The citation struggle: Seeing the forest for the trees

  • 836 views
Uploaded on

 

More in: Education , Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
836
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. The citation struggle:Seeing the forest for the treesRoën Ja nyk & L e a nna J a ntzi | O k a na g a n C o l l e g e L ibr a r y | Connec tions 2012
  • 2. Objectives • To discuss the citation challenges students face • To have a better understanding of the role of information literacy in citation • To learn a few APA tips and tricks The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 3. Some background: SurveyPurpose:• To foster citation support and instruction offered at Okanagan College Library by incorporating evidence-based decision making practicesMethodology:• Business, Science, Arts, Health, and Technologies departments• Online, confidential, and voluntary surveys• All faculty• Stratified random sample of students The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 4. Some background: Survey Faculty Surveys sent = 280 Sample size required = 84 (30% response rate) Surveys returned= 81 (28.92% response rate) Students Surveys sent = 1180 Sample size required = 350 (30% response rate) Surveys bounced = 2 Surveys not completed = 50 Surveys returned = 191 (16.19% response rate) The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 5. Citation survey: Faculty Not sure 19%Does your department Yesrequire students to use 49% Noa specific citation style? 32% 28What citation styledoes your departmentrequire students to use? 8 4 2 0 The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 6. 30What is your 25expectation of 20students 15 1st year 2nd yearcomprehension of 10 3rd year 4th yearthe purpose of 5citation? 0 1 No 2 3 4 5 Extremely Not expectation high applicable expectation 35 30How do you 25rate students 20 1st yearcomprehension 2nd year 15 3rd yearof the purpose 4th year 10of citation? 5 0 1 Poor 2 3 4 5 Excellent Not The citation struggle | Connections 2012 applicable
  • 7. What is your expectation 1st yearof students ability to 2nd year 3rd yearcreate proper citations? 4th year 1 No 2 3 4 5 Extremely Not expectation high applicable expectationHow do you rate 1st year 2nd yearstudents ability to 3rd yearcreate proper 4th yearcitations? 1 Poor 2 3 4 5 Excellent Not The citation struggle | Connections 2012 applicable
  • 8. Citation survey: Students Not sure 18% YesDid you receive 42%citation instruction inhigh school? No 40%Have you received 52.1% Librariancitation instruction Instructorfrom: an OC courseinstructor; an OC 42.1% 70.7%librarian? 24.6% 5.8% The citation struggle | Connections 2012 4.7% Yes No Not Sure
  • 9. Citation survey: Students 80 60Please rate your confidence 40level in terms of your ability 20to create citations. 0 1 No 2 confidence 3 4 5 Extremely confident 70What is your instructors 60perception of your ability 50 40to create citations? 30 20 10 0 1 Not able 2 3 4 The citation struggle | Connections 2012 5 Very able
  • 10. Citation @ reference desksSeptember 2011 – July 2012All campuses Research Technical 7% 5% Directional 34% Reference 38% Citation 16% The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 11. What students are saying “I was never told to or taught how “Citations take a long time to do.” to cite anything in high school, so I had to completely learn how to do so during first year.” I’ve never learned how to do this. This is difficult. “[Citations] are frustrating .”This is time-consuming. I spent more time on my references than I did on my paper. “It would be nice if they stopped changing the rules regarding citations so that we only have to learn it once.” The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 12. Information literacy & citation“To make judgments about citations – the kind of work cited, thevalue of the work in the academic discipline, and the creation ofcitations to support arguments or prove facts – involvesunderstanding disciplinary conversations and why citations areso important in academia” (Elmborg, 2006, p. 197). The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 13. Information literacy“Information Literacy is the set of skills needed to find,retrieve, analyze, and use information” - Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 14. Information literacycompetency standards • Know • Access • Evaluate • Use • Ethical / Legal - Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 15. What students are saying “Im just going to Google it for one time Ill need it before I die. “Can be difficult to know when it is important to [c]ite in class Its not serious business.” handouts and slides .”“…there is a large amount “I cant particularly understand why differentof grey area around what instructors require different citation styles. Itshould be cited…” would be rather interesting to learn why the differences are necessary for different subjects, I would think :)” The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 16. What students are askingHow do I cite this? Journal article? Newspaper article? Book chapter? What is “this”? Blog post? Secondary source? Streaming video? I don’t know. The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 17. Challenge“One challenge students face when citing a resource begins atthe material identification stage . . . If a student does notunderstand what type of material s/he is examining, then it isimpossible to use the manual to select the correct citationformat” (Park, Mardis, & Ury, 2011, p. 45). The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 18. The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 19. The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 20. Newspaper article, onlineStruzik, E. (2008, Aug 23). Polar bears’ long swims blamed on global warming: Satellite images show little ice in region. Calgary Herald. Retrieved from http://www.calgaryherald.com (Struzik, 2008) Struzik (2008) writes . . . “Direct quote” (Struzik, 2008, para. 3). The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 21. APA Quick tips: electronic articles• everything online is not a website!• database name not required• retrieval date not required• use DOI (digital object identifier) if available, if not available, provide the homepage URL of the journal, book or report, etc. The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 22. What students are askingWho is the author/editor?What is the year of publication?Where is the place of publication? The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 23. Chapter in an edited bookBonson, A. (2002) Jessie Nagle and Susan Nagle. In K. Carter (Ed.), The small details of life: Twenty diaries by women in Canada, 1830-1996 (pp. 119-122). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press. (Bonson, 2002) According to Bonson (2002)… “direct quote” (Bonson, 2002, p. 120) The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 24. APA Quick tips: chapter in a book• cite the author’s largest work• an item on the reference list indicates that you have read that whole item• look for a book’s publication (bibliographic) information on both sides of the title page – not the cover The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 25. What students are askingHow do I cite this? The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 26. Secondary sources(a source in another source)Biddix, J. P., Chung, C. J., & Park, H. W. (2011). Convenience or credibility? A study of college student online research behaviors. The Internet and Higher Education, 14, 175-182. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2011.01.003In their study, Rainie and Tancer found that . . . (as cited in Biddix, Chung,& Park, 2011). The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 27. Citation in a direct quote(a source in another source)Biddix, J. P., Chung, C. J., & Park, H. W. (2011). Convenience or credibility? A study of college student online research behaviors. The Internet and Higher Education, 14, 175-182. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2011.01.003“Pew researchers (Rainie & Tancer, 2007) found 50% of college graduatesused the site (86% if those with college experience were included), while46% of current full- or part-time college students used Wikipedia”(Biddix,Chung, & Park, 2011, p. 176). The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 28. APA Quick tips: secondary sources• do your best to find the original The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 29. What students are askingHow do I cite this? There’s not an example. Pamphlet My class notes Image from the web Professor’s lecture Course PowerPoint Movie on Netflix The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 30. Challenge“It is also difficult for the citation manuals to keep up withconstantly shifting and expanding technology. The holes incitation manuals necessitate that students try to plug elementsinto examples of other resources, which might not becomparable” (Park, Mardis, & Ury, 2011, p. 45). The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 31. PowerPoint presentation on MoodleRempel, K. (2007). Chapter ten: Motivating and rewarding employees [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://moodle.okanagan.bc.ca (Rempel, 2007) According to Rempel (2007)… “direct quote” (Rempel, 2007, p. 120) The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 32. APA Quick tips: no example • follow the closest example • ALL citations should have: • who • when • what • where The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 33. What students are askingIf I’ve already cited it once in text, do I have torepeat the citation again and again? Yes . . . . . . and no. The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 34. What students are askingSmith (2010) stated that three in five subjects responded positively totreatment. Smith also stated that those who responded positively foundthat their symptoms began to lessen after two weeks of treatment. Thestudy also showed that the female subjects demonstrated a higher rateof recovery (Smith, 2010).Three in five subjects responded positively to treatment (Smith, 2010).Smith (2010) also stated that those who responded positively found thattheir symptoms began to lessen after two weeks of treatment. The studyalso showed that the female subjects demonstrated a higher rateof recovery (Smith, 2010). The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 35. What students are askingWhat do I have to cite? Anything that is not your original thought or common knowledge. But every sentence will be a citation! The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 36. APA Quick tips: multiple citations• over-citing is not plagiarism (it may be poor writing), but not citing is plagiarism The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 37. What students are askingHow do I paraphrase? How do I put this information in my paper? Can’t I just change a couple words?I have all this information, but now what? The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 38. Information literacy Comprehension & writing skills • Rewriting • Paraphrasing • Quoting • Separating “my words” from “your words” (Buranen, 2009, p. 30) “Even ‘good’ students who are ‘good writers’ need to be given instruction in close reading, summarizing, and paraphrasing (never mind documentation), but also enough time to reach the point at which they ‘own’ the language and the ideas enough to write about something ‘in their own words’” (Buranen, 2009, p.27 ).The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 39. Information literacy Comprehension & writing skills“However, many of these students appear to have difficulty using theinformation they have found in a critical way. Half of the studentsinvolved in this study (20 in total) provided little or no evidence that theyderived any benefits from the literature they were required to consult”(Rosenblatt, 2010, p. 60).The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 40. Information literacy Comprehension & writing skills“Citation counts for little if what is being cited is a fragmentaryrepresentation of the source. Plagiarism is difficult to avoid if one isconstructing an argument from isolated sentences pulled from sources”(Rosenblatt, 2010, p. 60).The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 41. Writing Skills? Information Literacy? Where should the focus be? Comprehension?Citation mechanics? Theoretical aspects of citation? The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 42. Information literacy“The ability to parse a journal citation or to read a catalog record results froman understanding of its deep structures and derives from a disciplined andgrammatical approach to information. The citation functions to distill theelements of publication into concise code. We can treat this citation eitherprescriptively (there is a “right way” to cite and a universal truth reflected inits structure) or as a social construct (by focusing on why citation matters inthe academy and what conversations are implied in networks of citation)”(Elmborg, 2006, p. 197). The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 43. ResourcesOkanagan College LibraryResearch, Writing and Citing (Full Version)Research, Writing and Citing (Condensed Version)Style & Citation guidesGuide to Plagiarism and Cyber-Plagiarism: University of Alberta Libraryhttp://guides.library.ualberta.ca/content.php?pid=62200&sid=457651Academic Integrity (Faculty resource): Dalhousie Universityhttp://academicintegrity.dal.ca/Faculty%20Resources/Academic Integrity (Faculty resource): Ryerson Universityhttp://www.ryerson.ca/academicintegrity/faculty/index.html The citation struggle | Connections 2012
  • 44. ReferencesBuranen, L. (2009). A Safe Place: The Role of Librarians and Writing Centers in Addressing Citation Practices and Plagiarism. Knowledge Quest, 37(3), 24-33. Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/aasl/aaslpubsandjournals /knowledgequest/knowledgequest.cfmElmborg, J. (2006). Critical information literacy: Implications for instructional practice. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 32. 192-199. doi: 10.1016/j.acalib.2005.12.004Park, S., Mardis, L. A., & Ury, C. (2011). Ive lost my identity - oh, there it is … in a style manual: Teaching citation styles and academic honesty. Reference Services Review, 39, 42-57. doi:10.1108/00907321111108105 The citation struggle | Connections 2012