryChallenges to tackle (1,2)
    52. 52. Mass-digitisation & preservation Problem  Only 4% of content in The European Library are digital objects  Even lower %-tage is digitally preserved Solutions  Mass-digitisation & preservation programmes  Europe-wide network of centres of competence Hurdles 1. Organisational : create synergies, avoid duplication of effort, create public- private collaboration. 2. Content selection : choose from 1000s kms of printed materials; Ms hours of film 3. Technical : lower costs for digitisation & preservation while maintaining a high quality. 4. Legal : deal with the copyright issues 3. Ingredients for a successful European Digital LibraryChallenges to tackle (1,2)
    53. 53. Challenge 3 More partners, esp. museums, archives, AV Challenge 4 Multilingual search & retrieval facilities  Searching in German, finding texts in Spanish  Start with controlled vocabularies (subject headings), uncontrolled vocabularies/free texts will be next step. Challenge 5 OAI + central index : prefer OAI-PMH + central index over Z39.50 or SRU remote collections - speed - sorting - ranking - de-duplication - virtual collections 3. Ingredients for a successful European Digital LibraryChallenges to tackle (3,4,5)
    54. 54. Challenge 6 Organisational models Ownership / governance Funding models Sustainability Challenge 7 Copyright issues, publishers  All of these challenges are addressed in a series of EU co-funded projects 2007-2011 3. Ingredients for a successful European Digital LibraryChallenges to tackle (6,7)
    55. 55. Summary  Common and open standards for access and interoperability are essential for a European Digital Library  The European Library is the forerunner  Building a European Digital Library is a much a political & social game as it is a technological  Willingness to collaborate is key!! 3. Ingredients for a successful European Digital Library
    56. 56. www.TheEuropeanLibrary.org olaf.janssen@kb.nl
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