Why is it important? Information overload, data smog– too much information can create a barrier in our livesAn IL student is able to: Determine the extent of information neededAccess the needed information effectively and efficientlyEvaluate information and its sources criticallyIncorporate selected information into one’s knowledge baseUse information effectively to accomplish a specific purposeUnderstand the economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information, and access and use information ethically and legally
Before we even begin searching and using library resources we need to know exactly what we are looking for.Preparing and defining the information need prior to searching saves time
Step 1: Planning for research, topic definition, and information types and sourcesExample: What led to the fall of the Roman Empire?Your topic may outright say, what, how, who, in which case you are asking in relation to?Evaluate a fall or decline in relation to the Roman EmpireThesis statement: The fall of the Roman Empire was largely due to political, economic, and social causes
How are you going to answer your information need?
Survey of college students across the US.
Identify main concepts, find synonymsDesign search: roman empire, fall OR decline, political, social, economicLocate: books using the library catalogue, history databases, sociology databases, library guides. Library catalogue, reference sources, cross disciplinary, maybe OCtopus? - Now that we have a search strategy and have identified key words, we use those tools to find some resources.
Academic source: Demonstrate that the information you are using has been researched and is information is supported by evidence. Authoritative: identify the qualifications and expertise of the writer. Sourced: credits the origins of information and ideas via reference list or bibliography. Peer-reviewed: other academic or experts in the field have read the source and checked for accuracy, often a panel of referees (journals), or editors (books). Objective: look at topics fairly, does not ignore alternative positions, even if does take a side. Written for academics: target audience usually researchers, students, lecturers, professionals.
Who is the sponsor, owner, finding agency? Just because a person’s name is on a site does not mean they wrote the information on the site and does not mean they truly existExamples: Bisphenol-A, Martin Luther King
Academic sources consider multiple sources of information to get to the big picture. Relying on evidence, logic, research. That is why outside sources are normally considered more valuable. You still want to present your own position and ideas, but your position should be supported by evidence from other sources. Reflective writing may emphasize personal experience, it depends on the assignment. Printed sources: books and articlesQuality over quantity
Traditional system of scholarly communication….Standing on the shoulders of giants….Intellectual property
A good rule of thumb is to ask yourself if a knowledgeable reader would be familiar with the information in question. If he or she would have to look it up to confirm it, you should usually document it. If you're not sure, cite it to play it safe.Example: What would you need to cite? Today it is 10 degrees in Kelowna or the Sky is blue.APA advises: “Cite the work of those individuals whose ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work. They may provide key background information, support of dispute your thesis, or offer critical definitions and data. Citation of an article implies that you have personally read the cited work. In addition….provide documentation for all facts and figures that are not common knowledge” (p. 169).APA says don’t have to cite common knowledge, but what is that? Can depend on the research you are doing and your reader audience, so always better to cite.Don’t have to cite your own ideas of course, but other people do, even if a close friend!
Do not trust MS Word or auto-formatting- OK starting point for extracting elements of citation
1. Library Skills Roën Janyk Web Services Librarian “Information literacy is a survival skill in the Information Age” (ALA, 1989).
2. Introduction to Information LiteracyResearch SkillsUsing Library ResourcesEvaluating Academic & Popular Sources
3. Definition:Information Literacy is the set of skills needed to find,retrieve, analyze, and use information (ACRL, 2012). “Ultimately, information literate people are those who have learned how to learn. They know how to learn because they know how knowledge is organized, how to find information, and how to use information in such a way that others can learn from them. They are people prepared for lifelong learning, because they can always find the information needed for any task or decision at hand” (ACRL, 2000).
4. Step 1: Defining a topic and planning for research Step 2: Information seeking strategies Step 3: Critical evaluation of information sources Step 4: Reading, examining, taking notes on sources Step 5: Citing sources & constructing reference list
5. Step 1: Defining a topic and planning for research Interpret the research question/assignment, define the information need Look for command words Directing words that tell you what to do. i.e. Evaluate, discuss, comment, critique, analyze, compare Identify the assignment topic Area of discussion for the assignment. Take the command word and ask “what?” after it. I.e. Evaluate “what”? Compare & contrast “what”? Develop a focus (select a specific topic) Area of the topic/assignment you will concentrate on. In other words, evaluate what, in relation to “what”? Take your focus and develop a thesis statement Example: What led to the fall of the Roman Empire?
6. Step 1: Defining a topic and planning for research Step 2: Information seeking strategies Step 3: Critical evaluation of information sources Step 4: Reading, examining, taking notes on sources Step 5: Citing sources & constructing reference list
7. “More than 31% of all respondents use Internet search engines to find answers to their questions. However, people who use Internet search engines express frustration because they estimate that half of their searches are unsuccessful” (OCLC, 2002).
8. Step 2: Information seeking strategies Design your search strategy Develop a question (brainstorming, concept-mapping) Identify central concepts Identify key words and synonyms Identify investigative tools (research guides, other libraries) Locate and gather relevant resources Identify key databases, catalogue, reference works, etc. Coverage, disciplines, time periods, publication types, etc. Search expressions & Boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT) Broaden or narrow your research question Example: The fall of the Roman Empire was largely due to political, economic, and social causes
9. Library Catalogue Find books, e-books, reserves, videos/DVDs, request items from other campuses, place items on hold, mobile friendly. OCtopus (library search engine) One-stop shopping Research Databases & E-Resources Organized by subject, search databases for journal articles, e-books, & more. Also find reference works.
10. Research & Course Guides Created by librarians for students in specific classes or working in certain subject areas Electronic Journals Listing Search for specific journal and search within the title Reference sources Dictionaries, encyclopedias, directories found online or in campus reference collections Print Journals (Level 3)
11. Keyword searching: typically retrieve more information with less precision Good for broad or unknown topic areas Field searching: typically retrieves less information with more precision Good when looking for few results or source son specific topics ; Includes subject searches, title searches, author searches, etc. Too much information? Examine irrelevant records in search results Where did your search term match in search results? (Subject, title, etc.) Use limiters (Boolean, field searching, database limiters) Too little information? Spelling Eliminate long phrases or natural language Use alternate terms, try broadening your terms
12. Function Search Strategy DefinitionNarrow AND Retrieves only records that contain both words NOT Eliminates material you dont want. Careful to not lose valuable info.Broaden OR Retrieves matches for either term, more records. Use with terms with the same meaning. Wildcard To search variations of a word. Use 1 Colo?r or more symbols within a word to Global (w5) Warming replace 1 or more letters Truncation Use a symbol at the end of a word to Using opera* to search for operations = opera, replace any number of letters operant, operable, etc.Combine Nesting Combine AND and OR in a single NO: media AND politics OR election retrieves search. Divide your terms into units records that match "media that also like an equation. match politics" OR retrieves records that match "election.“ YES: media AND (politics OR election) retrieves records that match media that also
13. NOT AND OR NestingTruncation (University of Idaho, 2012)
14. Reference list and article citations, bibliographies Examine the reference lists of resources identified as being useful, and find other similar resources. Subject headings in databases & catalogue Terms used to describe resources, controlled vocabulary, assigned by indexers Known authors Search for other items by same author(s) Books or resources on similar topics In-person or virtual ‘shelf browsing’ Searching journals directly More direct and focused than databases
15. Library Catalogue (Home page link, “books, media...”) “Find Articles” History Keyword Reference “Find” Reference Sources (link on home page) Online e-resources listing, “Narrow Your Search” Choose content type Reference (Remove subject to expand results) OCtopus (box on home page) Research & Course Guides: History (a.k.a. “Guides by Course & Subject”, “LibGuides”)
16. Great starting point! Use subject headings, call number browsing, author searches Limit by location (Kelowna, Online) Request items from other campuses Renew items and place holds
18. Oxford English Dictionary (Online & Print) Encyclopedias (print & online) Choose reference as a limiter in e-resources listing Examples: Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace & Conflict, Encyclopedia of Sociology, Encyclopedia of World Cultures Search library catalogue Gale Virtual Reference Library Chicago Manual of Style: Online!
20. Library Reference Desks Hours vary, phone, email, or in-person Citation assistance, research help AskAway Online, live chat reference service Open longer hours than library ; Manned by librarians from post-secondary institutions across BC Chat boxes on website & within databases E-mail Response received within 24 hours Sept – April
21. Step 1: Defining a topic and planning for research Step 2: Information seeking strategies Step 3: Critical evaluation of information sources Step 4: Reading, examining, taking notes on sources Step 5: Citing sources & constructing reference list
22. Academic sources: Pass through peer review process. Authoritative and sourced. Objective and written for academics. Carry more ‘weight’. Popular sources are often related to general interest and do not require writers to provide research to support their stories.
23. Wikipedia is considered an academic source. False A book found in an academic library (i.e. college, university) is an academic source. False
24. Step 3: Critical evaluation of information sources Critically evaluate information Criteria and methods of evaluating information resources Comprehensiveness, relevance, author, purpose and audience, accuracy and currency, objectivity In academia we are looking for sources that arereliable, accurate, objective, and up-to-date.
25. Academic Sources Popular SourcesAcademic Journals Newspaper Articles Periodicals Magazine ArticlesAcademic Books Trade Magazines Edited Books Organizational Profiles Media Reports Anthologies Reports from Other Conference Organizations Proceedings Websites (usually) Encyclopedias/D Grey Literature ictionaries Institutional Reports BrochuresPublished Reports Press Releases
26. Journal Magazine Academic, General audience professional, technical audience Easy reading May use jargon Many advertisements In-depth articles Broad coverage, not Thorough reference list usually in-depth Minimal advertising Rarely peer-reviewed Peer-reviewed
27. Who wrote it? What are the authors’ qualifications? Academic authors are likely to come from a university or institute. Is there a sponsor, owner, funding agency? EXAMPLE *important for online sources* Are sources listed? Reference list, bibliography, citations Has the item or writing been peer-reviewed? Editorial board or committee list, or provided instructions Who is the targeted audience? Style of writing, advertising, jargon Is the writing objective? Free from bias, blatantly one-sided Who is the publisher? Academic writing is often published by a university press. What is the appearance? Glossy pages, advertisements, graphs, images, photos.
28. Print sources Online SourcesReliable: Sources that check their Reliable: Sources that check theirfacts: footnotes, list of references, facts: Footnotes, references, otherother evidence of research research evidenceAccurate & Objective: Quality Accurate & Objective: Qualitycontrol, editor, editorial board, peer Control, Evidence of peer review,review author identified Look for: Extravagant claims, URL (.com vs. .org), funding agenciesUp-to-date sources: What could have Up-to-date sources: Copyright date orchanged about this topic since indication when page was last updatedpublication In academia we are looking for sources that are reliable, accurate, objective, and up-to-date.
29. Primary Sources Secondary sources Original & direct Draw from primary evidence sources First hand experience Use evidence from Historical documents, primary sources interviews, raw May comment on experiment data primary sources TERTIARY SOURCES Use primary sources to Compile, index, or organize construct argument Sources may have analyzed or Books or articles that digest secondary sources provide analysis, critique, Abstracts, bibliographies, or a synthesis from a handbooks. Encyclopedias, range of sources indexes, catalogues. Cage, K. (2011). Identifying academic sources. Massey University. Retrieved July 9, 2012 from http://owll.massey.ac.nz/academic-writing/identifying-academic-sources.php
30. Step 1: Defining a topic and planning for research Step 2: Information seeking strategies Step 3: Critical evaluation of information sources Step 4: Reading, examining, taking notes on sources Step 5: Citing sources & constructing reference list
31. Step 4: Reading, examining, taking notes on sources Interpret and synthesize information Examine information source, identify source type Look at context, methods, results, discussion, etc. Think critically: ask questions, examine the context (who did the research, what are the research questions), research methods used, results, conclusions Verify accuracy Use and communicate information Write objectively (supported by findings, free from influence), concise, formal (formatting according to style)
32. Step 1: Defining a topic and planning for research Step 2: Information seeking strategies Step 3: Critical evaluation of information sources Step 4: Reading, examining, taking notes on sources Step 5: Citing sources & constructing reference list
33. “Scholarly communication is the entire set of activities that ensure that research and new knowledge can be made known” (DeFelice, 2009). Citations demonstrate how you developed your argument and ideas from the ideas of others Citations give credit where credit is due Citations give the reader of your work a path to the sources you used, so they can investigate those sources if interested (Mohanty et al., 2009)
34. Publication (RegistrationCreation and Certification) Dissemination Manuscript & IP Editor Academic Publisher Library Peer Reviewers Reformulation
35. Direct quotes Paraphrases Words or terminology specific to or unique to the author’s research, theories, or ideas Use of an authors argument or line of thinking Historical, statistical, or scientific facts Graphs, drawings, etc. Articles or studies you refer to in your work (Mohanty et al., 2009)
36. Step 5: Citing Sources & Reference Lists Identify elements of citation you will need for each item Cite your sources as you go! Try a numerical system for in-text citations Write key author names with notes Compile list of database citations as a working document throughout research process Formatting rules provided style guides Reference list, works cited list, versus bibliography Do not trust MS Word or auto-formatting
37. American Library Association. (1989). Presidential Committee on Information Literacy: Final Report. Retrieved July 9, 2012 from http://www.ala.org/acrl/publications/whitepapers/presidential Association of College and Research Libraries. (2009). ACRL scholarly communication 101: Starting with the basics [PowerPoint]. Retrieved from http://www.acrl.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/issues/scholcomm/docs/SC%20101%20Introduction.ppt Association of College and Research Libraries. (2012). Introduction to Information Literacy. http://www.ala.org/acrl/issues/infolit/overview/intro Association of College and Research Libraries. (2000). Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education. http://www.ala.org/acrl/standards/informationliteracycompetency American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: Author. Cage, K. (2012). Reference list vs. bibliography. Retrieved July 9, 2012 from http://owll.massey.ac.nz/referencing/reference-list-vs-bibliography.php Jefferson Community College, 2012). Information literacy tutorial. Retrieved July 9, 2012 from http://sunyjefferson.libguides.com/content.php?pid=127609&sid=1095964 Mohanty , S., Orphanides, A., Rumble, J., Roberts, D., Norberg, L., Vassiliadis, K. (2009). University libraries citing information tutorial. Retrieved from http://www.lib.unc.edu /instruct/citations/introduction/ OCLC. (2002). How Academic Librarians Can Influence Students’ Web-Based Information Choices. OCLC White Paper on the Information Habits of College Students. Retrieved from http://www5.oclc.org.ezproxy.okanagan.bc.ca/downloads/community/informationhabits.pdf Okanagan College. (2010). Academic offenses. Retrieved from http://webapps1.okanagan.bc.ca/ok/calendar /Calendar.aspx?page=AcademicOffenses University of Alberta. Information literacy at the University of Alberta. Retrieved July 9, 2012 from http://www.psych.ualberta.ca/~ITL/InfoLit%20v.2.0/index.html University of Idaho. (2012). Information Literacy Portal: Module 3. Retrieved July 9, 2012 from http://www.webs.uidaho.edu/info_literacy/modules/module3/3_6.htm