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Introduction to (web) APIs - definitions, examples, concepts and trends
 

Introduction to (web) APIs - definitions, examples, concepts and trends

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This story is about the added value of APIs (application programming interfaces) for modern businesses, developers and software consumers. It deals with API-fundamentals and shows how APIs are the ...

This story is about the added value of APIs (application programming interfaces) for modern businesses, developers and software consumers. It deals with API-fundamentals and shows how APIs are the cornerstones of modern business development (BizDev2.0). By looking at casestudies from Google Maps, Twitter, Amazon, eBay, Moo, Flickr, Netflix and other web2.0-companies, it becomes clear how APIs add value for all parties on the modern web.

This presentation was given by Olaf Janssen - Open Data coordinator for the National Library of the Netherlands (KB) - as a lecture for students of the master's course "Digital Access to Cultural Heritage" at Leiden University on 13-3-2014

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  • http://client-side-apis.appspot.com/ <br /> http://andywibbels.com/what-is-an-api/ <br /> API stands for Application Programming Interface and is a set of code and standards for accessing a Web-based application or service. API thus allows a web application to interact with other applications programmatically similar to the way human accesses a web application via GUI within web browsers. By exposing their functions or content via API, web applications allows developers to easily enrich their sites with new features. <br /> http://www.hotscripts.com/blog/web-apis/ <br /> The acronym stands for “application programming interface”, which is a typically over-engineered way of saying “means of putting information in and getting information out of your system without having to type it yourself”.   Typically you’ll provide the API with some information, and in return the system will process and spit back some other data.   There’s any number of analogies that you can use, but one of my favourites is the cash machine.   That’s pretty much an API for your bank – you put in your card and enter your PIN, ask the bank for money, and it then dispenses cash.   The information you’re providing is the data on your card and your PIN, while the bank is supplying you with cash and a little paper slip telling you how big your overdraft is returns might be. <br />
  • http://client-side-apis.appspot.com/ <br /> http://andywibbels.com/what-is-an-api/ <br /> API stands for Application Programming Interface and is a set of code and standards for accessing a Web-based application or service. API thus allows a web application to interact with other applications programmatically similar to the way human accesses a web application via GUI within web browsers. By exposing their functions or content via API, web applications allows developers to easily enrich their sites with new features. <br /> http://www.hotscripts.com/blog/web-apis/ <br /> The acronym stands for “application programming interface”, which is a typically over-engineered way of saying “means of putting information in and getting information out of your system without having to type it yourself”.   Typically you’ll provide the API with some information, and in return the system will process and spit back some other data.   There’s any number of analogies that you can use, but one of my favourites is the cash machine.   That’s pretty much an API for your bank – you put in your card and enter your PIN, ask the bank for money, and it then dispenses cash.   The information you’re providing is the data on your card and your PIN, while the bank is supplying you with cash and a little paper slip telling you how big your overdraft is returns might be. <br />
  • The acronym stands for “application programming interface”, which is a typically over-engineered way of saying “means of putting information in and getting information out of your system without having to type it yourself”.   Typically you’ll provide the API with some information, and in return the system will process and spit back some other data.   There’s any number of analogies that you can use, but one of my favourites is the cash machine.   That’s pretty much an API for your bank – you put in your card and enter your PIN, ask the bank for money, and it then dispenses cash.   The information you’re providing is the data on your card and your PIN, while the bank is supplying you with cash and a little paper slip telling you how big your overdraft is returns might be. <br />
  • 2) Open vs. gesloten API’s <br /> API’s kun je globaal onderverdelen in twee smaken: open (of publieke) en gesloten API’s. Een API is open wanneer iedereen er gebruik van mag & kan maken, meestal na het geautomatiseerd aanvragen van een API-key (een soort wachtwoord voor de API). Ze zijn transparant in alle opzichten: ze worden op internet gepubliceerd, zijn open gedocumenteerd en gebruiken open technologieën en standaarden. <br /> Een goed voorbeeld is bit.ly – de bekende URL-verkorter. Deze dienst laat je ook zien hoeveel mensen op een door jou aangemaakte verkorte URL hebben geklikt. Dit is handig wanneer je niet alleen (de URL van) een document wil verspreiden, maar ook inzicht wil hebben hoe groot het bereik van dat document is. Heeft bit.ly een open API? <br /> Test 1: Bit.ly&apos;s API is openlijk gedocumenteerd <br /> Test 2: Hij is beschikbaar via self-service. Je kunt meteen een account & key aanmaken en aan de slag gaan. <br /> Test 3: Hij gebruikt open technologieën (xml, json, oauth – daarover later meer) <br /> Andere bekende voorbeelden van publieke API’s zijn die van Twitter, Facebook en GoogleMaps. <br />
  • Liveplasma is een zoekmachine voor muziek, bands, films, regisseurs en acteurs. Zoek naar een bepaalde artiest/band/film/regisseur/acteur en je krijgt een visuele weergave van aanverwante items die je zouden kunnen interesseren. Deze toepassing maakt gebruik van de Amazon API om verwantschappen tussen items te bepalen en detailinformatie van items weer te geven. <br />
  • The web of relationships is generated using data from the Amazon Ecommerce API. A cursory comparison between the Liveplasma results and Amazon results for the same artist appears to indicate that Liveplasma uses Amazon’s “customers who bought this item also bought” data. <br /> http://jasonharris.ca/2011/10/liveplasma-music-and-movie-discovery-web-app-review/ <br />
  • semi-random images from Europeana collections on Twitter. The program takes a list of &quot;seed terms&quot; from a file, searches for corresponding images on Europeana and posts the URL of the first result to the Twitter-Account EuropeanaBot. The current implementation has used Austrian place names and a list of Nobel Prize winners.   <br />
  • Definition of &apos;Business Asset&apos; <br /> A piece of property or equipment purchased exclusively or primarily for business use. Business assets span many categories, such as vehicles, real estate, computers, office furniture and other fixtures. Much of the start-up capital for many businesses goes toward the purchase of this type of asset. Business Assets are listed on the firm&apos;s balance sheet as items of ownership. <br /> Investopedia explains &apos;Business Asset&apos; <br /> Most business assets can be written off and either depreciated according to the appropriate schedule or expensed under section 179 in the year of purchase. Business assets are different from business expenses, which include supplies and small tools and are simply deducted. Fixed business assets such as real estate and tangible property differ from current assets such as receivables. <br />
  • http://corp.klout.com/blog/2011/07/two-billion-is-cool/ <br /> July 12th, 2011 by Matthew Thomson <br /> API omvang tov werknemers <br /> http://twittermania.nl/2011/05/twitter-900000-apps-600000-ontwikkelaars/ <br /> Door Bert Kok op 13 - 05 - 2011 13:48 <br /> Op #devnest, een conferentie voor Twitter-ontwikkelaars in San Francisco, heeft Twitter vannacht heel wat interessante getallen onthuld. Zo zijn er inmiddels 900.000 applicaties die op de een of andere manier het Twitter-platform gebruiken. Ongeveer 600.000 ontwikkelaars werken aan allerlei Twitter-apps. Verder verwerkt Twitter het ongelofelijke aantal van 13 miljard API-verzoeken per dag. <br />
  • http://corp.klout.com/blog/2011/07/two-billion-is-cool/ <br /> July 12th, 2011 by Matthew Thomson <br /> API omvang tov werknemers <br /> http://twittermania.nl/2011/05/twitter-900000-apps-600000-ontwikkelaars/ <br /> Door Bert Kok op 13 - 05 - 2011 13:48 <br /> Op #devnest, een conferentie voor Twitter-ontwikkelaars in San Francisco, heeft Twitter vannacht heel wat interessante getallen onthuld. Zo zijn er inmiddels 900.000 applicaties die op de een of andere manier het Twitter-platform gebruiken. Ongeveer 600.000 ontwikkelaars werken aan allerlei Twitter-apps. Verder verwerkt Twitter het ongelofelijke aantal van 13 miljard API-verzoeken per dag. <br />
  • http://corp.klout.com/blog/2011/07/two-billion-is-cool/ <br /> July 12th, 2011 by Matthew Thomson <br /> API omvang tov werknemers <br /> http://twittermania.nl/2011/05/twitter-900000-apps-600000-ontwikkelaars/ <br /> Door Bert Kok op 13 - 05 - 2011 13:48 <br /> Op #devnest, een conferentie voor Twitter-ontwikkelaars in San Francisco, heeft Twitter vannacht heel wat interessante getallen onthuld. Zo zijn er inmiddels 900.000 applicaties die op de een of andere manier het Twitter-platform gebruiken. Ongeveer 600.000 ontwikkelaars werken aan allerlei Twitter-apps. Verder verwerkt Twitter het ongelofelijke aantal van 13 miljard API-verzoeken per dag. <br />
  • http://corp.klout.com/blog/2011/07/two-billion-is-cool/ <br /> July 12th, 2011 by Matthew Thomson <br /> API omvang tov werknemers <br /> http://twittermania.nl/2011/05/twitter-900000-apps-600000-ontwikkelaars/ <br /> Door Bert Kok op 13 - 05 - 2011 13:48 <br /> Op #devnest, een conferentie voor Twitter-ontwikkelaars in San Francisco, heeft Twitter vannacht heel wat interessante getallen onthuld. Zo zijn er inmiddels 900.000 applicaties die op de een of andere manier het Twitter-platform gebruiken. Ongeveer 600.000 ontwikkelaars werken aan allerlei Twitter-apps. Verder verwerkt Twitter het ongelofelijke aantal van 13 miljard API-verzoeken per dag. <br />
  • http://corp.klout.com/blog/2011/07/two-billion-is-cool/ <br /> July 12th, 2011 by Matthew Thomson <br /> API omvang tov werknemers <br /> http://twittermania.nl/2011/05/twitter-900000-apps-600000-ontwikkelaars/ <br /> Door Bert Kok op 13 - 05 - 2011 13:48 <br /> Op #devnest, een conferentie voor Twitter-ontwikkelaars in San Francisco, heeft Twitter vannacht heel wat interessante getallen onthuld. Zo zijn er inmiddels 900.000 applicaties die op de een of andere manier het Twitter-platform gebruiken. Ongeveer 600.000 ontwikkelaars werken aan allerlei Twitter-apps. Verder verwerkt Twitter het ongelofelijke aantal van 13 miljard API-verzoeken per dag. <br />
  • Breder bereik naar online publiek: Een API stelt bedrijven in staat om content op één plek te maken en deze dynamisch te posten en te updaten via de diverse kanalen die het bedrijf gebruikt om zijn content onder de mensen te brengen. Op die manier kan de data zonder extra inspanning een groot publiek bereiken. <br /> Eigenaar van de assets (bv. KB): Een API kan tot een breder gebruik en bereik van collecties, diensten en merknaam leiden door (niche)markten, partners, platformen en devices te bedienen die op andere manieren minder efficiënt te bereiken zijn. Het openstellen van de (KB-)assets kan innovatie & onderzoek stimuleren en veel goodwill bij andere instellingen creëren. <br /> Door het opheffen van de muur rondom producten en diensten d.m.v. APIs, kan de eigenaar van de business assets kanalen naar nieuwe markten, gebruikers en partnerschappen aanboren. Ook kunnen APIs het bedrijfsimago en de relaties met de klanten verbeteren. <br /> Vergroten brand recognition and customer loyalty The company who releases the API allows its customers to access their services in new, more efficient ways, increasing brand recognition and customer loyalty. <br /> Anderen in staat stellen om Organisaties kiezen voor een API wanneer ze bijvoorbeeld 3rd party ontwikkelaars willen aanmoedigen om op innovatieve manieren met hun data om te gaan. De externe bouwers kunnen dan met die data toepassingen bouwen die de organisatie zelf nog niet heeft kunnen bedenken of realiseren. With the API we also hope that others can develop new applications and services which we didn&apos;t think of or couldn&apos;t do ourselves! <br /> Controle over de data houden : the company publishing the API has all the power. If the startup ever decides to change the terms of use for its API, for example, or decides to charge a fee for licensing the API, the third-party developer has no choice but to accept it and deal with it. …. and they still get to keep their source code proprietar <br /> Kosten besprane: The startup gets to expand their company’s user base without having to spend any money to develop niche industry software (die niches-toepassignen kunne door andere partijen gemaaktworden <br /> Innovatiee aandrijven: others can develop new applications and services which we didn&apos;t think of or couldn&apos;t do ourselves! Facebook released its API so that developers could create widgets or small applications that add fun, new functionality to the popular site. <br /> Verrijking eigen data met die van anderen : core business can be “remixed <br />
  • Breder bereik naar online publiek: Een API stelt bedrijven in staat om content op één plek te maken en deze dynamisch te posten en te updaten via de diverse kanalen die het bedrijf gebruikt om zijn content onder de mensen te brengen. Op die manier kan de data zonder extra inspanning een groot publiek bereiken. <br /> Eigenaar van de assets (bv. KB): Een API kan tot een breder gebruik en bereik van collecties, diensten en merknaam leiden door (niche)markten, partners, platformen en devices te bedienen die op andere manieren minder efficiënt te bereiken zijn. Het openstellen van de (KB-)assets kan innovatie & onderzoek stimuleren en veel goodwill bij andere instellingen creëren. <br /> Door het opheffen van de muur rondom producten en diensten d.m.v. APIs, kan de eigenaar van de business assets kanalen naar nieuwe markten, gebruikers en partnerschappen aanboren. Ook kunnen APIs het bedrijfsimago en de relaties met de klanten verbeteren. <br /> Vergroten brand recognition and customer loyalty The company who releases the API allows its customers to access their services in new, more efficient ways, increasing brand recognition and customer loyalty. <br /> Anderen in staat stellen om Organisaties kiezen voor een API wanneer ze bijvoorbeeld 3rd party ontwikkelaars willen aanmoedigen om op innovatieve manieren met hun data om te gaan. De externe bouwers kunnen dan met die data toepassingen bouwen die de organisatie zelf nog niet heeft kunnen bedenken of realiseren. With the API we also hope that others can develop new applications and services which we didn&apos;t think of or couldn&apos;t do ourselves! <br /> Controle over de data houden : the company publishing the API has all the power. If the startup ever decides to change the terms of use for its API, for example, or decides to charge a fee for licensing the API, the third-party developer has no choice but to accept it and deal with it. …. and they still get to keep their source code proprietar <br /> Kosten besprane: The startup gets to expand their company’s user base without having to spend any money to develop niche industry software (die niches-toepassignen kunne door andere partijen gemaaktworden <br /> Innovatiee aandrijven: others can develop new applications and services which we didn&apos;t think of or couldn&apos;t do ourselves! Facebook released its API so that developers could create widgets or small applications that add fun, new functionality to the popular site. <br /> Verrijking eigen data met die van anderen : core business can be “remixed <br />
  • Breder bereik naar online publiek: Een API stelt bedrijven in staat om content op één plek te maken en deze dynamisch te posten en te updaten via de diverse kanalen die het bedrijf gebruikt om zijn content onder de mensen te brengen. Op die manier kan de data zonder extra inspanning een groot publiek bereiken. <br /> Eigenaar van de assets (bv. KB): Een API kan tot een breder gebruik en bereik van collecties, diensten en merknaam leiden door (niche)markten, partners, platformen en devices te bedienen die op andere manieren minder efficiënt te bereiken zijn. Het openstellen van de (KB-)assets kan innovatie & onderzoek stimuleren en veel goodwill bij andere instellingen creëren. <br /> Door het opheffen van de muur rondom producten en diensten d.m.v. APIs, kan de eigenaar van de business assets kanalen naar nieuwe markten, gebruikers en partnerschappen aanboren. Ook kunnen APIs het bedrijfsimago en de relaties met de klanten verbeteren. <br /> Vergroten brand recognition and customer loyalty The company who releases the API allows its customers to access their services in new, more efficient ways, increasing brand recognition and customer loyalty. <br /> Anderen in staat stellen om Organisaties kiezen voor een API wanneer ze bijvoorbeeld 3rd party ontwikkelaars willen aanmoedigen om op innovatieve manieren met hun data om te gaan. De externe bouwers kunnen dan met die data toepassingen bouwen die de organisatie zelf nog niet heeft kunnen bedenken of realiseren. With the API we also hope that others can develop new applications and services which we didn&apos;t think of or couldn&apos;t do ourselves! <br /> Controle over de data houden : the company publishing the API has all the power. If the startup ever decides to change the terms of use for its API, for example, or decides to charge a fee for licensing the API, the third-party developer has no choice but to accept it and deal with it. …. and they still get to keep their source code proprietary (but the api open) <br /> Kosten besprane: The startup gets to expand their company’s user base without having to spend any money to develop niche industry software (die niches-toepassignen kunne door andere partijen gemaaktworden <br /> Innovatiee aandrijven: others can develop new applications and services which we didn&apos;t think of or couldn&apos;t do ourselves! Facebook released its API so that developers could create widgets or small applications that add fun, new functionality to the popular site. <br /> Verrijking eigen data met die van anderen : core business can be “remixed <br />
  • 30. BRANDING•  Spread your brand through the web and other channels –  Twitter –  Google Maps (300% growth versus Mapquest’s 20% growth)•  Become an intrinsic part of the experience –  New York Times & Guardian vis a vis news <br />
  • Thanks to Netflix’s API, the digital movie brand’s service is present on a range of consumer devices that includes Sony PlayStation, Microsoft Xbox, and Roku. Of course, ubiquity has always been an important competitive weapon, but achieving it used to be a physical challenge (building stores). Now, it’s a digital one (getting into apps and on devices). There’s no better tool for lowering barriers to digital distribution than a robust API. <br />
  • Look for “API”, “Developers”, “Data” etc <br />
  • On API Evangelist I work to highlight the most popular approach to delivering web APIs, which is: <br /> Pragmatic REST <br /> Since REST takes advantage of the same Internet mechanisms that are used to view regular web pagesit has many advantages, resulting in faster implementations and easier for developers to understand.  REST APIs allow you to take data and functionality available on your website and make these resources available through a Web API.  Then, instead of returning HTML to represent these resources, the API returns data in one of two possible formats: <br /> Extensible Markup Language (XML) <br /> JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) <br />
  • Eindgebruikers: Deze krijgen dankzij de API en de ontwikkelaars fraaie apps die ze nieuwe mogelijkheden geeft om de weg te vinden (Google Maps), te laten weten waar ze uithangen (FourSquare), gedachten met de wereld te delen (Twitter) of te kijken wat er vroeger op een bepaalde plek gebeurd is (Hier Was het Nieuws). Goede apps geven gebruikers meer gemak, vermaak, kennis, sociale connecties etc. en versterken de relatie tussen de klant en de aanbieder. <br />

Introduction to (web) APIs - definitions, examples, concepts and trends Introduction to (web) APIs - definitions, examples, concepts and trends Presentation Transcript

  • Lecture for the course ‘Digital Access to Cultural Heritage’, 13-03-2014 Olaf Janssen, National Library of the Netherlands olaf.janssen@kb.nl - @ookgezellig - slideshare.net/OlafJanssenNL Introduction to (web) APIs Definitions, examples, concepts and trends
  • Hi, I’m Olaf Janssen I’m a Open Data Coordinator at the National Library of the Netherlands (KB) Open Data coordinator??? That means I make sure KB’s open data and APIs get used by as many parties and services as possible olaf.janssen@kb.nl @ookgezellig slideshare.net/OlafJanssenNL
  • My presentation philosophy
  • This slidedeck is optimised for slideshare.net/OlafJanssenNL
  • What I hope you’ll get out of this talk Better understanding of 1. What APIs are, and their importance 2. How APIs change life for organisations, software developers and consumers  See possibilities of APIs for cultural heritage
  • How does my talk fit in overall DACH course? w.r.t. APIs
  • Alright, let’s start with a bit of history ...
  • .. about access
  • .. about access to cultural heritage
  • .. about access to cultural heritage B.PC Before the PC ≈ Before the ‘80s
  • Source: Business Model Innovatie Cultureel Erfgoed – DEN / Kennisland / OCW, 2009 BMICE ring 1
  • Access ’80s - PCs are the T.F.O. ?
  • date T.F.O. http://www.slideshare.net/edsonm/michael-edson-let-us-go-boldly-into-the-future
  • date T.F.O.Technology Fetish Object Technology Fetish Object to show how quickly the gadgets of our youth go out of date. http://www.slideshare.net/edsonm/michael-edson-let-us-go-boldly-into-the-future
  • 1985 1998 2003 [ CD player ][ Computer ] [ 27” Widescreen TV ] http://www.slideshare.net/edsonm/michael-edson-let-us-go-boldly-into-the-future
  • 2008 2011 2015 [ Tablets ][ iPhone 3G ] [ Wearables ]
  • Source: Business Model Innovatie Cultureel Erfgoed – DEN / Kennisland / OCW, 2009 BMICE ring 2
  • Access ’90s – websites are T.F.O.’s
  • Access ’90s – websites are T.F.O.’s
  • Access ’90s – websites are T.F.O.’s
  • Access ’90s – websites are T.F.O.’sAccess ’90s – websites are T.F.O.’s
  • Bron: Business Model Innovatie Cultureel Erfgoed – DEN / Kennisland / OCW, 2009 BMICE ring 3
  • Bron: Business Model Innovatie Cultureel Erfgoed – DEN / Kennisland / OCW, 2009 Unfortunately: Digitizing content (ring 2) + putting it on a website (ring 3) ≠ findable and usable for today’s users
  • Bron: Business Model Innovatie Cultureel Erfgoed – DEN / Kennisland / OCW, 2009 BMICE ring 4
  • Bron: Business Model Innovatie Cultureel Erfgoed – DEN / Kennisland / OCW, 2009 BMICE ring 4 ? ?
  • Bron: Business Model Innovatie Cultureel Erfgoed – DEN / Kennisland / OCW, 2009 BMICE ring 4 Web2.0 ?
  • Bron: Business Model Innovatie Cultureel Erfgoed – DEN / Kennisland / OCW, 2009 BMICE ring 4 Web2.0 APIs
  • Bron: Business Model Innovatie Cultureel Erfgoed – DEN / Kennisland / OCW, 2009 Web2.0 & APIs I’ll focus on these phenomena for the rest of the talk
  • Web 2.0
  • Slide taken from http://www.slideshare.net/edsonm/michael-edson-let-us-go-boldly-into-the-future You read this article for The Library course (Nov ’13) If not: http://oreilly.com/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html Web2.0 key concepts 2005 Tim O’Reilly What is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software
  • 1. The long tail 2. Data is the next Intel Inside 3. Users add value 4. Network effects by default 5. Some rights reserved 6. The perpetual beta 7. Software above the level of a single device 8. Cooperate, don't control 2005 Tim O’Reilly What is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software Concepts 1-7 elaborated on slideshare.net/OlafJanssenNL/part-1-of-the-lecture- so-you-think-you-understand-everyday-life-web20- api-theory-still-very-relevant-in-2013 Slide taken from http://www.slideshare.net/edsonm/michael-edson-let-us-go-boldly-into-the-future
  • 1. The long tail 2. Data is the next Intel Inside 3. Users add value 4. Network effects by default 5. Some rights reserved 6. The perpetual beta 7. Software above the level of a single device 8. Cooperate, don't control 2005 Tim O’Reilly What is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software Slide taken from http://www.slideshare.net/edsonm/michael-edson-let-us-go-boldly-into-the-future Web 2.0 applications are built of a network of cooperating open data services (open APIs).
  • API ?
  • Application Programming Interface
  • http://www.leninimports.com/cary_grant_new_7a.jpg
  • http://www.leninimports.com/cary_grant_new_7a.jpg
  • GUI (app, website) (graphical) interface for interaction human user computer API (programmable) interface for interaction computer computer .. a means of putting information in and getting information out of your system without having to type it yourself…
  • GUI (app, website) (graphical) interface for interaction human user computer API (programmable) interface for interaction computer computer … with a number of characteristics ….
  • ATM to illustrate API characteristics • Specialized service does limited set of things very well • Consistent & well-defined operation • Limited set of input card, pin, amount, receipt Y/N • Limited set of output cash, (receipt) • Enabling (protocolised) self-service .... all while bank keeps control over the money
  • 1. The long tail 2. Data is the next Intel Inside 3. Users add value 4. Network effects by default 5. Some rights reserved 6. The perpetual beta 7. Software above the level of a single device 8. Cooperate, don't control Web 2.0 applications are built of a network of cooperating open data services (open APIs). 2005 Tim O’Reilly What is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software Slide taken from http://www.slideshare.net/edsonm/michael-edson-let-us-go-boldly-into-the-future
  • 1. The long tail 2. Data is the next Intel Inside 3. Users add value 4. Network effects by default 5. Some rights reserved 6. The perpetual beta 7. Software above the level of a single device 8. Cooperate, don't control Network of cooperating open data services (APIs) Offer APIs yourself  Offer open APIs yourself  Re-use open APIs of others 2005 Tim O’Reilly What is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software Slide taken from http://www.slideshare.net/edsonm/michael-edson-let-us-go-boldly-into-the-future
  • Your own open webservice #1 Web2.0 (BMICE Ring 4) a network of open APIs
  • Your own open API #2 Your own open webservice #1 Web2.0 (BMICE Ring 4) a network of open APIs
  • Your own open API #2 Your own open webservice #1 Other party’s open webservice Web2.0 (BMICE Ring 4) a network of open APIs
  • Your own open API #2 Your own open webservice #1 Other party’s open webservice Web2.0 (BMICE Ring 4) a network of open APIs Mashup (in browser)
  • Your own open API #2 Your own open webservice #1 Other party’s open webservice Web2.0 (BMICE Ring 4) a network of open APIs Mashup (in browser) Open API
  • Your own open API #2 Your own open webservice #1 Other party’s open webservice Open webservice Web2.0 (BMICE Ring 4) a network of open APIs Mashup (in browser) Open API Open API
  • Your own open API #2 Your own open webservice #1 Other party’s open webservice Open webservice Web2.0 (BMICE Ring 4) a network of open APIs Mashup (in browser) Open API Open API Application on desktop
  • Your own open API #2 Your own open webservice #1 Other party’s open webservice Open webservice Web2.0 (BMICE Ring 4) a network of open APIs Mashup (in browser) Mobile app Open API Open API Application on desktop
  • Open API? • Available on the web, freely shared • Everybody can use it (often after account registration / API-key, via self-service) • Open standards & technologies (JavaScript, XML, JSON, OAuth…) • Openly documented
  • Open API? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7r7QpIDEI_o
  • too vague, abstract Is ? No worries, let’s look at some real life examples of open APIs in action to improve our understanding
  • Some popular open APIs
  • Google Maps API https://developers.google.com/maps/?hl=nl
  • Google Maps API https://developers.google.com/maps/?hl=nl True web2.0 setup - network of more specialized APIs StreetView, Directions, Elevations, Timezone, Geocoding, Places etc.
  • cyclingthealps.com Google Maps API
  • cyclingthealps.com Google Maps API StreetView API
  • cyclingthealps.com Google Maps API Elevations API
  • flushtracker.com Google Maps API
  • Navigation apps Google Maps API Directions API Indoor Google Maps - Mall of America & Macy's
  • Twitter API dev.twitter.com
  • Embed Twitter timelines Twitter API
  • Tweetdeck Twitter API
  • tweetstats.com Twitter API
  • Amazon APIaffiliate-program.amazon.com/gp/advertising/api/detail/main.html
  • Amazon APIAPIs actually… programmableweb.com/apitag/?q=amazon
  • bookstore.icm.ac.uk Amazon API i.e. all product advertising & transaction features are using Amazon’s API
  • Amazon API bookstore.icm.ac.uk
  • Liveplasma Liveplasma gives you a visual display of related bands, songs, movies, books etc.. Amazon API
  • Relationships generated by Amazon API “customers who bought this album also like….” Amazon API
  • pro.europeana.eu/api Europeana API
  • Europeana Open Culture App Europeana API ‘official’ Europeana app
  • Twitter EuropeanaBot Europeana API Posts images related to • austrian place names • nobel Prize winners • animals from Europeana to Twitter
  • Twitter EuropeanaBot Europeana API This ≠ ‘official’ Europeana thing, just an enthusiastic private developer!
  • OK, so far for the examples let’s now look at how APIs add value …
  • add value for
  • add value for API consumers (software developers) API providers (businesses) Software consumers (you & me)
  • API value chain http://www.forbes.com/sites/danwoods/2011/12/15/explaining-the-api-revolution-to-your-ceo/ • Product data (Amazon) • Geo-data (Google) • Metadata (Europeana) • Personal data (Facebook) • Phone numbers (WhatsApp)
  • API value chain http://www.forbes.com/sites/danwoods/2011/12/15/explaining-the-api-revolution-to-your-ceo/ • Product data (Amazon) • Geo-data (Google) • Personal data (Facebook) • Metadata (Europeana) • Phone numbers (WhatsApp)
  • API value chain http://www.forbes.com/sites/danwoods/2011/12/15/explaining-the-api-revolution-to-your-ceo/ API provider Businesses open up their assets via APIs, while keeping control over their data, products & services
  • API value chain http://www.forbes.com/sites/danwoods/2011/12/15/explaining-the-api-revolution-to-your-ceo/ API provider Business assets owner Owner of business assets ≠ necessarily provider of API
  • API value chain http://www.forbes.com/sites/danwoods/2011/12/15/explaining-the-api-revolution-to-your-ceo/ API provider Business assets owner 3scale.net & apigee.com  specialized API service providers
  • API value chain http://www.forbes.com/sites/danwoods/2011/12/15/explaining-the-api-revolution-to-your-ceo/ API consumer Developers can start building applications and businesses around a company’s assets. They use open APIs and self- service tools to establish a business relationship
  • API value chain http://www.forbes.com/sites/danwoods/2011/12/15/explaining-the-api-revolution-to-your-ceo/ API consumer Game makers like Zynga, Playfish & Crowdstar exist(ed) because of Facebook APIs. Developers can start building applications and businesses around a company’s assets. They use open APIs and self- service tools to establish a business relationship
  • API value chain http://www.forbes.com/sites/danwoods/2011/12/15/explaining-the-api-revolution-to-your-ceo/ Software consumer
  • Let’s look at these 3 groups in more detail… API consumers (software developers) API providers (businesses) Software consumers (you & me)
  • 1. APIs from biz dev POV
  • Apps Partners Income Adam DuVander http://thenextweb.com/video/2012/04/28/the-new-api-apps-partners-income-adam-duvander-at-the-next-web-conference-2012-video
  • Biz Stone (Twitter co-founder): “The API has been inarguably the most important thing we’ve done with Twitter.”
  • Biz Stone (Twitter co-founder): “The API has been inarguably the most important thing we’ve done with Twitter.” “It has allowed developers to build on top of our infrastructure and come up with ideas that are way better than our ideas, …. that we wouldn’t have been able to get to, being a very small team.”
  • Biz Stone (Twitter co-founder): “The API has been inarguably the most important thing we’ve done with Twitter.” “It has allowed developers to build on top of our infrastructure and come up with ideas that are way better than our ideas, …. that we wouldn’t have been able to get to, being a very small team.” Joy’s law “No matter which business you are in, the smartest people always work for someone else”
  • Biz Stone (Twitter co-founder): “The API has been inarguably the most important thing we’ve done with Twitter.” “It has allowed developers to build on top of our infrastructure and come up with ideas that are way better than our ideas, …. that we wouldn’t have been able to get to, being a very small team.” So, the API has easily 10x more traffic than the website..”
  • Biz Stone (Twitter co-founder): “The API has been inarguably the most important thing we’ve done with Twitter.” “It has allowed developers to build on top of our infrastructure and come up with ideas that are way better than our ideas, …. that we wouldn’t have been able to get to, being a very small team.” So, the API has easily 10x more traffic than the website..” “So, the API becomes a way for us to grow our business…” (Source, 2007)
  • Jeff Bar (Amazon evangelist - 2008) “The adoption of Amazon's Web services (API) is currently driving more network activity than everything Amazon does through their traditional websites”
  • Brian Swette (eBay - 2000) Our new API will openly provide the tools that developers need to create applications based on eBay technology” "There are already dozens of companies and hundreds of applications that rely on our site…. "Our new API will provide much needed standardization. Existing applications will run more reliably..” “More and more companies will be able to easily and seamlessly weave eBay into their business models." (source)
  • Q: How big is this API business stuff?
  • A: It’s huge!
  • APIs are the cornerstones of BizDev 2.0 Having a well-developed API is the modern & decentralised way for growing a business
  • Rings a bell?
  • 1995 Why do we need a Web site? 2000 2005 2010 Of course we have a Web site Of course we have an API Why do we need an API?
  • 1995 Why do we need a Web site? 2000 2005 2010 Of course we have a Web site Of course we have an API Why do we need an API?
  • But websites are limited … Disadvantages • Limited population reach (650M websites in 2012) • Limited brand distribution • Significant SEO and SEM costs Source: Dion Hinchcliffe, http://www.zdnet.com/blog/hinchcliffe
  • 1995 Why do we need a Web site? 2000 2005 2010 Of course we have a Web site Of course we have an API Why do we need an API?
  • Martin Tantow (co-founder of 3scale, an API service provider): “Not having an API today is like not having a website in the 90s..” “The website serves as no more than a marketing tool, all added value is delivered through the API “ (source)
  • John Musser (Founder ProgrammableWeb.com):
  • 1995 Why do we need a Web site? 2000 2005 2010 Of course we have a Web site Of course we have an API Why do we need an API?
  • APIs help you grow your business Added value • Unlock new distribution channels for your content (mobile, social, gaming etc.) • Reach new partners, markets, platforms & devices Source: Dion Hinchcliffe, http://blogs.zdnet.con/Hinchcliffe
  • APIs help you grow your business Added value • Unlock new distribution channels for your content (mobile, social, gaming etc.) • Reach new partners, markets, platforms & devices Source: Dion Hinchcliffe, http://blogs.zdnet.con/Hinchcliffe http://translogic.aolautos.com/2011/06/01/ford-googles-prediction-api- foresees-greener-driving-routes-vi/ http://www.samsung.com/us/topic/apps-on-your-fridge
  • Consumer/HackerBusiness/Partner Flickr API http://www.flickr.com/services/apps/tags/printing These companies take Flickr's API and build printing services without ever engaging with Flickr's team Flickr receives $$ for API-calls BizDev2.0 – decentalised business dev
  • http://www.flickr.com/services Consumer/HackerBusiness/Partner Flickr API Flickr receives • free brand distribution • free content distribution • customer loyalty • goodwill These people use Flickr’s API for making home- grown apps without ever engaging with Flickr's team BizDev2.0 – decentalised business dev
  • APIs help you grow your business Added value • Unlock new distribution channels for your content (mobile, social, gaming etc.) • Reach new partners, markets, platforms & devices • Stimulate innovation. Enable others to build (new, better) products & functionalities • Improve brand recognition and customer loyalty .. all while keeping control over your data! Joy’s law
  • Time for some hard figures!
  • API Timeline 2000 2002 2005 2006 2007 105 APIs 352 APIs 2003 2008 1,116 APIs601 APIs 2009 1,628 APIs 2010 ? APIs
  • 2009 • 13.000 3rd party apps for eBay (source) • 60% of all eBay.com traffic via API (source) • 7 billion $$$ revenu via API 2012 • eBay API 1 billion calls per day!
  • Success for these businesses is heavily relying on their API(s)
  • APIs: drivers for modern business • Make money 60% of all listings on eBay.com added via their APIs • Save money SmugMug.com saves > $500K/year with Amazon cloud storage • Capture eyeballs, build brand Google Maps 300% growth vs 20% MapQuest • Go anywhere, client adaptation Netflix and Facebook available on 100s of devices
  • Source source “Facebook ready” devices 100’s of “Netflix Ready” devices
  • 2. APIs from developers’ POV
  • flickr.com/tom_w_bn Developers are the craftsmen…
  • © Eric Roth ... and women of the 21st century
  • flickr.com/mashery Developers build stuff
  • Developers solve problems
  • They change the world
  • Q: How big is this API developer world?
  • source 1.000.000 apps! 750.000 developers!
  • 13.000 apps! 100.000 developers! source
  • source 33.000 apps! 400.000 developers!
  • Developers use APIs as their raw material… Flickr: Patrick Bürgler
  • … but need additional tools for adding value Flickr: locket479
  • What can API providers do to make developers’ like their APIs? Flickr: watchsmart
  • Use phrases on your homepage like • ‘API’ • ‘Developers’ • ‘Dev’ • ‘Datasets’ • ‘Code’ Or use public API registries 1. Announce your API manifestly & widely
  • 1. Announce your API manifestly & widely Evernote.com
  • 1. Announce your API manifestly & widely Instagram.com
  • 1. Announce your API manifestly & widely kb.nl
  • 1. Announce your API manifestly & widely Delpher.nl
  • 1. Announce your API manifestly & widely ProgrammableWeb.com
  • 1. Announce your API manifestly & widely OpenCultuurData.nl
  • 2. Offer simple technology, easy to adopt APIs need ways to • call & be called by other APIs (request) • transport data (reponse) Without going into technical details, API builders can choose ‘simple’ or ‘complex’ ways to deal with requests & responses
  • 2. Offer simple technology, easy to adopt ‘Simple’ REST Representational State Transfer JSON response JavaScript Object Notation ‘Complex’ SOAP Simple Object Access Protocol XML response Extensible Markup Language
  • Request What’s the price of IBM?
  • Response
  • Feel free to explore further…. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v3OMEAU_4HI
  • 2. Offer simple technology, easy to adopt Bottom line: REST & JSON are the easy, simple, popular, low-barrier ways to go for modern API developers (“all the cool kids use it”)
  • REST vs. SOAP, more of both, but a lot more REST REST SOAP
  • JSON rising: 62% of all new APIs in 2012 support JSON 28% of all new APIs in 2012 support only JSON (no XML)
  • 3. Offer fast, automated signup  self-service Europeana API key registration Linkedin registration for new applications
  • 4. Offer quickstart, HowTo’s, FAQs, documentation, tutorials, demos YouTube API Quickstart Layar API HowTo’s eBay API FAQs Google Maps API demos Layar API tutorials Flickr API full documentation
  • 5. Offer code samples, libraries & tools Tumblr API code samples Google’s Code Playground Linkedin code libraries Facebook’s debugger Europeana’s API console Slideshare API explorer
  • 6. Provide API monitoring & status tools Twitter API performance & availability PayPal API version history API status board
  • 7. Offer communication & community tools Tumblr developers blog Dropbox developers forum Spotify developers brunch Spotify API Twitter channelOpenOffice API wiki
  • 8. Do marketing & Evangelism KB API team @ hackathons Promoting apps to media Soundcloud App gallery Europeana API implementation casestudies
  • 9. Provide clear legal & financial terms Google Translate API pricing model Google Maps API licensing YouTube app monetization Flickr API Terms of Service
  • 3. APIs from end-user POV
  • APIs make life easier… with new possibilities & experiences • Your favourite apps
  • • Your favourite apps • Device-independence “Software above the level of a single device” APIs make life easier… with new possibilities & experiences Evernote.com
  • APIs make life easier… with new possibilities & experiences • Your favourite apps • Device-independence • Sharing content AndroidBlog
  • APIs make life easier… with new possibilities & experiences • Your favourite apps • Device-independence • Sharing content • Embedding content
  • APIs make life easier… with new possibilities & experiences • Your favourite apps • Device-independence • Sharing content • Embedding content Slideshare embedded in LinkedIn
  • APIs make life easier… with new possibilities & experiences • Your favourite apps • Device-independence • Sharing content • Embedding content Flickr embedded in Gmail
  • APIs make life easier… with new possibilities & experiences • Your favourite apps • Device-independence • Sharing content • Embedding content
  • APIs make life easier… with new possibilities & experiences • Your favourite apps • Device-independence • Sharing content • Embedding content • Synchronisation & automation
  • APIs make life easier… with new possibilities & experiences • Your favourite apps • Device-independence • Sharing content • Embedding content • Synchronisation & automation Social media wall
  • APIs make life easier… with new possibilities & experiences • Your favourite apps • Device-independence • Sharing content • Embedding content • Synchronisation & automation ifttt.com zapier.com
  • APIs make life easier… with new possibilities & experiences • Your favourite apps • Device-independence • Sharing content • Embedding content • Synchronisation & automation • Easier authentication
  • Q: How big is this API end-user world?
  • smart http://www.mobilemarketer.com/cms/opinion/columns/13143.html
  • THANKS! olaf.janssen@kb.nl @ookgezellig slideshare.net/OlafJanssenNL