ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS           BY        GROUP 7 MAENA DANIEL, MANANAPEREZ, LOSIKE PETER AND    IRIAMA CHARLES
QUESTION(a) What is an Organization as a    system ?(b) How Would You Develop a    System?(a) Discuss Different Types of  ...
QUESTION APPROACH ;Definition of an Organization and give some examplesDefine a system and its sub systemsExplain inter re...
Lucas (2000) states that an organization is a rationalcoordination of activities of a group of people for thepurpose of ac...
Stair et al (2008) define a system as a set of elements orcomponents that interact to accomplish goals.The elements themse...
Taking UCU as a case study of a system, whose ultimate goal is toprovide quality education. UCU works through several depa...
Common OrganizationalFeatures Organizational beauracracies. Organization politics Organization culture Departments and...
Organization bureaucracies.All modern bureaucracies have a clear cut division of laborand specialization. Organization arr...
Organization politicsPeople in organizations occupy different positions withdifferent specialties, concerns, prospects, th...
•                Organization cultureOrganization culture is a set of fundamental assumptionabout what products the organi...
How Would You Develop a              System?Definition of an information system; it’s components orconstituents.‘How’ refe...
How Would You Develop a       System?    Stair et al (2008) define a system as a set of elements or    components that int...
System analysisAnalysis is the study of theproblem, generally done beforeundertaking some action to solve theproblem. In t...
Survey and feasibility studyIn this section we present recommendation for the contents of thepreliminary survey and feasib...
Organizational impact.  You should attempt to estimate the effect of each alternative  system on the organization. What de...
•Systems DesignThe systems design details the system specifications that willdeliver the functions identified during syste...
Discuss Different Types of Systems ?Approach Definition of an system Name different types of systems Discuss how each o...
Discuss Different Types Of Systems ?Stair et al (2008) define a system as a set of elements orcomponents that interact to ...
Different types of systems are as listed below;•Conceptual systems•Empirical systems•Natural systems•Open systems•Closed s...
• Empirical systemsThese are generally concrete operational systems made up ofpeople, materials, machines, energy and othe...
• Closed systemThis is a type of system that does not interact with itsenvironment. In real sense, these systems do not ex...
ReferencesRalph stair, George Reynolds and Thomas Chesney(2008), Principles of Business Information Systems,Seng Lee Press...
THANK YOU FOR    LISTENING.ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS GROUP 7   6/15/2012
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  1. 1. ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS BY GROUP 7 MAENA DANIEL, MANANAPEREZ, LOSIKE PETER AND IRIAMA CHARLES
  2. 2. QUESTION(a) What is an Organization as a system ?(b) How Would You Develop a System?(a) Discuss Different Types of Systems ?ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS GROUP 7 6/15/2012
  3. 3. QUESTION APPROACH ;Definition of an Organization and give some examplesDefine a system and its sub systemsExplain inter relationships of sub systemsRelate departments of organizations to sub systems of a systemShow how each department/sub system feeds to and from each other.Show that each the department/sub system works in such a way to attain thebigger picture of the organization.It important to explain the role of IT in an organization/system. ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS GROUP 7 6/15/2012
  4. 4. Lucas (2000) states that an organization is a rationalcoordination of activities of a group of people for thepurpose of achieving same goals.Chester Barnard defines an organization as a systemof consciously coordinated activities or efforts of twoor more persons.Laudon et al (2002) defines organization as acollection of rights, privileges, obligation,responsibilities, etc. that delicately balanced over aperiod of time through conflict and conflict resolution.Examples of organizations are institutions likeU.C.U, UMU, Mbale regional Hospital amongothers.ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS GROUP 7 6/15/2012
  5. 5. Stair et al (2008) define a system as a set of elements orcomponents that interact to accomplish goals.The elements themselves and the relationships amongthem determine how the system works.Systems have inputs, processing mechanisms, output andfeedback. A system processes the input to create theoutput.Systems work through sub systems which areinterrelated/inter dependant. The out put of one subsystem becomes an input of another.They work in such away that they contribute to the ultimategoal of the system as a whole. ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS GROUP 7 6/15/2012
  6. 6. Taking UCU as a case study of a system, whose ultimate goal is toprovide quality education. UCU works through several departmentsas Accounts department, Administration, procurement, studentscouncil. These departments are it’s sub systems.ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS GROUP 7 6/15/2012
  7. 7. Common OrganizationalFeatures Organizational beauracracies. Organization politics Organization culture Departments and respective componentsORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS GROUP 7 6/15/2012
  8. 8. Organization bureaucracies.All modern bureaucracies have a clear cut division of laborand specialization. Organization arrange specialists inHierarchy of authority in which everyone is accountable tosomeone and authority is limited to certain actions.These rules create system of impartial and universalisticdecision making where by everyone is treated equally.Organizations hire employees on the basis of technicalqualification and professionalism not personal connectiondevoted to the principle of efficient and effectiveness.Most organizations like universities, government agenciesand large organizations fall under this category.Bureaucracies are characterized by a large number ofmanagement layers. There are many rules andprocedures to protect individuals if procedures arefollowed. ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS GROUP 7 6/15/2012
  9. 9. Organization politicsPeople in organizations occupy different positions withdifferent specialties, concerns, prospects, they havedivergent views, points about how resources, rewards andpunishments should be distributed.These differences matter a lot to managers and employeesand they result into political struggle, competition andconflict.Political resistance is one of the difficulties in bringing aboutorganization change, like development of informationsystems virtually that bring about goals, procedures,productivity and personnel are politically changed but willmeet great resistance. GROUP 7 ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS 6/15/2012
  10. 10. • Organization cultureOrganization culture is a set of fundamental assumptionabout what products the organization should produce andhow it should be produced. Organization culture is apowerful restrain on change, any technological change willmeet stiff resistance however there times when the onlysensible way one can do is to embrace the new changeAll organizations have strong, bedrock, unquestionableassumption that defines their products and services. ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS GROUP 7 6/15/2012
  11. 11. How Would You Develop a System?Definition of an information system; it’s components orconstituents.‘How’ refers to process, procedures or logical stepsundertaken to invent an information system.Explain logical steps involved in inventing an informationsystem and identify who is the responsible person is foreach step.Show how each step feeds into the other. ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS GROUP 7 6/15/2012
  12. 12. How Would You Develop a System? Stair et al (2008) define a system as a set of elements or components that interact to accomplish goals. The elements themselves and the relationships among them determine how the system works. Systems have inputs, processing mechanisms, output and feedback. A system processes the input to create the output. I would develop a system by following the steps stated below by Lucas (2000); System analysis Survey and feasibility study• Systems Design• Programming• Conversion Production and Maintenance Systems Audit ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS GROUP 7 6/15/2012
  13. 13. System analysisAnalysis is the study of theproblem, generally done beforeundertaking some action to solve theproblem. In the case of systemanalysis, the first task is understandingand describing the existing informationprocessing procedures in the area of theproposed new system.ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS GROUP 7 6/15/2012
  14. 14. Survey and feasibility studyIn this section we present recommendation for the contents of thepreliminary survey and feasibility study. Basically, each of thesedocuments consists of two parts: the present system and analternative. Feasibility study presents several potential alternativesand evaluates them on technical, economical and operationalcriteria. Cost and benefits of new system. Management usually insists on cost/benefit justification for a system to help assess the risks involved. Identifying systems alternative. One of the major activities during the survey or feasibility study is sketching of possible alternatives for a new information processing system. A design team should be able to evaluate the alternatives depending on the situation. A user may take the least expensive and most rapidly implementable system or opt for a very comprehensive system to be custom programmed. ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS GROUP 7 6/15/2012
  15. 15. Organizational impact. You should attempt to estimate the effect of each alternative system on the organization. What department and individuals will be affected by the system and what jobs will it change. Technological feasibility. A proposed system may stretch the capabilities of modern technology, but may be the one that provides the firm with great advantage. The design team needs to evaluate if the new system is technologically feasible. A preliminary survey is carried out to determine if a system canbe developed to meet the objectives of the individuals suggestingit. If the results of the survey are positive, it is refined to producea more detailed feasibility study. From the outcome of thefeasibility study, a decision is made whether to proceed with thedesign of the system. If a positive decision is made, one of thealternatives sketched in the feasibility study is chosen fordevelopment. ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS GROUP 7 6/15/2012
  16. 16. •Systems DesignThe systems design details the system specifications that willdeliver the functions identified during systems analysis.•ProgrammingThis is the process of translating the system specificationsprepared during the design stage into program code.•ConversionThis is the process of changing from the old system to the newsystem.• Production and MaintenanceDuring this stage the system will be reviewed by both users andtechnical specialists to determine how well it has met it’s originalobjectives and to decide whether any revisions or modifications arein order. ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS GROUP 7 6/15/2012
  17. 17. Discuss Different Types of Systems ?Approach Definition of an system Name different types of systems Discuss how each of the different systems operate in relation to the otherORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS GROUP 7 6/15/2012
  18. 18. Discuss Different Types Of Systems ?Stair et al (2008) define a system as a set of elements orcomponents that interact to accomplish goals. Theelements themselves and the relationships among themdetermine how the system works. Systems haveinputs, processing mechanisms, output and feedback. Asystem processes the input to create the output.Murdick G et al (2006) states that systems fall into anumber of categories as shown below; ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS GROUP 7 6/15/2012
  19. 19. Different types of systems are as listed below;•Conceptual systems•Empirical systems•Natural systems•Open systems•Closed systems•Permanent systems•Temporal systems•Dynamic systemConceptual systemsThese are systems concerned with theoretical structures,which may or may not have any counterpart in the realworld. They are typified by those of science, such aseconomic theory, non-Euclidean geometry systems, thegeneral systems of relativity, or organization theory. ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS GROUP 7 6/15/2012
  20. 20. • Empirical systemsThese are generally concrete operational systems made up ofpeople, materials, machines, energy and other physical things.• Natural systemsNatural systems are bound in nature. The entire ecology of life is anatural system, and each organism is a unique natural system of itsown. The water system of the world, at least before man affected it,was a natural system. Our own solar system is a natural system.• Open systemsThis is one that interacts with its environment. All systems containingliving organisms are open systems because they are affected bywhat is sensed by the organism. Organizations are usually systemsoperating within larger systems and are therefore open systems. ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS GROUP 7 6/15/2012
  21. 21. • Closed systemThis is a type of system that does not interact with itsenvironment. In real sense, these systems do not exist.• Dynamic systemKeeps on changing with prevailing conditions. E.g. Legislature• Permanent systemsSystems that endure for a time span that is long relative to theoperations of humans in the system may be said to be permanent.Our economic system which is gradually changing is essentiallypermanent for our plans for the future. E.g. Faith basedinstitutions like the Vatican• Temporary systemsThese are designed to last a specified period of time and thendissolve. A company that forms and quickly dissolves is anexample. e.g. probe committees of parliament ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS GROUP 7 6/15/2012
  22. 22. ReferencesRalph stair, George Reynolds and Thomas Chesney(2008), Principles of Business Information Systems,Seng Lee Press, Singapore.Robert G. Murdick, Joel E Ross and James RClaggett 3rd Edition, Information Systems for ModernManagement, Published by Asoke K Ghosh,Prentice-Hall of India private Limited, ConnaughtCircus, New Delhi-110001.Kenneth C. Laudon and Jane P. Laudon (2002),Management Information Systems, Prentice-Hall, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS GROUP 7 6/15/2012
  23. 23. THANK YOU FOR LISTENING.ORGANIZATIONS AS SYSTEMS GROUP 7 6/15/2012
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