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ENG100

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July 2012

July 2012

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  • Why is it important? Information overload, data smog– too much information can create a barrier in our livesAn IL student is able to: Determine the extent of information neededAccess the needed information effectively and efficientlyEvaluate information and its sources criticallyIncorporate selected information into one’s knowledge baseUse information effectively to accomplish a specific purposeUnderstand the economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information, and access and use information ethically and legally
  • How does information fit into knowledge? Concept and how relates to everyday experiencesYou are looking for the text of a speech by a politician to clarify his or her position on an issue, you heard about it on the news but want more information. Where can you find the words of the speech? Where can you find the audio? Where can you find other people writing about the politician’s political stance?This requires knowledge of information types, where to find information in different formats (databases), and reviews and articles by different authors
  • Academic source: Demonstrate that the information you are using has been researched and is information is supported by evidence. Authoritative: identify the qualifications and expertise of the writer. Sourced: credits the origins of information and ideas via reference list or bibliography. Peer-reviewed: other academic or experts in the field have read the source and checked for accuracy, often a panel of referees (journals), or editors (books). Objective: look at topics fairly, does not ignore alternative positions, even if does take a side. Written for academics: target audience usually researchers, students, lecturers, professionals.
  • Define the information need
  • Step 1: Planning for research, topic definition, and information types and sourcesExample: Discuss the impact of rising tuition costs on higher education (discus what?)Discus what? Rising tuition, in relation to? Higher education
  • How are you going to answer your information need?
  • Survey of college students across the US.
  • Design search: rising tuition, higher education, disparity or inequality, impact, society, CanadaLocate: education databases, business databases, sociology databases. Cross disciplinary, maybe OCtopus? Library catalogue
  • Who is the sponsor, owner, finding agency? Just because a person’s name is on a site does not mean they wrote the information on the site and does not mean they truly exist
  • Academic sources consider multiple sources of information to get to the big picture. Relying on evidence, logic, research. That is why outside sources are normally considered more valuable. You still want to present your own position and ideas, but your position should be supported by evidence from other sources. Reflective writing may emphasize personal experience, it depends on the assignment. Printed sources: books and articlesQuality over quantity
  • Information ethics
  • Traditional system of scholarly communication….Standing on the shoulders of giants….Intellectual property
  • Plagiarism is very bad, it is not only using other people’s work and passing it off as your own, but it is also poor scholarly practice. Whether intentional or unintentional, you can still be penalized.
  • A good rule of thumb is to ask yourself if a knowledgeable reader would be familiar with the information in question. If he or she would have to look it up to confirm it, you should usually document it. If you're not sure, cite it to play it safe.Example: What would you need to cite? Today it is 10 degrees in Kelowna or the Sky is blue.APA advises: “Cite the work of those individuals whose ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work. They may provide key background information, support of dispute your thesis, or offer critical definitions and data. Citation of an article implies that you have personally read the cited work. In addition….provide documentation for all facts and figures that are not common knowledge” (p. 169).APA says don’t have to cite common knowledge, but what is that? Can depend on the research you are doing and your reader audience, so always better to cite.Don’t have to cite your own ideas of course, but other people do, even if a close friend!
  • So, these are going to be your building blocks or your checklist when building citations.These apply to all citations you do.With this in mind, we are going to dive into our first example…SHOW EDITED BOOK, SHOW CHAPTER IN EDITED BOOK– explain slight difference if e-book, but for the most part the same, but you can check the manual. Get students to identify what we will be citing
  • The rules are what are important, the examples are just that, examples
  • Do not trust MS Word or auto-formatting- OK starting point for extracting elements of citation
  • So what is it?We have to let people know where we got our information from, in case they want to go back to it for more detail, in case they want to check your resources, etc.
  • This is what the manual looks likeIt’s always available behind the reference desk, or you can check it out. The manual trumps everything, the handout is based on the manual and doesn’t have every example in it
  • So what is it?We have to let people know where we got our information from, in case they want to go back to it for more detail, in case they want to check your resources, etc.
  • This is what the manual looks likeIt’s always available behind the reference desk, or you can check it out. The manual trumps everything, the handout is based on the manual and doesn’t have every example in it
  • We are here to help, ask any time, stop by our offices
  • Transcript

    • 1. “Information literacy is a survivalskill in the Information Age” (ALA, 1989).
    • 2. INFORMATION LITERACYDefinition: Information Literacy is the set of skills needed to find, retrieve, analyze, and use information (ACRL, 2012). “Ultimately, information literate people are those who have learned how to learn. They know how to learn because they know how knowledge is organized, how to find information, and how to use information in such a way that others can learn from them. They are people prepared for lifelong learning, because they can always find the information needed for any task or decision at hand” (ACRL, 2000).
    • 3. OUTLINEHow is Information Organized?Using Library ResourcesResearch SkillsEvaluating Academic & Popular SourcesCitation & Academic Integrity
    • 4. THE ORGANIZATION OF INFORMATION Students need to acquire the ability to find, evaluate, and use information From a young age people learn how to categorize information as a benefit to information processing. Your understanding of how knowledge can be thought of as bodies of information, organized from broad areas to more specific blocks of information, will be most useful as you think about choosing, narrowing and focusing research topics.  Practical application of this knowledge relates to:  Locating databases (A literature database will be under the “English” heading)  Books are grouped on the shelves, LCCS gathers books on similar topics together Information can be categorized and analyzed based on who produces it, who the audience is, whether it is scholarly or popular in nature, the format it is in, the type of information and more (Jefferson Community College, 2012)
    • 5. SOURCES: DO THEY MATTER?Academic sources: Pass through peer review process. Authoritative and sourced. Objective and written for academics. Carry more „weight‟.Popular sources are often related to general interest and do not require writers to provide research to support their stories.
    • 6. EXAMPLES OF SOURCESACADEMIC POPULARSOURCES SOURCES Newspaper ArticlesAcademic Journals Periodicals Magazine Articles Trade MagazinesAcademic Books Organizational Profiles Edited Books Anthologies Media Reports Conference Proceedings Reports from Other Organizations Encyclopedias/Dictionarie s Websites (usually)Published Reports Grey Literature Institutional Reports Brochures Press Releases
    • 7. INFORMATION LITERACY: STEPS TO SUCCESSFUL RESEARCH Step 1: Defining a topic and planning for research Step 2: Information seeking strategies Step 3: Critical evaluation of information sources Step 4: Reading, examining, taking notes on sources Step 5: Citing sources & constructing reference list
    • 8. RESEARCH SKILLS  Step 1: Defining a topic and planning for research Interpret the research question/assignment, define the information need  Look for command words  Directing words that tell you what to do. i.e. Evaluate, discuss, comment, critique, analyze  Identify the assignment topic  Area of discussion for the assignment. Take the command word and ask “what?” after it. I.e. Evaluate “what”?  Develop a focus (select a specific topic)  Area of the topic/assignment you will concentrate on.  In other words, evaluate what, in relation to “what”?  Take your focus and develop a thesis statement Example: Discuss the impact of rising tuition costs on higher education
    • 9. INFORMATION LITERACY: STEPS TO SUCCESSFUL RESEARCH Step 1: Defining a topic and planning for research Step 2: Information seeking strategies Step 3: Critical evaluation of information sources Step 4: Reading, examining, taking notes on sources Step 5: Citing sources & constructing reference list
    • 10. FINDING RESOURCES “More than 31% of all respondents use Internet search engines to find answers to their questions. However, people who use Internet search enginesexpress frustration because they estimate that halfof their searches are unsuccessful” (OCLC, 2002).
    • 11. USING LIBRARY RESOURCES Library Catalogue  Find books, e-books, reserves, videos/DVDs, request items from other campuses, place items on hold, mobile friendly. OCtopus (library search engine) Research Databases  Organized by subject, search databases for journal articles, e-books, & more Electronic Journals Listing  Search for specific journal and search within the title Research & Course Guides  Created by librarians for students in specific classes or working in certain subject areas Reference sources  Dictionaries, encyclopedias, directories found online or in campus reference collections Print Journals (Level 3)
    • 12. RESEARCH SKILLS  Step 2: Information seeking strategies  Design your search strategy  Develop a question (brainstorming, concept-mapping)  Identify key words and synonyms Investigative tools (research guides, other libraries)  Identify central concepts  Locate and gather relevant resources  Identify key databases, catalogue, reference works, etc.  Coverage, disciplines, time periods, publication types, doc types  Search expressions & Boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT)  Broaden or narrow your research questionRising tuition costs will negatively impact higher educationbecause the disparity between students who can and whocannot afford an education will have broaderconsequences for Canadian society.
    • 13. CREATING A SEARCH: BOOLEAN OPERATORSFunctio Search Strategy DefinitionnNarrow AND Retrieves only records that contain both words NOT Eliminates material you dont want. Careful to not lose valuable info.Broade OR Retrieves matches for eithern term, more records. Use with terms with the same meaning. Wildcard To search variations of a word.  Colo?r Use 1 or more symbols within a  Global (w5) Warming word to replace 1 or more letters Truncation Use a symbol at the end of a  Using opera* to search word to replace any number of for operations = opera, operant, operable, etc. lettersCombin Nesting Combine AND and OR in a singlee  NO: media AND politics OR election search. Divide your terms into retrieves records that match "media that also units like an equation. match politics" OR retrieves records that match "election.“  YES: media AND (politics OR election) retrieves records that match media that also
    • 14. NOT AND OR NestingTruncation (University of Idaho, 2012)
    • 15. RESEARCH SKILLS Keyword searching: typically retrieve more information with less precision Good for broad or unknown topic areas Field searching: typically retrieves less information with more precision Good when looking for few results or source son specific topics Includes subject searches, title searches, etc. Too much information? Examine irrelevant records in search results Where did your search term match in search results? (Subject, title, etc.) Use limiters (Boolean, field searching, database limiters) Too little information? Spelling Eliminate long phrases or natural language Use alternate terms Try broadening your terms
    • 16. MORE WAYS TO FIND ARTICLES Reference list and article citations, bibliographies  Examine the reference lists of resources identified as being useful, and find other similar resources. Subject headings in databases & catalogue  Terms used to describe resources, controlled vocabulary, assigned by indexers Known authors  Search for other items by same author(s) Books or resources on similar topics  In-person or virtual „shelf browsing‟ Searching journals directly  More direct and focused than databases
    • 17. OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY Available in print (REF PE 1625 .O86) & Online:  FIND  ARTICLES, or HOMEPAGE  ARTICLES  Select subject from drop-down menu, or choose a database by title  Click title for more information, or CONNECT to access the resource Quick & Advanced search: Field and full-text searching Historical Thesaurus: Allows browsing by topic
    • 18. LIBRARY CATALOGUE Great starting point! Use subject headings, call number browsing, author searches, Limit by location Request and renew items
    • 19. LIBRARY DATABASES: ENGLISH MLA International Bibliography Literature Resource Center Oxford Reference Online Premium Project Muse JSTOR Ebrary Academic Search Premier OCtopus
    • 20. REFERENCE SOURCES Oxford English Dictionary Encyclopedias (print & online) Choose reference as a limiter in e-resources listing  Examples: Encyclopedia of Canada‟s Peoples, Encyclopedia of Evolution, Encyclopedia of Human Rights, Encyclopedia of Sociology, Encyclopedia of World Cultures Search library catalogue
    • 21. USING LIBRARY RESOURCES: GET HELP Library reference desks  Hours vary, phone, email, or in-person  Citation assistance, research help AskAway  Online, live chat reference service  Open longer hours than library ; Manned by librarians from post-secondary institutions across BC  Chat boxes on website & within databases E-mail  Response received within 24 hours Sept – April, typically daily throughout summer
    • 22. INFORMATION LITERACY: STEPS TO SUCCESSFUL RESEARCH Step 1: Defining a topic and planning for research Step 2: Information seeking strategies Step 3: Critical evaluation of information sources Step 4: Reading, examining, taking notes on sources Step 5: Citing sources & constructing reference list
    • 23. EXAMPLE EVALUATIONShttp://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/1344132
    • 24. SOURCES: TRUE OR FALSE? Wikipedia is considered an academic source.  False A book found in an academic library (i.e. college, university) is an academic source.  False
    • 25. RESEARCH SKILLS Step 3: Critical evaluation of information sources Critically evaluate information Criteria and methods of evaluating information resources  Comprehensiveness, relevance, author, purpose and audience, accuracy and currency, objectivity In academia we are looking for sources that are reliable, accurate, objective, and up-to-date.
    • 26. ACADEMIC SOURCE CHARACTERISTICS Who wrote it? What are the authors‟ qualifications?  Academic authors are likely to come from a university or institute. Is there a sponsor, owner, funding agency?  *important for online sources* Are sources listed?  Reference list, bibliography, citations Has the item or writing been peer-reviewed?  Editorial board or committee list, or provided instructions Who is the targeted audience?  Style of writing, advertising, jargon Is the writing objective?  Free from bias, blatantly one-sided Who is the publisher?  Academic writing is often published by a university press. What is the appearance?  Glossy pages, advertisements, graphs, images, photos.
    • 27. EXAMPLES OF SOURCESACADEMIC POPULARSOURCES SOURCES Newspaper ArticlesAcademic Journals Periodicals Magazine Articles Trade MagazinesAcademic Books Organizational Profiles Edited Books Anthologies Media Reports Conference Proceedings Reports from Other Organizations Encyclopedias/Dictionarie s Websites (usually)Published Reports Grey Literature Institutional Reports Brochures Press Releases
    • 28. PERIODICALS JOURNAL MAGAZINE Academic,  General audience professional,  Easy reading technical audience May use jargon  Many advertisements In-depth articles  Broad coverage, not usually in-depth Thorough reference list  Rarely peer-reviewed Minimal advertising Peer-reviewed
    • 29. EVALUATING: REPUTABLE SOURCESPrint sources Online SourcesReliable: Sources that check their Reliable: Sources that check theirfacts: footnotes, list of references, facts: Footnotes, references, otherother evidence of research research evidenceAccurate & Objective: Quality Accurate & Objective: Qualitycontrol, editor, editorial board, peer Control, Evidence of peer review,review author identified Look for: Extravagant claims, URL (.com vs. .org), funding agenciesUp-to-date sources: What could Up-to-date sources: Copyright datehave changed about this topic since or indication when page was lastpublication updatedIn academia we are looking for sources that are reliable, accurate, objective, and up-to-date.
    • 30. PRIMARY & SECONDARY SOURCES PRIMARY SECONDARY SOURCES SOURCES Original & direct  Draw from primary sources evidence  Use evidence from primary sources First hand experience  May comment on primary Historical documents, sources interviews, raw  Use primary sources to experimentY S O U R C E S data construct argument TERTIAR  Books or articles that Compile, index, or organize provide analysis, critique, or Sources may have analyzed or digest a synthesis from a range of secondary sources sources Abstracts, bibliographies, handbooks. Encyclopedias, indexes, catalogues. Cage, K. (2011). Identifying academic sources. Massey University. Retrieved July 9, 2012 from http://owll.massey.ac.nz/academic-writing/identifying-academic-sources.php
    • 31. INFORMATION LITERACY: STEPS TO SUCCESSFUL RESEARCH Step 1: Defining a topic and planning for research Step 2: Information seeking strategies Step 3: Critical evaluation of information sources Step 4: Reading, examining, taking notes on sources Step 5: Citing sources & constructing reference list
    • 32. RESEARCH SKILLS  Step 4: Reading, examining, taking notes on sources Interpret and synthesize information  Examine information source, identify source type Look at context, methods, results, discussion, etc.  Think critically: ask questions, examine the context (who did the research, what are the research questions), research methods used, results, conclusions  Verify accuracy Use and communicate information Write objectively (supported by findings, free from influence), concise, formal (formatting according to style)
    • 33. INFORMATION LITERACY: STEPS TO SUCCESSFUL RESEARCH Step 1: Defining a topic and planning for research Step 2: Information seeking strategies Step 3: Critical evaluation of information sources Step 4: Reading, examining, taking notes on sources Step 5: Citing sources & constructing reference list
    • 34. WHY DO WE CITE?“Scholarly communication is the entire set of activities that ensure that research and new knowledge can be made known” (DeFelice, 2009).  Citations demonstrate how you developed your argument and ideas from the ideas of others  Citations give credit where credit is due  Citations give the reader of your work a path to the sources you used, so they can investigate those sources if interested (Mohanty et al., 2009)
    • 35. Publication (RegistrationCreation and Certification) Dissemination Manuscript & IP Editor Academic Publisher Library Peer Reviewers Reformulation
    • 36. ACADEMIC INTEGRITYIf you don’t acknowledge other people’s work, words or ideas you commit plagiarism“Penalties for plagiarism serve both to educate students aboutstandards of scholarship and to deter deception and poorscholarly practices. Penalties will reflect the seriousness of theoffence; including whether the offence was intentional orunintentional and whether it was a first or a repeat offence”(Okanagan College, 2010, Penalties section, para. 1 ).Okanagan College Academic Offenses regulations and policies
    • 37. WHAT DO WE CITE? Direct quotes Paraphrases Words or terminology specific to or unique to the author’s research, theories, or ideas Use of an authors argument or line of thinking Historical, statistical, or scientific facts Graphs, drawings, etc. Articles or studies you refer to in your work (Mohanty et al., 2009)
    • 38. BUILDING BLOCKS OF CITATIONSWhat is it?• Journal article• Book• Report Building blocks? • Author(s)What format? • Publication date• Print • Title• Electronic • Publication information • Format-specific details (i.e. page numbers, doi)
    • 39. HOW DO WE CITE? In text citations: citations given in the body of the article, essay, paper, or assignment. Example: (Morgan & Hunt, 1994) Morgan and Hunt (1994) noted that…. (Morgan and Hunt 50) (Morgan and Hunt (50) noted that….) Reference list citations: “provides the information necessary to identify and retrieve each source” (APA, 2009, p. 180).Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58, 20–38. doi: 10.1504/IJMDM.2008.016041Morgan and Hunt. “The Commitment-trust Theory of Relationship Marketing.” Journal of Marketing 58.1 (1994): 20-38. Project Muse. Web. 9 July 2012.
    • 40. RESEARCH SKILLS Step 5: Citing Sources & Reference Lists Identify elements of citation you will need for each item Cite your sources as you go!  Try a numerical system for in-text citations  Write key author names with notes Compile list of database citations as a working document throughout research process Formatting rules provided style guides Reference list, works cited list, versus bibliography Do not trust MS Word or auto-formatting
    • 41. CITING SOURCES IN ALL STYLES Reference List vs. Bibliography vs. Works Cited vs. ? Reference list (aka. Works cited in MLA): Complete list of all sources cited directly in your work. Bibliography: All sources used, whether directly cited or not. May include sources used to generate ideas or gain general knowledge.  Some reference styles will ask for a bibliography in place of a reference list, some styles will call it a reference list while others may called it a works cited list. Some instructors may use the term bibliography to mean a reference list, always check if you are unsure. Annotated Bibliography: Includes a list of sources as well as a summary evaluation of each source‟s content and purpose (approx. 100-250 words) (Cage, 2012).
    • 42. WHAT IS APA? APA = American Psychological AssociationThe Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is astyle manual that provides guidance and standards in: • research ethics • the publication process • article format and presentation • AND
    • 43. HOW DO WE CITE? Refer to APA resources to determine citation style. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed., second printing  Available at all OC Library campuses; Call no. BF 76.7 .P83 2009 OC Library APA style guide webpage  PDF and HTML versions of most common APA examples Links to other APA resourcesImportant: The APA manual is the definitive source of APAcitation information. If a resource contradicts the manual – use the manual.
    • 44. WHAT IS MLA? MLA = Modern Languages AssociationThe Publication Manual of Modern Languages Associationis a style manual that provides guidance and standards in: • research ethics • the publication process • article format and presentation • AND
    • 45. HOW DO WE CITE? Refer to MLA resources to determine citation style. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th ed.  Available at all OC Library campuses; Call no. LB 2369 .G53 2009 OC Library MLA style guide  PDF and HTML versions of most common MLA examples  Links to other MLA resourcesImportant: The MLA Handbook is the definitive source of MLA citation information. If a resource contradicts the handbook– use the handbook.
    • 46. APA VS. MLA A PA MLA Double-space and format entries with  Double-space and format entries with a a hanging indent hanging indentCapitalize only the first letter of the first Capitalize the first, the last and all significantword in the title and subtitle. Capitalize words of a title and subtitle. Omit initial A, Anproper names. Capitalize all significant or The and subtitles for journals, magazineswords of a journal title and newspapersItalicize journal titles and volume Italicize titles of larger sources like books ornumbers. Do not italicize issue numbers. journals; use “ “ around titles of sources likeItalicize book and report titles essays or articles which are within largerUse only the initial(s) of the author’s sourcesgiven name, not the full name, reverse Reverse the author’s name for alphabetizingall authors names but otherwise give the author’s name as it Arrange reference list entries in appears in the source alphabetical order by the surname of  Alphabetize entries by the author’s last the first author or by title if there is no name or, if there is no author, by the title author ignoring initial A, An or The or theFor online journal articles retrieved from equivalent in another languagea database, include the DOI or a link to For online journal articles retrieved from athe journal homepage if no DOI available database include the name of the database and the word web
    • 47. REMEMBER Give credit where credit is due Consult OC Library Citation Style guides Consult Publication Manual for Your Style If you are unable to identify a specific example, use an example that is most like your source OC Library Research Writing & Citing guide Ask!
    • 48. REFERENCESAmerican Library Association. (1989). Presidential Committee on Information Literacy: Final Report. Retrieved July 9, 2012 from http://www.ala.org/acrl/publications/whitepapers/presidentialAssociation of College and Research Libraries. (2009). ACRL scholarly communication 101: Starting with the basics [PowerPoint]. Retrieved from http://www.acrl.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/issues/scholcomm/docs/SC%20101%20Introduction.pptAssociation of College and Research Libraries. (2012). Introduction to Information Literacy. http://www.ala.org/acrl/issues/infolit/overview/introAssociation of College and Research Libraries. (2000). Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education. http://www.ala.org/acrl/standards/informationliteracycompetencyAmerican Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: Author.Cage, K. (2012). Reference list vs. bibliography. Retrieved July 9, 2012 from http://owll.massey.ac.nz/referencing/reference-list-vs-bibliography.phpJefferson Community College, 2012). Information literacy tutorial. Retrieved July 9, 2012 from http://sunyjefferson.libguides.com/content.php?pid=127609&sid=1095964Mohanty , S., Orphanides, A., Rumble, J., Roberts, D., Norberg, L., Vassiliadis, K. (2009). University libraries citing information tutorial. Retrieved from http://www.lib.unc.edu /instruct/citations/introduction/OCLC. (2002). How Academic Librarians Can Influence Students’ Web-Based Information Choices. OCLC White Paper on the Information Habits of College Students. Retrieved from http://www5.oclc.org.ezproxy.okanagan.bc.ca/downloads/community/informationhabits.pdfOkanagan College. (2010). Academic offenses. Retrieved from http://webapps1.okanagan.bc.ca/ok/calendar /Calendar.aspx?page=AcademicOffensesUniversity of Alberta. Information literacy at the University of Alberta. Retrieved July 9, 2012 from http://www.psych.ualberta.ca/~ITL/InfoLit%20v.2.0/index.htmlUniversity of Idaho. (2012). Information Literacy Portal: Module 3. Retrieved July 9, 2012 from http://www.webs.uidaho.edu/info_literacy/modules/module3/3_6.htm

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