Psyc111: Searching PsycINFO, PubMed, & APA Citation


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Searching Ebsco's PsycINFO database, NLM's PubMed, and an introduction to APA citation.

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  • We have to let people know where we got our information from, in case they want to go back to it for more detail, in case they want to check your resources, etc.
  • So what is it?
  • Traditional system of scholarly communication….Standing on the shoulders of giants….Intellectual property
  • Plagiarism is very bad, it is not only using other people’s work and passing it off as your own, but it is also poor scholarly practice. Whether intentional or unintentional, you can still be penalized.
  • A good rule of thumb is to ask yourself if a knowledgeable reader would be familiar with the information in question. If he or she would have to look it up to confirm it, you should usually document it. If you're not sure, cite it to play it safe.Example: What would you need to cite? Today it is 10 degrees in Kelowna or the Sky is blue.APA advises: “Cite the work of those individuals whose ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work. They may provide key background information, support of dispute your thesis, or offer critical definitions and data. Citation of an article implies that you have personally read the cited work. In addition….provide documentation for all facts and figures that are not common knowledge” (p. 169).APA says don’t have to cite common knowledge, but what is that? Can depend on the research you are doing and your reader audience, so always better to cite.Don’t have to cite your own ideas of course, but other people do, even if a close friend!
  • This is what the manual looks likeIt’s always available behind the reference desk, or you can check it out. The manual trumps everything, the handout is based on the manual and doesn’t have every example in it
  • The rules are what are important, the examples are just that, examples
  • Journal examples
  • So, these are going to be your building blocks or your checklist when building citations.These apply to all citations you do.With this in mind, we are going to dive into our first example…SHOW EDITED BOOK, SHOW CHAPTER IN EDITED BOOK– explain slight difference if e-book, but for the most part the same, but you can check the manual. Get students to identify what we will be citing
  • Think about building blocks: Who is our author? Put on boardWhat year was it published?What is the title of the article?
  • Paginated separately by issue: some journals have issues published multiple times a year, the issues combined are part of a volume number. Example, one volume a year, 1 issue published for every season. Some journals will have their first issue go from page 1-100, the next issue will go from 101-200, etc. Whereas other issues will start with 1-100, the next issue will run 1-100, and so forth. You can tell if it is issue 2 and page 500 it is likely it is NOT paginated separately by issueWhat is the title of the journal? Must be in italicsWhat volume is it? DO we need an issue number, if so, what is it?What are our page numbers? Different from books
  • Go back to journal article in database example.What is a DOI? A digital object identifier, like a fingerprint for journal articlesElements on board, ask to put in proper order (Go back to previous slide): Think of build blocksThen, is there a DOI? If yes, include itIf no, we must find the journal home page by doing a quick search on the internet
  • Go back to journal article in database example.What is a DOI? A digital object identifier, like a fingerprint for journal articlesElements on board, ask to put in proper order (Go back to previous slide): Think of build blocksThen, is there a DOI? If yes, include itIf no, we must find the journal home page by doing a quick search on the internet
  • In textDifferent rules depending on how many authors, refer to manual
  • Compare our constructed citation
  • Remember this about your reference list
  • An exampleNotice all in alphabetical orderDouble spaced
  • We are here to help, ask any time, stop by our offices
  • Our referencesSURVEY!!!
  • Psyc111: Searching PsycINFO, PubMed, & APA Citation

    1. 1. APA CitationSearching PsycINFO & PubMed Roën Janyk Web Services Librarian
    2. 2.  What is a database? Index? What is a journal? Periodical? Magazine? What is an abstract? Full-text? What is a citation? What is APA?
    3. 3.  Library website > Find Articles Choose by subject or alphabetically Psychology: Electronic resources (including databases, encyclopedias, etc.) relevant to psychology PsycINFO & PubMed
    4. 4.  What is it? • Abstracting & indexing database (>3 mill records) • Behavioural sciences and mental health disciplines • Devoted to peer-reviewed journals, books, and dissertations • Indexed by subject experts at APA • Direct links to available full-text journal articles, books, and book chapters Most complete source for finding journal articles in the field of psychology
    5. 5.  Tofind journal articles on a particular subject enter your search terms in the boxes provided. Boolean operators, AND, OR, NOT, to combine your search terms. Retrieve articles not from PsycINFO.
    6. 6.  NLM = US National Library of Medicine (provider) ~5400 journals (citations & abstracts) What are your key concepts? Terms matched to MeSH, Journals, & authors; no match? Keyword “Term Mapping”: Will apply your term to other equivalents Automatic AND between terms; recognizes some phrases; use “” for exact phrases (no broader term mapping)
    7. 7.  Search for all terms that begin with a root word (truncation): * (ex. Memor*) Search tags for specific fields ([au] [ti] [tiab] [tx] [ta] [mh] [majr] [sh] [pt]), following term (or use advanced search) Limits: age group, pub types, dates, etc. (start broad) **Remove for subsequent searches**
    8. 8.  Summary format (author, title, journal title, date, volume, issue, pages) Click title for abstract Sorted by date (most recent first), choose from “sort by” column to sort by author, journal, pub date, etc. Choose “filter your results” from right side of page to view only certain articles
    9. 9.  Mark results you want From “send to” menu, choose clipboard (stores for 8 hours); Max 500 citations To see citations, click Clipboard Save, select File from “send to” men, save to computer Print, use browser print button E-mail, select e-mail from “send to” menu, select format, enter email address, click email
    10. 10.  Save searches, set up email alerts Register (free) Click “advanced search” link to display your search history (those you’ve already done) Over the search box, click “save search” Name the search, select whether you want results emailed Edit, delete exisiting searches, schedule email alerts
    11. 11.  Use the single citation matcher for checking incorrect or incomplete citations Use related citations from articles you like Combine search history sets using search history (add numbers and Boolean terms) • Ie. #14 AND #16 (Boolean terms must be in caps) Use MeSH terms to find terms related to your topic (provide definitions, subheadings, sysnonyms, broader & narrower terms, related MeSH terms) (search via drop down menu)
    12. 12. “Scholarly communication is the entire set of activities that ensure that research and new knowledge can be made known” (DeFelice, 2009).
    13. 13. APA = American Psychological AssociationThe Publication Manual of the AmericanPsychological Association is a style manual thatprovides guidance and standards in: • research ethics • the publication process • article format and presentation • AND
    14. 14. Publication (RegistrationCreation and Certification) Dissemination Manuscript & IP Editor Academic Publisher Library Peer Reviewers Reformulation
    15. 15.  Citations demonstrate how you developed your argument and ideas from the ideas of others Citations give credit where credit is due Citations give the reader of your work a path to the sources you used, so they can investigate those sources if interested (Mohanty et al., 2009)
    16. 16.  If you don’t acknowledge other people’s work, words or ideas you commit plagiarism “Penalties for plagiarism serve both to educate students about standards of scholarship and to deter deception and poor scholarly practices. Penalties will reflect the seriousness of the offence; including whether the offence was intentional or unintentional and whether it was a first or a repeat offence” (Okanagan College, 2010, Penalties section, para. 1 ).Okanagan College Academic Offenses regulations and
    17. 17. • Direct quotes• Paraphrases• Words or terminology specific to or unique to theauthor’s research, theories, or ideas• Use of an authors argument or line of thinking• Historical, statistical, or scientific facts• Graphs, drawings, etc.• Articles or studies you refer to in your work (Mohanty et al., 2009)
    18. 18. Refer to APA resources to determine citation style. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed., second printing Available at all OC Library campuses; Call no. BF 76.7 OC Library APA style guide webpage .P83 2009 • PDF and HTML versions of most common APA examples • Links to other APA resources Important: The APA manual is the definitive source of APAcitation information. If a resource contradicts the manual – use the manual.
    19. 19. In text citations: citations given in the body of the article,essay, paper, or assignment.Example: (Morgan & Hunt, 1994) Morgan and Hunt (1994) noted that….Reference list citations: “provides the information necessaryto identify and retrieve each source” (APA, 2009, p. 180).Example:Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58, 20–38.
    20. 20. From article by Xie and Peng (2009):In marketing literature, for example, Morgan and Hunt (1994) regard trust as aprerequisite and a central factor for successful relationship marketing. Trusthas been defined both in connotative and evaluative terms, such as “awillingness to rely on an exchange partner in whom one has confidence”(Moorman, Zaltman, & Deshpande, 1992, p. 315). References Moorman, C., Zaltman, G., & Deshpande, R. (1992). Relationships between providers and users of market research: The dynamics of trust within and between organizations. Journal of Marketing Research, 29, 314–328. Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 20–38.
    21. 21. What is it?• Journal article• Book• Report Building blocks?What format? • Author(s)• Print • Publication date• Electronic • Title • Publication information • Format-specific details (i.e. page numbers, doi)
    22. 22. Journal article retrieved online: Some APA rules to note• Author: “Invert all authors names; give surnames andinitials for up to and including 7 authors” (APA, 2009, p.184).• Publication date: “Give in parentheses the year the workwas published” (APA, 2009, p. 185).• Article title: “Capitalize only the first word of the title andof the subtitle, if any, and any proper nouns; do not italicizethe title or place quotation marks around it” (APA, 2009, p.185).
    23. 23. Journal article retrieved online: Some APA rules to note  Journal title: “Give the periodical title in full, in uppercase and lowercase letters. Italicize the name of the periodical” (APA, 2009, p. 185).  Publication Information: • “Give the volume number after the periodical title; italicize it (APA, 2009, p. 186). • “Include the journal issue number … along with the volume number if the journal is paginated separately by issue (APA, 2009, p. 186). • Give inclusive page numbers on the which the cited material appears” (APA, 2009, p. 186).
    24. 24. Journal article retrieved online: Some APA rules to note• “Provide the DOI, if one has been assigned to the content” (APA,2009, p. 191).• “When a DOI is used, no further retrieval information is needed toidentify or locate the content” (APA, 2009, p. 191).• What’s a DOI?• “If no DOI has been assigned to the content, provide the homepage URL of the journal….If you accessing the article from aprivate database, you may need to do a quick web search to locatethis URL” (APA, 2009, pp. 191-2).
    25. 25. Journal article retrieved online: Some APA rules to note• “In general, it is not necessary to include database information”(APA, 2009, p. 192).• “Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material maychange over time” (APA, 2009, p. 192).
    26. 26. How do we cite? Journal article retrieved onlineAnderson, K., Durbin, E., & Salinger, (2008) Identity theft. M. Journal of Economic . 22(2),171- Perspectives, Retrieved from doi:10.1257/jep.22.2.171 192. No doi?
    27. 27. Journal article retrieved online: Some APA rules to noteIn text: “When a work has two authors, cite both names, every time the reference occurs in text. When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. …. and the year if it is the first citation of the reference within a paragraph” (APA, 2009, p. 175).
    28. 28. Journal article retrieved online: CitationInitial citation:(Anderson, Durbin, & Salinger, 2008)Anderson, Durbin, and Salinger (2008) found that…“direct quote” (Anderson, Durbin, & Salinger, 2008, p.190)Subsequent:(Anderson et al., 2008)Anderson et al. (2008) found that…“direct quote” (Anderson et al., 2008, p. 190)
    29. 29. Reference list: Some APA rules to note• “Double-spaced and … entries have a hanging indent”(APA, 2009, p. 180).• “Alphabetize by author surname” (APA, 2009, p. 181).• “References with the same authors in the same orderare arranged by year of publication, the earliest first”(APA,2009, p. 182).
    30. 30. Anderson, K., Durbin, E., & Salinger, M. (2008). Identity theft. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 22(2), 171-192. doi:10.1257 /jep.22.2.171Bonson, A. (2002). Jessie Nagle and Susan Nagle. In K. Carter (Ed.), The small details of life: Twenty diaries by women in Canada, 1830-1996 (pp. 119-122). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.Ethier, C. R., & Simmons, C. A. (2007). Introductory biomechanics: From cells to organisms [Ebrary version]. Retrieved from http://www.cambridge.orgGu, W., & Wong, A. (2010). Estimates of human capital in Canada: The lifetime income approach (Catalogue no. 11F0027M, no. 062). Retrieved from Statistics Canada website /11f0027m/11f0027m2010062-eng.htmLangowitz, N. S. (2010). Small business leadership: Does being the founder matter? Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 23(1), 53-63. Retrieved from
    31. 31.  Give credit where credit is due Consult OC Library APA Citation Style guide Consult APA Publication Manual If you are unable to identify a specific example, use an example that is most like your source OC Library Research Writing & Citing guide Ask!
    32. 32. American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: Author.Association of College and Research Libraries. (2009). ACRL scholarly communication 101: Starting with the basics [PowerPoint]. Retrieved from, K , (Ed.). (2004a). cite. In The Canadian Oxford dictionary (2nd ed.). Retrieved from /reference_trade/dictionaries.htmlBarber, K , (Ed.). (2004b). citation. In The Canadian Oxford dictionary (2nd ed.). Retrieved from /reference_trade/dictionaries.htmlBarber, K , (Ed.). (2004c). plagiarize. In The Canadian Oxford dictionary (2nd ed.). Retrieved from /reference_trade/dictionaries.htmlDefelice, B. (2009). New models of scholarship & publishing. Retrieved from , S., Orphanides, A., Rumble, J., Roberts, D., Norberg, L., Vassiliadis, K. (2009). University libraries citing information tutorial. Retrieved from /instruct/citations/introduction/Okanagan College. (2010). Academic offenses. Retrieved from /Calendar.aspx?page=AcademicOffensesXie, Y., & Peng, S. (2009). How to repair customer trust after negative publicity: The roles of competence, integrity, benevolence, and forgiveness. Psychology & Marketing, 26(7), 572-589. Retrieved from