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Introduction to academic integrity and APA citation style. Prepare by librarians at Okanagan College.

Introduction to academic integrity and APA citation style. Prepare by librarians at Okanagan College.

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  • Welcome- intro of meBridge in- why is this important? Not about writing structure, hopefully provide solid examples and citations to matchPre-assessment- who has used APA already? Experience? Any confusion?
  • objectives
  • So what is it?
  • We have to let people know where we got our information from, in case they want to go back to it for more detail, in case they want to check your resources, etc.
  • Traditional system of scholarly communication….Standing on the shoulders of giants….Intellectual property
  • Plagiarism is very bad, it is not only using other people’s work and passing it off as your own, but it is also poor scholarly practice. Whether intentional or unintentional, you can still be penalized.
  • A good rule of thumb is to ask yourself if a knowledgeable reader would be familiar with the information in question. If he or she would have to look it up to confirm it, you should usually document it. If you're not sure, cite it to play it safe.Example: What would you need to cite? Today it is 10 degrees in Kelowna or the Sky is blue.APA advises: “Cite the work of those individuals whose ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work. They may provide key background information, support of dispute your thesis, or offer critical definitions and data. Citation of an article implies that you have personally read the cited work. In addition….provide documentation for all facts and figures that are not common knowledge” (p. 169).APA says don’t have to cite common knowledge, but what is that? Can depend on the research you are doing and your reader audience, so always better to cite.Don’t have to cite your own ideas of course, but other people do, even if a close friend!
  • This is what the manual looks likeIt’s always available behind the reference desk, or you can check it out. The manual trumps everything, the handout is based on the manual and doesn’t have every example in it
  • The rules are what are important, the examples are just that, examples
  • Journal examples
  • So, these are going to be your building blocks or your checklist when building citations.These apply to all citations you do.With this in mind, we are going to dive into our first example…SHOW EDITED BOOK, SHOW CHAPTER IN EDITED BOOK– explain slight difference if e-book, but for the most part the same, but you can check the manual. Get students to identify what we will be citing
  • We are going to look at these rules, then construct the citation together.Ellipsis (…) after the 6th author, include last author after ellipsis for those with 8 or more authors.
  • There are more points in the manual related to publication information
  • This is the citation you would use for your reference list…What material is this? Ok, now let’s say you used a specific chapter in this edited book. So we start with our building blocks: You used the chapter in the edited book, so who is the author of the chapter? How do we format that?What date was this published?What is the title of the chapter you used?Who is the editor of the book?What is the title of this book? In italicsWhat page range is the chapter? Notice the two pp (if it was one page, it would have one p)Location?Publisher?
  • Notice the in-text citationsWe can help you format the in-text citations, but when it comes to writing style, this is something the writing centre has to help you with.
  • Show print version of journal, have students identify it as a journal. Then show database information and have students identify it as the same thing in a different format. Print journal article, Electronic journal article, database
  • Think about building blocks: Who is our author? Put on boardWhat year was it published?What is the title of the article?
  • Paginated separately by issue: some journals have issues published multiple times a year, the issues combined are part of a volume number. Example, one volume a year, 1 issue published for every season. Some journals will have their first issue go from page 1-100, the next issue will go from 101-200, etc. Whereas other issues will start with 1-100, the next issue will run 1-100, and so forth. You can tell if it is issue 2 and page 500 it is likely it is NOT paginated separately by issueWhat is the title of the journal? Must be in italicsWhat volume is it? DO we need an issue number, if so, what is it?What are our page numbers? Different from books
  • Go back to journal article in database example.What is a DOI? A digital object identifier, like a fingerprint for journal articlesElements on board, ask to put in proper order (Go back to previous slide): Think of build blocksThen, is there a DOI? If yes, include itIf no, we must find the journal home page by doing a quick search on the internet
  • Go back to journal article in database example.What is a DOI? A digital object identifier, like a fingerprint for journal articlesElements on board, ask to put in proper order (Go back to previous slide): Think of build blocksThen, is there a DOI? If yes, include itIf no, we must find the journal home page by doing a quick search on the internet
  • In textDifferent rules depending on how many authors, refer to manual
  • Compare our constructed citation
  • Go back to html report retrieved online example.Print report, Electronic (pdf) report, Electronic (html) report
  • Participants draw citation elements and put in proper order.
  • Remember this about your reference list
  • An exampleNotice all in alphabetical orderDouble spaced
  • We are here to help, ask any time, stop by our offices
  • Our referencesSURVEY!!!

Cite it Right! Cite it Right! Presentation Transcript

  • Cite It Right! Winter 2012
  • Objectives• To understand why we cite• To understand how we cite• To understand the basics of APA
  • What is APA? APA = American Psychological AssociationThe Publication Manual of the American PsychologicalAssociation is a style manual that provides guidanceand standards in: • research ethics • the publication process • article format and presentation • AND
  • Why do we cite?“Scholarly communication is the entireset of activities that ensure thatresearch and new knowledge can bemade known” (DeFelice, 2009).
  • Publication (Registration andCreation Certification) Dissemination Manuscript & IP Editor Academic Publisher Library Peer Reviewers Reformulation
  • Why do we cite?• Citations demonstrate how you developed your argument and ideas from the ideas of others• Citations give credit where credit is due• Citations give the reader of your work a path to the sources you used, so they can investigate those sources if interested (Mohanty et al., 2009)
  • Why do we cite?• If you don’t acknowledge other people’s work, words or ideas you commit plagiarism “Penalties for plagiarism serve both to educate students about standards of scholarship and to deter deception and poor scholarly practices. Penalties will reflect the seriousness of the offence; including whether the offence was intentional or unintentional and whether it was a first or a repeat offence” (Okanagan College, 2010, Penalties section, para. 1 ).Okanagan College Academic Offenses regulations and policies
  • What do we cite?• Direct quotes• Paraphrases• Words or terminology specific to or unique to theauthor’s research, theories, or ideas• Use of an authors argument or line of thinking• Historical, statistical, or scientific facts• Graphs, drawings, etc.• Articles or studies you refer to in your work (Mohanty et al., 2009)
  • How do we cite? Refer to APA resources to determine citation style. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed., second printing Available at all OC Library campuses; Call no. BF 76.7 .P83 2009 OC Library APA style guide webpage • PDF and HTML versions of most common APA examples • Links to other APA resources Important: The APA manual is the definitive source of APA citationinformation. If a resource contradicts the manual – use the manual.
  • How do we cite?In text citations: citations given in the body of the article, essay,paper, or assignment.Example: (Morgan & Hunt, 1994) Morgan and Hunt (1994) noted that….Reference list citations: “provides the information necessary toidentify and retrieve each source” (APA, 2009, p. 180).Example:Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58, 20–38.
  • How do we cite?From article by Xie and Peng (2009):In marketing literature, for example, Morgan and Hunt (1994) regard trust as aprerequisite and a central factor for successful relationship marketing. Trust has beendefined both in connotative and evaluative terms, such as “a willingness to rely on anexchange partner in whom one has confidence” (Moorman, Zaltman, & Deshpande,1992, p. 315). References Moorman, C., Zaltman, G., & Deshpande, R. (1992). Relationships between providers and users of market research: The dynamics of trust within and between organizations. Journal of Marketing Research, 29, 314–328. Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 20–38.
  • How do we cite?What is it?• Journal article• Book• Report Building blocks?What format? • Author(s)• Print • Publication date• Electronic • Title • Publication information • Format-specific details (i.e. page numbers, doi)
  • How do we cite? Chapter in an edited book: Some APA rules to note• Authors: “invert all authors’ names; give surnames and initials for up toand including seven authors…” (APA, 2009, p. 184).• Chapter authors in edited book: invert the chapter authors’ names.• Publication date: “Give in parentheses the year the work was published”(APA, 2009, p. 185).• Chapter title: “Capitalize only the first word of the title and of thesubtitle…and any proper nouns” (APA, 2009, p. 185).• Do not invert book editors’ names … the name of the book editor shouldbe preceded by the word In” (APA, 2009, p. 184). Place (Ed.) or (Eds.)following editor(s).
  • How do we cite? Chapter in an edited book: Some APA rules to note• Book title: “Capitalize only the first word of the title and of thesubtitle…and any proper nouns; italicize the title” (APA, 2009, p. 185).• Publication Information: “Give the location… where the publisher is locatedas noted on the title page for books…use a colon after the location; finish theelement with a period” (APA, 2009, p. 186-187). Using city and province isacceptable.• Pagination: Include chapter page numbers (beginning and end).
  • How do we cite? Chapter in an edited book: CitationBonson, A. (2002). Jessie Nagle and Susan Nagle. In K. Carter (Ed.), The small details of life: Twenty diaries by women in Canada, 1830-1996 (pp. 119-122). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.
  • How do we cite?• In text: “References … are cited in text with an author datecitation system” (APA, 2009, p. 174).• In text, direct quotes: “always provide the author, year, andspecific page citation or paragraph number for nonpaginatedmaterial” (APA, 2009, p. 170). (Bonson, 2002) According to Bonson (2002)… “direct quote” (Bonson, 2002, p. 120)
  • How do we cite?What is it?• Journal article• Book Building blocks?• Report • Author(s) • Publication dateWhat format? • Title• Print • Publication information• Electronic • Format-specific details (i.e. page numbers, doi)
  • How do we cite?Journal article retrieved online: Some APA rules to note • Author: “Invert all authors names; give surnames and initials for up to and including 7 authors” (APA, 2009, p. 184). • Publication date: “Give in parentheses the year the work was published” (APA, 2009, p. 185). • Article title: “Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if any, and any proper nouns; do not italicize the title or place quotation marks around it” (APA, 2009, p. 185).
  • How do we cite?Journal article retrieved online: Some APA rules to note • Journal title: “Give the periodical title in full, in uppercase and lowercase letters. Italicize the name of the periodical” (APA, 2009, p. 185). • Publication Information: – “Give the volume number after the periodical title; italicize it (APA, 2009, p. 186). – “Include the journal issue number … along with the volume number if the journal is paginated separately by issue (APA, 2009, p. 186). – Give inclusive page numbers on the which the cited material appears” (APA, 2009, p. 186).
  • How do we cite?Journal article retrieved online: Some APA rules to note • “Provide the DOI, if one has been assigned to the content” (APA, 2009, p. 191). • “When a DOI is used, no further retrieval information is needed to identify or locate the content” (APA, 2009, p. 191). • What’s a DOI? • “If no DOI has been assigned to the content, provide the home page URL of the journal….If you accessing the article from a private database, you may need to do a quick web search to locate this URL” (APA, 2009, pp. 191-2).
  • How do we cite?Journal article retrieved online: Some APA rules to note • “In general, it is not necessary to include database information” (APA, 2009, p. 192). • “Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time” (APA, 2009, p. 192).
  • How do we cite? Journal article retrieved onlineAnderson, K., Durbin, E., & Salinger, M. (2008). Identity theft. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 22(2), 171-192. Retrieved from http://www.aeaweb.org/jep/index.php doi:10.1257/jep.22.2.171 No doi?
  • How do we cite?Journal article retrieved online: Some APA rules to noteIn text: “When a work has two authors, cite both names, every time the reference occurs in text. When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. …. and the year if it is the first citation of the reference within a paragraph” (APA, 2009, p. 175).
  • How do we cite? Journal article retrieved online: CitationInitial citation:(Anderson, Durbin, & Salinger, 2008)Anderson, Durbin, and Salinger (2008) found that…“direct quote” (Anderson, Durbin, & Salinger, 2008, p. 190)Subsequent:(Anderson et al., 2008)Anderson et al. (2008) found that…“direct quote” (Anderson et al., 2008, p. 190)
  • How do we cite? Report retrieved online: Some APA rules to note• Group authors: “occasionally, a work will have as its author an agency,association, or institution” (APA, 2009, p. 183).• Report titles: “Enclose additional information given on the publication forits identification and retrieval (e.g., edition, report number, volume number)in parentheses immediately after the title)” (APA, 2009, p. 185).• “When the author is also the publisher use Author to indicate thepublisher” (APA, 2009, p. 187). Statistics Canada. (1992). Ageing and independence (Catalogue No. 89-548-XPE). Ottawa, ON: Author.• “For reports retrieved online, identify the publisher as part of the retrievalstatement unless the publisher as been identified as the author: Retrievedfrom Agency name website: http://www.xxxxx” (APA, 2009, p. 205).
  • How do we cite? Report retrieved online: Some APA rules to note• In text: “Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. Ifparagraph numbers are visible, use them… Use the abbreviation para.” (APA,2009, p. 172).• “If the document includes headings and neither paragraph nor pagenumbers are visible, cite the heading and the number of the paragraphfollowing it to direct the reader to the location of the quoted material” (APA,2009, p. 172).• “In some cases … headings may be too unwieldy to cite in full. Instead, usea short title enclosed in quotation marks for the parenthetical citation” (APA,2009, p. 172).
  • How do we cite? Online report: CitationGu, W., & Wong, A. (2010). Estimates of human capital in Canada: The lifetime income approach (Catalogue No. 11F0027M, no. 062). Retrieved from Statistics Canada website http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11f0027m/11f0027m2010062 -eng.htm (Gu & Wong, 2010) Gu and Wong (2010) state that….. “direct quote” (Gu & Wong, 2010, “Main article, data sources section,” para. 2)
  • How do we cite? Reference list: Some APA rules to note• “Double-spaced and … entries have a hanging indent” (APA,2009, p. 180).• “Alphabetize by author surname” (APA, 2009, p. 181).• “References with the same authors in the same order arearranged by year of publication, the earliest first”(APA, 2009, p.182).
  • How do we cite? ReferencesAnderson, K., Durbin, E., & Salinger, M. (2008). Identity theft. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 22(2), 171-192. doi:10.1257 /jep.22.2.171Bonson, A. (2002). Jessie Nagle and Susan Nagle. In K. Carter (Ed.), The small details of life: Twenty diaries by women in Canada, 1830-1996 (pp. 119-122). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.Ethier, C. R., & Simmons, C. A. (2007). Introductory biomechanics: From cells to organisms [Ebrary version]. Retrieved from http://www.cambridge.orgGu, W., & Wong, A. (2010). Estimates of human capital in Canada: The lifetime income approach (Catalogue no. 11F0027M, no. 062). Retrieved from Statistics Canada website http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub /11f0027m/11f0027m2010062-eng.htmLangowitz, N. S. (2010). Small business leadership: Does being the founder matter? Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 23(1), 53-63. Retrieved from http://www.jsbe.com
  • Remember• Give credit where credit is due• Consult OC Library APA Citation Style guide• Consult APA Publication Manual• If you are unable to identify a specific example, use an example that is most like your source• OC Library Research Writing & Citing guide• Ask!
  • ReferencesAmerican Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: Author.Association of College and Research Libraries. (2009). ACRL scholarly communication 101: Starting with the basics [PowerPoint]. Retrieved from http://www.acrl.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/issues/scholcomm/docs/SC%20101%20Introduction.pptBarber, K , (Ed.). (2004a). cite. In The Canadian Oxford dictionary (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://www.oupcanada.com /reference_trade/dictionaries.htmlBarber, K , (Ed.). (2004b). citation. In The Canadian Oxford dictionary (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://www.oupcanada.com /reference_trade/dictionaries.htmlBarber, K , (Ed.). (2004c). plagiarize. In The Canadian Oxford dictionary (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://www.oupcanada.com /reference_trade/dictionaries.htmlDefelice, B. (2009). New models of scholarship & publishing. Retrieved from http://www.acrl.ala.org/scholcomm/node/7Mohanty , S., Orphanides, A., Rumble, J., Roberts, D., Norberg, L., Vassiliadis, K. (2009). University libraries citing information tutorial. Retrieved from http://www.lib.unc.edu /instruct/citations/introduction/Okanagan College. (2010). Academic offenses. Retrieved from http://webapps1.okanagan.bc.ca/ok/calendar /Calendar.aspx?page=AcademicOffensesXie, Y., & Peng, S. (2009). How to repair customer trust after negative publicity: The roles of competence, integrity, benevolence, and forgiveness. Psychology & Marketing, 26(7), 572-589. Retrieved from http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd- MAR.html LJ&RJ | 10/03/2011