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Cite It Right: CMNS 122 Winter 2012
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Cite It Right: CMNS 122 Winter 2012

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APA citation presentation for CMNS 122, Winter 2012

APA citation presentation for CMNS 122, Winter 2012

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  • objectives
  • So what is it?
  • “Researchers do not claim the words and ideas of another as their own; they give credit where credit is due. . . Quotation marks should be used to indicate the exact words of another. Each time you paraphrase another author (i.e., summarize a passage or rearrange the order of a sentence and change some of the words), you need to credit the source in the text” (APA, 2009, p. 15).
  • A good rule of thumb is to ask yourself if a knowledgeable reader would be familiar with the information in question. If he or she would have to look it up to confirm it, you should usually document it. If you're not sure, cite it to play it safe.Example: What would you need to cite? Today it is 10 degrees in Kelowna or the Sky is blue.APA advises: “Cite the work of those individuals whose ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work. They may provide key background information, support of dispute your thesis, or offer critical definitions and data. Citation of an article implies that you have personally read the cited work. In addition….provide documentation for all facts and figures that are not common knowledge” (p. 169).APA says don’t have to cite common knowledge, but what is that? Can depend on the research you are doing and your reader audience, so always better to cite.Don’t have to cite your own ideas of course, but other people do, even if a close friend!
  • Two parts to a citation:In textReference list
  • Journal examples
  • So, these are going to be your building blocks or your checklist when building citations.These apply to all citations you do.With this in mind, we are going to dive into our first example…EDITED BOOK, CHAPTER IN EDITED BOOK
  • We are going to look at these rules, then construct the citation together.Ellipsis (…) after the 6th author, include last author after ellipsis for those with 8 or more authors.
  • There are more points in the manual related to publication information
  • Notice the in-text citationsWe can help you format the in-text citations, but when it comes to writing style, this is something the writing centre has to help you with.
  • Print journal article, Electronic journal article, database
  • Paginated separately by issue: some journals have issues published multiple times a year, the issues combined are part of a volume number. Example, one volume a year, 1 issue published for every season. Some journals will have their first issue go from page 1-100, the next issue will go from 101-200, etc. Whereas other issues will start with 1-100, the next issue will run 1-100, and so forth. You can tell if it is issue 2 and page 500 it is likely it is NOT paginated separately by issueWhat is the title of the journal? Must be in italicsWhat volume is it? DO we need an issue number, if so, what is it?What are our page numbers? Different from books
  • What is a DOI? A digital object identifier, like a fingerprint for journal articlesThen, is there a DOI? If yes, include itIf no, we must find the journal home page by doing a quick search on the internet
  • Determined continuous pagination
  • In textDifferent rules depending on how many authors, refer to manual
  • Compare our constructed citation
  • Remember this about your reference list
  • An exampleNotice all in alphabetical orderDouble spaced

Transcript

  • 1. Cite It Right! CMNS 122 Winter 2012
  • 2. Objectives• To understand why we cite• To understand how we cite• To understand the basics of APA
  • 3. What is APA? APA = American Psychological AssociationThe Publication Manual of the AmericanPsychological Association is a style manual thatprovides guidance and standards in:• research ethics• the publication process• article format and presentation• AND
  • 4. Why do we cite?• Citations demonstrate how you developed your argument and ideas from the ideas of others• Citations give credit where credit is due• Citations give the reader of your work a path to the sources you used, so they can investigate those sources if interested (Mohanty et al., 2009)
  • 5. Why do we cite?• If you don’t acknowledge other people’s work, words or ideas you commit plagiarism “Penalties for plagiarism serve both to educate students about standards of scholarship and to deter deception and poor scholarly practices. Penalties will reflect the seriousness of the offence; including whether the offence was intentional or unintentional and whether it was a first or a repeat offence” (Okanagan College, 2010, Penalties section, para. 1 ).Okanagan College Academic Offenses regulations and policies
  • 6. What do we cite?• Direct quotes• Paraphrases• Words or terminology specific to or unique to theauthor’s research, theories, or ideas• Use of an authors argument or line of thinking• Historical, statistical, or scientific facts• Graphs, drawings, etc.• Articles or studies you refer to in your work (Mohanty et al., 2009)
  • 7. How do we cite? Refer to APA resources to determine citation style. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed., second printing Available at all OC Library campuses; Call no. BF 76.7 .P83 2009 OC Library APA style guide webpage • PDF and HTML versions of most common APA examples • Links to other APA resources Important: The APA manual is the definitive source of APA citationinformation. If a resource contradicts the manual – use the manual.
  • 8. How do we cite?In text citations: citations given in the body of the article, essay,paper, or assignment.Example: (Morgan & Hunt, 1994) Morgan and Hunt (1994) note that….Reference list citations: “provides the information necessary toidentify and retrieve each source” (APA, 2009, p. 180).Example:Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58, 20–38.
  • 9. How do we cite?From article by Xie and Peng (2009):In marketing literature, for example, Morgan and Hunt (1994) regard trust as aprerequisite and a central factor for successful relationship marketing. Trust has beendefined both in connotative and evaluative terms, such as “a willingness to rely on anexchange partner in whom one has confidence” (Moorman, Zaltman, & Deshpande,1992, p. 315). References Moorman, C., Zaltman, G., & Deshpande, R. (1992). Relationships between providers and users of market research: The dynamics of trust within and between organizations. Journal of Marketing Research, 29, 314–328. Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 20–38.
  • 10. How do we cite?What is it?• Journal article• Book• Report Building blocks?What format? • Author(s)• Print • Publication date• Electronic • Title • Publication information • Format-specific details (i.e. page numbers, doi)
  • 11. How do we cite? Chapter in an edited book: Some APA rules to note• Authors: “invert all authors’ names; give surnames and initials for up toand including seven authors…” (APA, 2009, p. 184).• Chapter authors in edited book: invert the chapter authors’ names.• Publication date: “Give in parentheses the year the work was published”(APA, 2009, p. 185).• Chapter title: “Capitalize only the first word of the title and of thesubtitle…and any proper nouns” (APA, 2009, p. 185).• Do not invert book editors’ names … the name of the book editor shouldbe preceded by the word In” (APA, 2009, p. 184). Place (Ed.) or (Eds.)following editor(s).
  • 12. How do we cite? Chapter in an edited book: Some APA rules to note• Book title: “Capitalize only the first word of the title and of thesubtitle…and any proper nouns; italicize the title” (APA, 2009, p. 185).• Editions: “Place information about editions, volume numbers, and pagenumbers … in parentheses following the title, with the period after theparentheses” (APA, 2009, p. 203).• Pagination: Include chapter page numbers (beginning and end).• Publication Information: “Give the location… where the publisher is locatedas noted on the title page for books…use a colon after the location; finish theelement with a period” (APA, 2009, p. 186-187). Using city and province isacceptable.
  • 13. How do we cite? Chapter in an edited book: CitationAlimo-Metcalfe, B., & Alban-Metcalfe, J. (2011). Leadership in public and third sector organizations. In J. Storey (Ed.), Leadership in organizations: Current issues and key trends (2nd ed., pp. 225-248). New York, NY: Routledge.
  • 14. How do we cite?• In text: “References … are cited in text with an author datecitation system” (APA, 2009, p. 174).• In text: “When a work has two authors, cite both names,every time the reference occurs in text” (APA, 2009, p. 175).• In text, direct quotes: “always provide the author, year, andspecific page citation or paragraph number for nonpaginatedmaterial” (APA, 2009, p. 170).
  • 15. How do we cite?(Alimo-Metcalfe & Alban-Metcalfe, 2011)According to Alimo-Metcalfe and Alban-Metcalfe (2011)…“direct quote” (Alimo-Metcalfe & Alban-Metcalfe, 2011, p. 227).
  • 16. How do we cite?What is it?• Journal article• Book Building blocks?• Report • Author(s) • Publication dateWhat format? • Title• Print • Publication information• Electronic • Format-specific details (i.e. page numbers, doi)
  • 17. How do we cite?Journal article retrieved online: Some APA rules to note • Author: “Invert all authors names; give surnames and initials for up to and including 7 authors” (APA, 2009, p. 184). • Publication date: “Give in parentheses the year the work was published” (APA, 2009, p. 185). • Article title: “Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if any, and any proper nouns; do not italicize the title or place quotation marks around it” (APA, 2009, p. 185).
  • 18. How do we cite?Journal article retrieved online: Some APA rules to note • Journal title: “Give the periodical title in full, in uppercase and lowercase letters. Italicize the name of the periodical” (APA, 2009, p. 185). • Publication Information: – “Give the volume number after the periodical title; italicize it (APA, 2009, p. 186). – “Include the journal issue number … along with the volume number if the journal is paginated separately by issue (APA, 2009, p. 186). – Give inclusive page numbers on the which the cited material appears” (APA, 2009, p. 186).
  • 19. How do we cite?Journal article retrieved online: Some APA rules to note • “Provide the DOI, if one has been assigned to the content” (APA, 2009, p. 191). • “When a DOI is used, no further retrieval information is needed to identify or locate the content” (APA, 2009, p. 191). • What’s a DOI? • “If no DOI has been assigned to the content, provide the home page URL of the journal….If you accessing the article from a private database, you may need to do a quick web search to locate this URL” (APA, 2009, pp. 191-2).
  • 20. How do we cite?Journal article retrieved online: Some APA rules to note • “In general, it is not necessary to include database information” (APA, 2009, p. 192). • “Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time” (APA, 2009, p. 192).
  • 21. How do we cite? Journal article retrieved onlineTan, J., Fischer, E., Mitchell, R., & Phan, P. (2009). At the center of the action: Innovation and technology strategy research in the small business setting. Journal of Small Business Retrieved from Management, 47, 233-262. doi:10.1111/j.1540-627X http://www.wiley.com/bw /journal.asp?ref=0047-2778 .2009.00270.x No doi?
  • 22. How do we cite?Journal article retrieved online: Some APA rules to noteIn text: “When a work has two authors, cite both names, everytime the reference occurs in text. When a work has three, four,or five authors, cite all authors the first time the referenceoccurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of thefirst author followed by et al. …. and the year if it is the firstcitation of the reference within a paragraph” (APA, 2009, p. 175).
  • 23. How do we cite? Journal article retrieved online: CitationInitial citation:(Tan, Fischer, Mitchell, & Phan 2009)Tan, Fischer, Mitchell, and Phan (2009) found that…“direct quote” (Tan, Fischer, Mitchell, & Phan, 2009, p. 235)Subsequent:(Tan et al., 2009)Tan et al. (2009) found that…“direct quote” (Tan et al., 2009, p. 235)
  • 24. How do we cite? Report retrieved online: Some APA rules to note• Group authors: “occasionally, a work will have as its author an agency,association, or institution” (APA, 2009, p. 183).• “If no date is available, write n.d. in parentheses” (APA, 2009, p. 185).• Report titles: “Enclose additional information given on the publication forits identification and retrieval (e.g., edition, report number, volume number)in parentheses immediately after the title)” (APA, 2009, p. 185).
  • 25. How do we cite? Report retrieved online: Some APA rules to note• “For reports retrieved online, identify the publisher as part of the retrievalstatement unless the publisher as been identified as the author: Retrievedfrom Agency name website: http://www.xxxxx” (APA, 2009, p. 205).• DOI? “If no DOI has been assigned to the content, provide the home pageURL of the journal or of the book or report publisher. If you are accessing thearticle from a private database, you may need to do a quick web search tolocate this URL” (APA, 2009, p. 192).
  • 26. How do we cite? Online report: CitationSustainalytics. (n.d.). Dollarama Inc.: Company report. Retrieved from http://www.sustainalytics.com
  • 27. How do we cite? Online report: Citation(Sustainalytics, n.d.)Sustainalytics (n.d.) reports ….“direct quote” (Sustainalytics, n.d., p. 3)
  • 28. How do we cite? Reference list: Some APA rules to note• “Double-spaced and … entries have a hanging indent” (APA,2009, p. 180).• “Alphabetize by author surname” (APA, 2009, p. 181).• “References with the same authors in the same order arearranged by year of publication, the earliest first”(APA, 2009, p.182).
  • 29. How do we cite? ReferencesAlimo-Metcalfe, B., & Alban-Metcalfe, J. (2011). Leadership in public and third sector organizations. In Storey, J. (Ed.), Leadership in organizations (2nd ed., pp. 225-248). New York, NY: Routledge.Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58, 20–38.Sustainalytics. (n.d.). Dollarama Inc.: Company report. Retrieved from http://www.sustainalytics.comTan, J., Fischer, E., Mitchell, R., & Phan, P. (2009). At the center of the action: Innovation and technology strategy research in the small business setting. Journal of Small Business Management, 47, 233-262. doi:10.1111/j.1540-627X.2009.00270.xXie, Y., & Peng, S. (2009). How to repair customer trust after negative publicity: The roles of competence, integrity, benevolence, and forgiveness. Psychology & Marketing, 26(7), 572-589. Retrieved from http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd- MAR.html
  • 30. Remember• Give credit where credit is due• Consult OC Library APA Citation Style guide• Consult APA Publication Manual• If you are unable to identify a specific example, use an example that is most like your source• OC Library Research Writing & Citing guide• Ask!
  • 31. ReferencesAmerican Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: Author.Mohanty , S., Orphanides, A., Rumble, J., Roberts, D., Norberg, L., Vassiliadis, K. (2009). University libraries citing information tutorial. Retrieved from http://www.lib.unc.edu /instruct/citations/introduction/Okanagan College. (2010). Academic offenses. Retrieved from http://webapps1.okanagan.bc.ca/ok /calendar /Calendar.aspx?page=AcademicOffensesXie, Y., & Peng, S. (2009). How to repair customer trust after negative publicity: The roles of competence, integrity, benevolence, and forgiveness. Psychology & Marketing, 26(7), 572-589. Retrieved from http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-MAR.html LJ | 03/21/2012