Academic source: Demonstrate that the information you are using has been researched and is information is supported by evidence. Authoritative: identify the qualifications and expertise of the writer. Sourced: credits the origins of information and ideas via reference list or bibliography. Peer-reviewed: other academic or experts in the field have read the source and checked for accuracy, often a panel of referees (journals), or editors (books). Objective: look at topics fairly, does not ignore alternative positions, even if does take a side. Written for academics: target audience usually researchers, students, lecturers, professionals.
The peer-review process
Evaluating websites: Example provided is a website about Bisphenol-A, a chemical additive in plastics that is controversial, as some studies have indicated negative health consequences from using products containing BPA. This website looks like it has a lot of valuable information, however, if you click the link to copyright information, you find the site is sponsored by the American Chemical Association, one of the main supporters of BPA.
Define topic, develop a focus, identify research strategies, keywords, and synonyms, and then find resourcesGender stereotypes: gender perception, gender typed, gender schematicity, gender expectations,Gender inequality: sex inequality, prejudice, discrimination, disparity, difference, biasPromote: advocate, endorse, support, uphold, cultivate, encourage, nurtureFocus: in what context? Society? The media? Traditional gender roles? The workplace?
Do not trust MS Word or auto-formatting- OK starting point for extracting elements of citation
“Information literacy is a survival skill in the Information Age” (ALA, 1989). SOC 111 Research & Library Skills Roën Janyk Web Services Librarianhttp://www.slideshare.net/okanagancollegelibrary
OutlineIntroduction to Information Sources Academic vs. Popular Sources Peer review processResearch Skills Using Sociology DatabasesKey Library Resources APA Citation Style Library Research & Course Guides
Information Sources Wikipedia is considered an academic source. False A book found in an academic library (i.e. college, university) is an academic source. False Sources: True or False?
Sources: Do they matter?• Academic sources: Pass through peer review process. Authoritative and sourced. Objective and written for academics. Carry more ‘weight’.• Popular sources are often related to general interest and do not require writers to provide research to support their stories.
Source Type ExamplesAcademic Sources Popular Sources Academic Journals Newspaper Articles –Periodicals, Magazine Articles Serials Trade Magazines Academic Books Organizational Profiles Media Reports –Edited Books Reports from Other –Anthologies Organizations –Conference Websites (usually) Proceedings Grey Literature –Encyclopedias, –Institutional Reports Dictionaries –Brochures Published Reports –Press Releases
Evaluating Sources Critically evaluate information sources Criteria and methods of evaluating information resources: Comprehensiveness, relevance, author, purpose and audience, accuracy and currency, objectivityIn academia we are looking for sources that are reliable, accurate, objective, and up-to-date. Evaluating Websites
Research: Step 1• Define a topic – Identify assignment topic or research question• Plan for research – Look for ‘command words’ (“argue”, “critique”, “discuss”) – Develop focus (area of topic/assignment you will concentrate on)• Take your focus, develop thesis statement
Research: Step 2Finding information• Information seeking strategies – Identify keywords & synonyms – Identify investigative tools (library catalogue, research guides, key databases)• Locate and gather resources – Using search expressions, Boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT) – Broaden or narrow your research question/focus
Function Search Strategy DefinitionNarrow AND Retrieves only records that contain both words NOT Eliminates material you dont want. Careful to not lose valuable info.Broaden OR Retrieves matches for either term, more records. Use with terms with the same meaning. Wildcard Search variations of a word. Use 1 or Colo?r more symbols within a word to replace Global (w5) Warming 1 or more letters Truncation Use a symbol at the end of a word to Using opera* to search replace any number of letters for operations = opera, operant, operable, etc.Combine Combine AND and OR in a single search. Divide your terms into units like an equation. Nesting NO: media AND politics OR election retrieves records that match "media that also match politics" OR retrieves records that match "election.“ YES: media AND (politics OR election) retrieves records that match media that also match either politics OR election
NOT AND OR NestingTruncation (University of Idaho, 2012) Creating a Search: Boolean Operators
Narrowing & BroadeningResults• Too much information? – Examine irrelevant records in search results – Where did your search term match in search results? (Subject, title, etc.) – Use limiters (Boolean, field searching, database limiters)• Too little information? – Spelling – Eliminate long phrases or natural language – Use alternate terms, try broadening your terms
Search!• Find sociology articles for the topic: “Construct an argument about how gender stereotypes promote gender inequalities.”
Library Catalogue Books, e-books, media, journals Use subject headings, call number browsing, author searches Limit by location (Kelowna, Online) Request items from other campuses Renew items and place holds
More Ways to Find Articles Reference list & article citations, bibliographies – Examine the reference lists of resources identified as being useful, and find other similar resources. Subject headings in databases & catalogue – Terms used to describe resources, controlled vocabulary, assigned by indexers Known authors – Search for other items by same author(s) Books or resources on similar topics – In-person or virtual ‘shelf browsing’ Searching journals directly – More direct and focused than databases
Using Library Resources: Get Help Library Reference Desks – Hours vary, phone, email, or in-person – Citation assistance, research help AskAway – Online, live chat reference service – Open longer hours than library ; Manned by librarians from post-secondary institutions across BC – Chat boxes on website & within databases Library Guides (Guides by Course & Subject) E-mail – Response received within 24 hours Sept – April
Research Skills: Citing Sources Identify elements of the citation you will need for each item (i.e. Title, author, date) Cite your sources as you go! Compile list of database citations as a working document throughout research process Try a numerical system for in-text citations Write key author names with notes Formatting rules provided by APA style guide Do not trust MS Word or auto-formatting