Olaf Janssen on the principles of large-scale digital libraries and their application to Europeana, 19-02-2009, Leiden University, The Netherlands

  • 1,897 views
Uploaded on

In this lecture Olaf Janssen - project manager at Europeana - introduces the principles of large-scale international cross-cultural, cross-domain digital libraries. …

In this lecture Olaf Janssen - project manager at Europeana - introduces the principles of large-scale international cross-cultural, cross-domain digital libraries.

In a case study he outlines how these principles are applied to Europeana, the EU’s flagship online museum, library, film theatre and archive.

Olaf held this presentation at Leiden University, The Netherlands on 19-02-2009

More in: Education , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,897
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
35
Comments
0
Likes
2

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Random digitisation going on – duplication, different standards, methods and terms of accessibility, Programme needed to harmonise standards, establish best practice, minimise duplication, select related and complementary collections, Need to create national strategies and identify synergies Setting up large scale digitisation programmes Systematic approach to digital preservation - Different approaches; all re-inventing the wheel - starting from beginning, no knowledge exchange, or best practice methodology Harmonising copyright and tackling issues of orphan works Focus on providing access though a single European digital library portal Integrated access: meeting changing user expectations: web 2 users expect to read texts, watch videos, see pictures and hear sounds all in the same place. They don’t want to make decisions about WHERE something might be held – which country, what type of institution
  • MODS was designed as a compromise between the complexity of the MARC format used by libraries and the extreme simplicity of Dublin Core metadata.
  • NLs only
  • The major aim of Video Active is to create access to television archives across Europe. The unlocking of these (largely) closed archives will make their content available for educational and academic purposes. It will enable an interactive discovery of television?s cultural heritage. The project will achieve this by selecting 10,000 items television archive content, which reflects the cultural and historical similarities and differences of television from across the European Union, and by complementing this archive content with well-defined contextual metadata. Video Active therefore offers an enormous resource for exploring both the representation of cultural and historical events within and across nations and the development of the medium itself at a cross-cultural level. Audiovisual archival material is notoriously hard to access. Current digitisation activities offer not only the solution for long-term preservation, but also break new grounds for access. Yet such current digitisation at different national levels lacks standardisation, cohesion and still offers uneven access. Video Active will therefore build on existing digitisation activities at different national levels to provide enhanced and equal access to archive content within a well-defined and integrated pan-European framework. To do this the project has brought together eleven leading audiovisual archives, from all across Europe, to make their digitised holdings available online. Ten languages will be supported: English, French, German, Italian, Dutch, Greek, Hungarian, Catalan, Danish and Swedish.As a result, Video Active will enhance an understanding of the shared histories and interrelationships that have shaped collective European memory and identity, while at the same time celebrating the multicultural dimensions that have also shaped European citizenship. Video Active will also explore the historical role of the media in shaping these European experiences.There is a very large appetite for this kind of material, both within educational and academic communities, but also amongst a sizeable general public. People want to see and use broadcast archival material concerning the cultural history of the European nations.
  • Old maps only – cross country, cross domian
  • Dutch only, 4 domians
  • Regional – trans-national – Northern Europe
  • A specific objective of the network is to clear the ground to be able to propose one or more separately funded practical implementations of the European Digital Library. To do this a clear governance and organisational structure needs to be in place Governance by EDL Foundation As no solution can be imposed from above and progress can only be made by consent, the network aims to establish trust between the institutions for future sustainability of a joint portal at the same time as finding common technical solutions to interoperability issues and without this network we have nothing so it is key to the creation and implementation of a governance and organisational structure. This is the currently proposed organisational structure for Europerana Important to work at the top level with Foundation members because of the access it gives us to the content aggregators. Unlikely to be able to deal with individual institutions on the European scale Work with aggregators who solve some of the standards and interoperability issues at a domain or national level Then feed into Europeana.
  • Google and microsoft digitisation: exclusivity; limitation to how widely accessible the material is. Moves Public domain material into the private domain Need it to be public domain because the intention is to enable material to be put to new uses, to create new services Especially within a learning context – materials for online courses The creative economy - the arts, publishing, media, digital - makes up over 7% of the UK economy, growth rate of 5% pa, twice that of other sectors and employs 1.8 million people Extend that across Europe, and that is a sizeable sector. Europeana can supply source material, inspiration, opportunities European identity: one element in giving people a more connected sense of their European heritage.

Transcript

  • 1. Europeana – case study of a large-scale digital library Olaf D. Janssen, Europeana Office, The Netherlands 19 th February 2009, for Leiden University
  • 2. Lay-out of talk
    • Part 1 : Basic concepts of digital libraries (DLs)
    • Part 2 : Case-study of large-scale DL : Europeana
    • (Part 3 : On building Europeana)
  • 3. 1- Basic concepts of digital libraries
    • Basic concepts
    • Digital library disciplines
    • Digital content & metadata
    • Multi-lingual, multi-cultural, cross-domain digital content
    • Interoperability & standardisation
    • Federated vs. centralized content, metadata transfer, aggregation & repositories
  • 4. Online access Digitisation Digital preservation 1.1 – Digital library disciplines
  • 5. 1- Basic concepts of digital libraries
    • Basic concepts
    • Digital library disciplines
    • Digital content & metadata
    • Multi-lingual, multi-cultural, cross-domain digital content
    • Interoperability & standardisation
    • Federated vs. centralized content
    • Metadata transfer, aggregation & repositories
  • 6. 1.2 - Digital content & metadata
    • Digital library  digital objects / content
    • 1) Digital object itself : image, sound, movie, text…
    • 2) Metadata : structured data about the object
    • Digital object and its metadata are generally stored in different systems / institutions / countries!
    • Metadata provides URL to access digital object.
  • 7. 1.2 - Digital content & metadata
    • Types of metadata
    • Descriptive : describes object for discovery and identification e.g <title>, <publisher>, <author> etc.
    • Structural : describes structure of compound objects, e.g. how pages are ordered to form chapters.
    • Administrative : information to help manage a resource, e.g. how it was created, file type, who can access it …
    • Preservation : information needed to archive and preserve an object e.g. <Provenance> , <Authenticity>
    • “ Relational ” : which other objects is the object related?
    • (NISO - 2004) Understanding Metadata - Bethesda, MD: NISO Press, p.1)
  • 8. 1- Basic concepts of digital libraries
    • Basic concepts
    • Digital library disciplines
    • Digital content & metadata
    • Multi-lingual, multi-cultural, cross-domain digital content
    • Interoperability & standardisation
    • Federated vs. centralized content, metadata transfer, aggregation & repositories
  • 9. 1.3 - Multilingual, multicultural, cross-domain
    • Multi-lingual
  • 10.
    • Multi-cultural
    • ~ [ ] …. racial, cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a specified place, usually at the scale of an organization such as a school, business, neighborhood, city, nation or continent
    • ( Free after Wikipedia )
    1.3 - Multilingual, multicultural, cross-domain
  • 11.  
  • 12. 1.3 - Multilingual, multicultural, cross-domain Museums Libraries AV- institutions Archives Cross-domain = representing 2 or more CH domains Four main Cultural Heritage domains
  • 13. 1.3 - Multilingual, multicultural, cross-domain Museums CIDOC- CRM Libraries DublinCore MODS MARC AV- Institutions MPEG7 MPEG21 Archives EAD Most commonly used metadata formats per domain
  • 14. 1- Basic concepts of digital libraries
    • Basic concepts
    • Digital library disciplines
    • Digital content & metadata
    • Multi-lingual, multi-cultural, cross-domain digital content
    • Interoperability & standardisation
    • Federated vs. centralized content, metadata transfer, aggregation & repositories
  • 15. 1.4 - Interoperability & standardisation
    • Interoperability
    • ~ the ability of two or more
    • systems, computers, humans, institutions etc..
    • to exchange information
    • and to use the information that has been exchanged
    • without special effort on either system
  • 16.
    • Various types of interoperability in DLs (1/2)
    • 1) Metadata interoperability
    • Problems appear when metadata from different domains, thus with different formats (DC, EAD, CIDOC-CRM, MPEG7..) are brought together in 1 digital library
    •  The metadata is not interoperable
    •  Need for standardisation to make metadata interoperable
    1.4 - Interoperability & standardisation
  • 17. 1.4 - Interoperability & standardisation Libraries - DublinCore Libraries - MARC Libraries - MODS Museums - CIDOC-CRM Archives - EAD AV-inst - MPEG7,21 1 single standardised cross-domain metadata format Mapping or cross-walk
  • 18.
    • Various types of interoperability in DLs (2/2)
    • 2) Political / human / cross-domain interoperability
    • Building (human!) collaboration & network & consensus between institutions & domains is vital in a large DL
    • Agree on organisational models for a DL
    • Governance structure of the DL
    • Roadmap for the future development & sustainability of a DL
    • Agree budget and business plan for a DL
    1.4 - Interoperability & standardisation
  • 19. 1.4 - Interoperability & standardisation FROM
  • 20. 1.4 - Interoperability & standardisation
  • 21. 1.4 - Interoperability & standardisation TO
  • 22. 1.4 - Interoperability & standardisation
  • 23. 1- Basic concepts of digital libraries
    • Basic concepts
    • Digital library disciplines
    • Digital content & metadata
    • Multi-lingual, multi-cultural, cross-domain digital content
    • Interoperability & standardisation
    • Federated vs. centralized content, metadata transfer, aggregation & repositories
  • 24. 1.6 - Metadata transfer, aggregation & repositories
    • Federated metadata : metadata are stored in multiple databases (CH-institutions)
    • Centralized metadata : metadata is stored in one single database (central repository)
    • OAI-PMH : protocol / mechanism for shipping (standardised) metadata from A  B
    • Especially: from multiple federated databases  1 central database = aggregation
    • OAI-PMH : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_Archives_Initiative
  • 25.
    • Aggregation of federated metadata via OAI-PMH
    1.6 - Metadata transfer, aggregation & repositories OAI-server – in museum Library Collection1 OAI-server - in library Central Repository Standardised library metadata (in XML format) Aggregated, centralised, standardised, multilingual, multicultural, interoperable, cross-domain CH-metadata as basis for Digital Library OAI-harvester (client) Museum Collection1 Standardised museum metadata (in XML format) Museum Collection2 OAI-PMH OAI-PMH OAI-PMH
  • 26. 1.6 - Metadata transfer, aggregation & repositories
    • Various types/levels of aggregation (1/2)
    • Domain specific – The European Library (libraries), VideoActive (AV-archives)
    • Material specific – DIGMAP (maps)
    • Language specific – German, Russian… materials
    • Culture specific – Roma, Jews
  • 27. 1.6 - Metadata transfer, aggregation & repositories
    • Various types/levels of aggregation (2/2)
    • Local – Municipal Archive of Lisbon, Leeds City museum
    • National regional (provincial) – Province Limburg, Belgium
    • National – Memory of The Netherlands (NL)
    • Trans-national regional – Vestnord (IS), Scandinavian, Meditern
    •  Combinations of the above!
  • 28. 1.6 - Metadata transfer, aggregation & repositories Examples of aggregators
  • 29. Part 2 - Basic Concepts The European Library www.theeuropeanlibrary.org Domain-specific aggregation of library content
  • 30. Video Active www.videoactive.eu Domain-specific aggregation of AV content
  • 31. Part 2 - Basic Concepts http://portal.digmap.eu/ DIGMAP portal.digmap.eu Material-specific aggregation of digitised maps
  • 32. Part 2 - Basic Concepts Memory of the Netherlands www.geheugenvannederland.nl Cross-domain aggregation of Dutch CH-materials
  • 33. Part 2 - Basic Concepts VESTNORD www.tamarit.is Trans-national regional aggregation of newspapers & periodicals
  • 34. Lay-out of talk
    • Part 1 : Basic concepts of digital libraries (DLs)
    • Part 2 : Case-study of large-scale DL: Europeana
    • (Part 3 : Building Europeana)
  • 35. 2 – Case study : Europeana
    • What is Europeana ? (1/3)
    •  Metadata & technical interoperability P.O.V.
    • Europeana = Website
    • giving
    • online access to (currently) 4.2 million European
    • multicultural, multilingual , cross-domain
    • interoperable & standardised
    • centrally aggregated
    • metadata
    • (leading to the digital objects )
    • Digital objects themselves are NOT aggregated & stored centrally!
  • 36. Europeana www.europeana.eu
  • 37. Insert extra screenshot Dutch French
  • 38. Insert extra screenshot
  • 39. Insert extra screenshot Metadata (stored in Holland)
  • 40. Insert extra screenshot Digital object - movie (stored in France)
  • 41. 2 – Case study : Europeana
    • What is Europeana ? (2/3)
    •  From human / political / cross-domain interoperability P.O.V.
    • Europeana = Collaborative cross-domain network
    • for European CH-institutions to build consensus & cooperation between stakeholders to build & expand the Europeana website
    • Agree on organisational models for Europeana
    • Governance structure for Europeana
    • Roadmap for the future development & sustainability of Europeana
    • Agree on budget to build Europeana
  • 42. Some of the 1,000+ partners in Europeana
  • 43. 2 – Case study : Europeana National aggregator (Dutch) Geheugen van Nederland Film archive aggregator VideoActive AV Collection X Archives aggregator Libraries aggregator The European Library National Library 1 Museum X Archive X National Archive 2….n Film Archive 1 Film Archive 2 Film Archive 3 National Archive 1 Library X Museum A Archive A Library A Museums Aggregator M1 M2 M3 National Library 2 National Library 3…n Network structure for Europeana
  • 44. 2 – Case study : Europeana
    • What is Europeana ? (3/3)
    • One big
    • aggregation & interoperability
    • exercise!
  • 45.  Questions ?  [email_address]
  • 46. Lay-out of talk
    • Part 1 : Basic concepts of digital libraries (DLs)
    • Part 2 : Case-study of large-scale DL: Europeana
    • (Part 3 : Building Europeana)
  • 47.
    • December 2004 : Google announces its Google Print initiative (digitse 4 major US libraries + Oxford UK)
    • January 2005: comments by Jean-No ël Jeanneney (president BnF) : Anglo-American dominance
    • Large press coverage: “Europe’s cultural war with Google”
    • French call for safeguarding the European cultural heritage  support from European Union
    • European Union 2005 : “ Creation of a European Digital Library is a strategic priority “
    • 2006-2007 : Increased political momentum & support across Europe
    Short historical context 3 – Building Europeana
  • 48.
    • ‘ A digital library that is a single, direct and multilingual access point to the European cultural heritage.’ European Parliament, 27 September 2007
    • ‘ A unique resource for Europe's distributed cultural heritage… ensuring a common access to Europe's libraries, archives and museums .’ Horst Forster, Director, Digital Content & Cognitive Systems Information Society Directorate, European Commission
    • ’ For the users it is not important whether the objects are kept by archives, libraries or museums , but to get access to the sources they want, and to be able use & re-use the resources across types of sources and sectors of institutions.’
    3 – Building Europeana Vision of the EU for a pan-European DL
  • 49. 3 – Building Europeana EU is major driver for building & expanding Europeana
  • 50.
    • To create a multilingual public domain access point to Europe’s cultural and scientific heritage (= Europeana website )
    • To use digitised cultural and scientific heritage resources as input for a wide range of information products and services
    • To play a key role in the future growth of sectors such as learning and tourism
    • To inspire new creative enterprise and innovation
    • To promote understanding of our common European background and the sense of a European identity
    3 – Building Europeana Objectives of the EU for Europeana
  • 51.
    • 2007: EU is “in the mood” to build Europeana  Easy to secure funding from EU for some years
    • 2007: Set up a high-level legal entity to build, develop & sustain Europeana  EDL Foundation
    • 2007: Set up coordination centre : Europeana Office (@ National Library of the Netherlands)
    • 2007-2008: Start & expand a cross-domain network of CH-institutions  C onsensus building, concertation, collaboration (human & political interoperability)
    3 – Building Europeana Key steps in building Europeana (1/3)
    • can employ staff
    • can bid for EU-funded projects
    2007: Set up coordination centre : Europeana Office (@ National Library of the Netherlands)
  • 52.
    • 2008 : Build Europeana prototype - proof of concept - website
    • - online access to 4.2 million pan-European - multicultural, multilingual, cross-domain - interoperable & standardised - centrally aggregated - metadata - (leading to the digital objects)
    •  All EU countries represented  1,000+ contributing organisations  Multilingual interface in 25 languages
    • Nov 2008: Launch prototype
    3 – Building Europeana Key steps in building Europeana (2/3)
  • 53. 3 – Building Europeana PRESENT – Feb 09
  • 54.
    • To be done :
    • Secure funding for future
    3 – Building Europeana Key steps in building Europeana (3/3) Member States can directly support the development of Europeana. This support ranges from urging museums, archives and libraries to become participants… to setting up national portals whose content can be harvested by Europeana. Government departments… can also directly sponsor the activities of the EDL Foundation as ‘Associated Participants’ The EU is committed to continuing its support for projects that will improve the availability of content from all the different institutions and the quality of services in Europeana
  • 55.
    • To be done :
    • Secure funding for future
    • 2009-2010: Improve prototype to full website
      • Add more content  expand network to include more CH aggregators & institutions
      • 10 million digital items in 2010
      • 25 m items by 2014
    3 – Building Europeana Key steps in building Europeana (3/3)