Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Project management study book
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Project management study book

1,656

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,656
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
145
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Professional certificate in projectManagement[Fast-Track] ilmEndorsed by the institute of leadership and management 11/4/2011 1
  • 2. Project Management theory • Concept, techniques and process11/4/2011 2
  • 3. Essential Building Blocks Project Management consists of a number of key processes and knowledge Area. In order to successfully create and deliver a project, the following ingredients are essential:11/4/2011 3
  • 4. Essential Building blocks Full understanding of the Management components Gain mastery of the key knowledge areas11/4/2011
  • 5. Understanding project Management To ensure we are all on the same page, we”ll start off with some key definitions: What is a project? What is project Management? Who is project Manager?11/4/2011 5
  • 6. What is a project? A group of activities to bring about change or create a new product or service Attributes Finite defined life span Defined and measurable benefits11/4/2011 6
  • 7. What is a projects(1) The process of bringing about a new product or service Attributes • One _off delivery • Fixed timescales i.e. start and end • Unique (no 2 projects are exactly same)11/4/2011 7
  • 8. What is a project?(2) Introduction of change One _ off implementation Creation of a new service or product The sum of the parts needed for a total solution11/4/2011 8
  • 9. What is a product?(2) A unique delivery _ No two projects are the same Delivery within a definite timescale i.e. definite start and end Common objective or goal to be accomplished within a time period11/4/2011 9
  • 10. What is a project?(2) Process of bringing change in an environment within a given time. Set of activities with a defined objective and timeframe Set of tasks to achieve a goal 11/4/2011 10
  • 11. How do project come about? A problem (or opportunity)  Inefficient or cumbersome process, financial losses An ideal  Wouldnt it be easier or better if….. Industry requirement or change  Industry solution e.g. the ISA product11/4/2011 11
  • 12. How do projects come about? Statutory requirement Government initiative e.g. New taxation etc Technologising Taking advantage of innovations and technology Automating manual business processes etc Business expansion New branch. Expanding premises or office11/4/2011 12
  • 13. How do projects come about?(2) Process oStep 1 oStep2 oStep3 oRequirement oIdea oRequest oProblem or opportunity11/4/2011 13
  • 14. Examples of projects… Abby National _ ISA IT Systems_ Banking system to support the sale of ISA products _covering all banking components e.g. DD, cash payment etc. Rover Group_Y2K Compliance: To ensure all IT systems compliant with the new millennium11/4/2011 14
  • 15. Examples of projects…. Charles Schwab _ To establish 3 new branches or investment centres in the United Kingdom CCL _ To develop a study management system for a global green field company IBM_ To e_Enable cable and wireless”s business (internet, intranet and extranet applications) 11/4/2011 15
  • 16. 4 Examples of projects youveworked on Project 1… Project 2… Project 3… Project 4… Just name them.11/4/2011 16
  • 17. Looking at projects fromdifferent angles Categories, Types and Environments11/4/2011 17
  • 18. Objectives We are going to look at different ways of carrying projects to ensure we approach the project in a structure way with clear boundaries. This importance to facilitate effective communication, role assignment and reporting form the start of the project to the end.11/4/2011 18
  • 19. Project Types and Categories Internal project _ within an organization •E.g. Rover Group ,Marketing Department External project _clients •E.g. cable and wireless global (IBM responsible for delivery)11/4/2011 19
  • 20. Project Environment_3_tier Industry Technology The project is the core11/4/2011 20
  • 21. Class Exercise Projects you” worked on• List projects (refer to earlier exercise)• Categories into internal or External groupings• Give a 5minute summary of one of one projects using the profile below: Project Name Project Objective Project Deliverable Your contribution and responsibilities11/4/2011 21
  • 22. Managing Projects Now we all have good understanding of projects, lets talk about “managing projects” What is project? What is project management? Who is project manager?11/4/2011 22
  • 23. Managing Projects A complete definition11/4/2011 23
  • 24. What is project Management?  Project Management is the planning, coordination and control of activities and resources to meet a defined objective within a given timescale.  Overseeing in a (controlled manner)the workings involved in delivering an objective ensuring effective and efficient use of resources and time.11/4/2011 24
  • 25. What is Project Management?(2) Overseeing the development of a new product to the final stage of delivery Organization of activities, tasks resources over a scheduled period with a defined deliverable Monitoring the development of a goal from start to end The art of applying an effective methodology or strategy to an activity from inception to completion.11/4/2011 25
  • 26. Project Management is ….  A skill or competence  Comprises techniques, concepts and processes  The equation for successful PM is  Knowledge and Experience Mentoring11/4/2011 26
  • 27. Why is project Managementneeded? Ensure timely delivery Ensure efficiency _ cost, people, equipment Ensure synchronized effort _ not a scattered approach Eliminate noise (project interference and politics) reducing conflict and delays _ always on the central part A specialist skill _people, planning, problem _ solving in ONE11/4/2011 27
  • 28. Why is a Project Managementneeded?Effective control(time, cost, scope, resource, quality)Time ManagementScope definition or scope creep preventionTo achieve goal set with agreed timeframeEnsure correctness or quality of the end_product11/4/2011 28
  • 29. Acquisition of PM skill How? Techniques and concept can be acquired by studying the subject and mastered by experience By knowledge attending courses, reading books on the subject etc. . By experience _ watch, do fall and learn PM Tip: knowledge and experience go hand _in _ hand and cannot be separated11/4/2011 29
  • 30. Checkpoint • 2 definition blocks down, 1 to go What is project? What is project management? Who is a project manager?11/4/2011 30
  • 31. The Chief Aim of this course To ensure you attain the Knowledge + Experience Required to successfully manage project Getting the balance right course and workshops work Experience11/4/2011 31
  • 32. The project Manager Who is responsible?11/4/2011 32
  • 33. Who is a project Manager? The individual accountable for the successful delivery of a project (usually from inception to completion). Simply a clever juggler of time, money, people, requests or requirements to meet an objective etc.11/4/2011 33
  • 34. Who is a project Manager? Other Definitions Agent responsible for managing the process of change Oversees the development of a new product Is fully responsible for a project11/4/2011 34
  • 35. Project Manager _ JobDescription Experience of Defining and scoping a project Planning activities scope or extent Managing resources(both human and non human) Co_ordination Issue, risk and change management.11/4/2011 35
  • 36. Project Manager _JobDescription Experience of Reporting to senior management (and all levels) Excellent communication skills(oral and written) Excellent presentation and documentation skills PM or planning sw user _MS project 2000|2 Methodology _PRINCE2 Note the key words as a clue to areas of focus11/4/2011 36
  • 37. Why are the project Managersneeded? To turn the clients dream into reality Single accountability Leadership _ no matter how highly experienced or technically sophisticated team still needs a leader for coherence and symphony Provide direction to team of experts11/4/2011 37
  • 38. Why are project managersneeded?Single point of contact between client andsenior management and team.Effective use of resource _”in and out”approachWork out project requirement_effort, resources, timescales11/4/2011 38
  • 39. Why are Project Managers needed? Allow the business champions carry on with business as usual Allow idea _ generators to get on with the development of other ideals The executives want to get on with decision _ making and solving business issues not low level management To ensure successful delivery of projects11/4/2011 39
  • 40. How do project Managersoperate?Full understanding of objective(thinking clearly on one’s feetAttention to detailDont blow over emails, read through carefullyand respond straightawayA sense of urgencyProactive communication and problem solving(Nick the problem in the bud)11/4/2011 40
  • 41. How do project managersoperate?With a methodologyA guide from the start to the endFull of factsImpromptu project updates and briefsA people _ personWatching out for the people and not just the projectTight deadlines with limited resources howeverPEOPLE are not machines.11/4/2011 41
  • 42. A PROJECT manager’s personality Excellent leader Negotiator (turns impossibilities into possibilities) Good judgment(premised on SMART information) Fair _listens to both (all)sides Organized (structured and in control)11/4/2011 42
  • 43. A Project Managers personality Team builder (focus on team synergy) Great communication _ spoken written, body language etc People skill _ Tall level I e. client, senior management, peer, team…etc Instils confidence _”can-do and “does _ do” attitude •SMART: specific, Measurable, Accurate, reliable and timely11/4/2011 43
  • 44. The “Organized” project MangerProject file and project bookA categorized record of the projectdocumentation IN ONE PLACEYour note and observations IN ONE PLACEMedium: Manual, Electronic, System or web11/4/2011 44
  • 45. The mindset for deliveryEvery project Manager is expected to think onhis or her feet at all times proactively with aproblem _ solving and tackling attitude.Two tools or technique a PM must master totackle projects of any size or complexity are:Strategy (clear and structured thinking)Breakdown structures11/4/2011 45
  • 46. Thank You11/4/2011 46
  • 47. Why PM The relevance of project Management in 21st Century industry11/4/2011 47
  • 48. Why project Management? Organizations(commercial and charitable) in every industry havenew initiatives, requirements which must be implemented to:Keep Customers satisfied“stay ahead of the game” etc.E.g.Banking are in competitionE _ banking solutionCost Effective call centres (24hrs service)Charities want to improve their serviceTo ensure Donor or Funder confidenceUnforeseen circumstances and natural disastersIn summary ,PM is needed for orchestrated deliveryMeet objectivesDelivery a product or serviceMake or introduce changes11/4/2011 48
  • 49. Every industry requires PM Because it is the preferred method of delivery in the 21st century Why? Accountability One p.mgr Stakeholder involvement Guaranteed Achievement Tried and tested PM techniques and methodologies Effective use of resources Cross department synergy Everyone gets involved Overall company growth Stimulates learning New opportunities11/4/2011 49
  • 50. PM is not a new skillAn age old practicePeople of the past practiced projectmanagement techniquesHistoric AchievementsEgypts pyramidsNoahs art(Religion)Roman bathsGreeks (Olympics)Asian TemplesGreat wall of chaina11/4/2011 50
  • 51. The profession Formalised Standardised Fine-tuned Master or Expert and specialist11/4/2011 51
  • 52. Learning opportunity Give me Examples of PMPs Produce job descriptions for each11/4/2011 52
  • 53. Developed versus Developing WorldAdvancement throughnew technology andInnovationFosters anEnvironment to breedNew ideal andCreativityProactive“Fresh blood” Strong dependence For basic delivery Borrowed ideas Bread_ and _butter Solutions 11/4/2011 53
  • 54. “project conscious” PM Facts …. •Organizations are becoming more project _conscious because they have acknowledged the benefit of well “orchestrated devilery.”competitor Analysis •There has always been a large demand for PM but these days it is becoming more and more prominent. •Employers and Employment Agencies find it very difficult to fill PMP vacancies •The good PMPs continue to charge or demand premium rates as PM skills are premium •You are at the cutting edge of new phenomena!11/4/2011 54
  • 55. Project opportunities Globalisation Tesco is expanding across the globe Natural Disasters Tsunami December 2004 Defence or Homeland security North Korea USA Research Medical cancer11/4/2011 55
  • 56. Learning opportunity Analyse opportunities in project Management Magazine11/4/2011 56
  • 57. The 21st Century is fuelled by ….rapid achievement Creativity, innovation and new concepts must be backed up by effective project management if the esteemed products and services are to be realised11/4/2011 57
  • 58. Working with innovators • The following skill are essential… • Consultancy • Organization • Planning • People • Specialists need to be coordinated effectively to deliver • Delivery • Ability to execute to plan with precision • Project Management Is the art or tool of achievement11/4/2011 58
  • 59. Learning Opportunity What I am going to do to promote innovation in the workplace? Brainstorm11/4/2011 59
  • 60. Project Management versus… Business Administration and General Management11/4/2011 60
  • 61. The Executive Syndrome Many executives fail because of their inability to executive strategy. This is because most MBA and business Degree holders are trained in the “art of strategy” and not the “art delivery” For project success, it is important to realise the two arts go together and cannot be substituted for one another.11/4/2011 61
  • 62. The Unusual Executive In rare cases, you come across the Executive with PM background and this is when project success is guaranteed. Project success is achieved when the Executive understands or realises the following: •The need for all (or key) staff to be trained in PM concept, techniques and methodologies whether directly or indirectly involved in project i.e. PM training is non _ negotiable requirement for staff development •Empower staff to deliver work in projects to leverage marketplace share •Fosters a culture of teamwork through project delivery and leads by example i.e. project management in action thus shaping organizational behavior and crating a culture where personnel delivery by nature •The need for an effective and efficient project office which is well invested in serving as the focal point for project operation across the organization11/4/2011 62
  • 63. The Executives Friend Bill Gate, Richard Branson, Anita Roddick, Alan Sugar, Donald Trump, Oprah Winfrey The Project Manager11/4/2011 63
  • 64. Learning Opportunity Analayse PM or JM print out11/4/2011 64
  • 65. Relevance to you….Opportunity to become a “cutting _edge”professionalEarn premium salariesSet up your own Consultancy •Once you have acquired enough experience“World Development” opportunities •The Developing world •Worldwide11/4/2011 65
  • 66. Premium Salaries Worldwide Project manager, Recovery Date Centre Move Exciting role for individual in challenging environment. Candidate will have experience of hands on project management of successful data centre installation commissioning and movement. Must have technical issues affecting a data centre from security to practical building works, powers, air conditioning ,alarm, networks, telecoms, UPS systems and general operations. Experience of working overseas essential especially within more: Type :contract location :Riyadh country : Saudi Arabia Start : ASAP salary or Rate: 750 or Day posted:03|05|2005 17:29:5511/4/2011 66 Reference: JS_TT000414
  • 67. Premium Salaries Worldwide Project office Support Six month contract to work on one of the most prestigious change programmes within an insurance environment. Working for the programme office team, and interfacing with the business and also a team of consultants(Accenture)this will be a varied and demanding role for an experience project office or programme office manager who has a proven track record in financial services. The successful candidate will have a minimum of 4 years experience in handing full reporting for a programme _budget more: Type: Temporary location: Gatwick, west Sussex Country: England start ASPA salary or rate :350 _400|day posted:06|05|2005 16:57:11 reference : is _AG _POS311/4/2011 67
  • 68. Premium Salaries Worldwide Project Support Office Our client requires a project office support person for a 3 month (renewable)contract in their prestigious Chester office. The role will include preparing forms using MS word, raising purchase requests in oracle financial 11i and maintaining tracking sheets in MS Excel. Liaising with various department will be required so strong communication skills are essential. A good working knowledge of Microsoft office and oracle financial is needed, as us a minimum of 5 years practical experience of more : type :contract location: Chester country: England start ASPA salary or rate: 100| day posted: 06|05|2005 13:41:53 Reference JSHELj02739211/4/2011 68
  • 69. Homework Write a report on the ff: The relevance of project management in the 21st century Max. No. Pages _511/4/2011 69
  • 70. People in project Management It take people to make your payment level tide11/4/2011 70
  • 71. Learning objectives It take people to make the Project wheel turn Project clock tick Join a project or workplace and know who to ask what, their role and responsibilities and how they interconnect11/4/2011 71
  • 72. Who are the people in projectManagement• Class discussion11/4/2011 72
  • 73. The Client The client _ I wont have a job without him |her| them11/4/2011 73
  • 74. Learning Opportunity Ministry of Education, Zimbabwe invited consultants of GCS to create a business cases for introducing PM to the educational curriculum.11/4/2011 74
  • 75. Every industry requires PM  The orchestrator  Chief coordinator  Master planner  People specialists  ……………..etc11/4/2011 75
  • 76. The Executives Friend Bill Gate, Richard Branson, Anita Roddick, Alan Sugar, Donald Trump, Oprah Winfrey The project Manager11/4/2011 76
  • 77. The supplier  It is unlikely I will have all the resources in every project situation  Who plugs the gaps?  Supplier of • Goods and service • Give an example of the above11/4/2011 77
  • 78. Technical Consultant Industry sector or Technical Environment in which the project is being delivered Class Exercise Fill in the gaps11/4/2011 78
  • 79. Global Teams11/4/2011 79
  • 80. Government The Laws and authorities of the land Planning consents Rules and Regulations Unwritten RULE culture11/4/2011 80
  • 81. Non _Government Organisations What are the consideration? How can they help? Class discussion11/4/2011 81
  • 82. protocol Piece of the cake mentality11/4/2011 82
  • 83. Business FunctionsMarketing Accounts purchasing or procurement information or technologyLegal and compliance Strategic and team Strategic resource Fill in the gaps How does the project Team work with existing business functions?11/4/2011 83
  • 84. Homework  Write a report on the ff.:- The relationship between The project organisation and normal business functions  Max. No Pages=511/4/2011 84
  • 85. Contracting Versus Permanent employment11/4/2011 85
  • 86. Learning Objectives You should be in a position to make an informed decision regarding the type of employment suitable for you To start with and And as time goes by Enter into the world of work informed about the differences in the Employment Types and manager expectation As a result of the above, you should b in a position to go into the workplace with a winning attitude… and win11/4/2011 86
  • 87. Types of employment Permanent Employment Company Employee Consultant Self Employment Contractor freelancer11/4/2011 87
  • 88. Permanent Employment What is it •Registered on the payroll •On a lifetime/indefinite employment contract •Become part of the corporate family •Regular fixed wages i.e. weekly or monthly Why •Job security corporate benefits •Learning tolerances •Training and professional development How •Job adverts Newspapers •Agencies Speciality  Government • Job websites Whom •Seeking experience •Confidence building •Industry specialism11/4/2011 88
  • 89. The contractor What is it •Short term employment Why • financial remuneration •Profession freedom How •Agencies •Head _ hunt Whom •Risk_ takers •Good at what they do •Seeking fast _track experience •Similar to permanent employment •Difference •Intolerance, you must get it right •Short term •Positives •Paid thric as much as your PE counterparts (Uk estimates) •Learn more due to varied short term contracts •Swot to succeed _ fast track special _precocious •Evolve into a consultant • •11/4/2011 89
  • 90. The consultant  What is it  Short/long term employment  Why  No mistake mentality  Time saving  Extra quality  How  Consultancies  Head _ hunt  Agencies(least popular)  Whom  Expert at what they do  Seeking value adding experience  Years of experience and a qualified advisor  Difference  You are expected to work twice as hard  Intolerance, you must get it right  Short term  Positives  Paid thrice as your PE counterpart  Learn more due to varied short term contracts  Swot to succeed _ fast tack specialist11/4/2011  90 Evolve into a super _ consultant
  • 91. The freelancer What is it As _you _ like employment Why Financial remuneration Professional confidence Personal freedom How Agencies Head_ hunt Whom Risk _ takers Good at what they do Seeking fast track experience Free_ roaming consultant Own their own time11/4/2011 Seek their own opportunities on the professional track 91
  • 92. Learning opportunity Research into the world of contracting and debate the following? Contracting is better than permanent employment11/4/2011 92
  • 93. Employment Matters11/4/2011 93
  • 94. Small vs. Large organisation11/4/2011 94
  • 95. Employment Agencies Agency11/4/2011 95
  • 96. Tax Considerations PAYE Self -Employed CompanyNICPAYEcorporation11/4/2011 96
  • 97. Homework Write a report on the ff.:- My preferred choice of employment and why Max. No Pages= 511/4/2011 97
  • 98. Project Roles and Responsibilities11/4/2011 98
  • 99. Learning objectives At end of this session, you should.. Appreciate the importance of roles and responsibilities in the workplace Have a better understanding of “Roles and responsibilities” in the project terms Know what is expected of you as a project professional i.e. your role and how your role interrelates with other roles11/4/2011 99
  • 100. Introduction As we learnt on the “project personnel” course, people…Are the lifeblood of projectsMake projects tickA project organisation as an entity performs a role i.e. “improve school infrastructure in Malaysia”… which is a sum of individual roles11/4/2011 100
  • 101. Role Every individual in an organisation or on a project must have a purpose for being part of an organisation i.e. Role To be effective, your role and corresponding responsibilities must be clear and well defined to Prevent duplication/overlap Prevent redundancy Save on cost . . . Class to fill in the blanks with lecturer(15mins)11/4/2011 101
  • 102. A Definition _ Role A brief description of the expectation (e.g. major assignments, tasks) of each individual or group resource assigned to the project Your role is …. The “part played” on the project Every role entail…. Duties and obligation known as “responsibilities”11/4/2011 102
  • 103. Your role is your first concern My responsibilities Secondly, you should also understand the role of your team mates and carefully manage any dependencies/linkages11/4/2011 103
  • 104. Project Roles-example A PROJECT ROLE UNIVERSITY TITLE Project sponsor Director of Security Project Director Assistance Director of Identity Management Project Manager Project Coordinator Identity Management Team Members Engineers, Training, Costumer Support, Marketing Customers Security SIG Members Customer Representatives Security SIG Members Stakeholders All the above, plus IT Policy Director, Consultant Advisor for HR Records11/4/2011 104
  • 105. Project Roles-example B Executive sponsor Project sponsor/directors Steering committee Project manager Vice president & academic service Vice president for information technologies Vp student & academic service Associate provost, admission &enrolment office11/4/2011 105
  • 106. The Job Description Roles and Responsilities of a particular job are formalised into a document called ”Job Description” The job description is A written statement that defines the duties, relationships and results expected of anyone in the job. An overall view of what is to be done in the job.11/4/2011 106
  • 107. Typically it includes Job Title Title of immediate supervisor Statement of the purpose of the job Primary Responsibilities List of typical duties and responsibilities General information related to the job Training requirements Tools use Location e.g. local or global projects Signature of the person who has prepared the job description Date11/4/2011 107
  • 108. Person Specification When filing a vacancy not only are in addition to qualifications, technical competence and experience employers seek for Professionalism Personality Special aptitudes Can do11/4/2011 108
  • 109. Example Person Specification• PROFESSIONALISM A diplomatic project manager able to work at board level on a global scale• PERSONALITY Strong decisive leader Perfectionist• SPECIAL APTITUDES what aptitudes would be useful to the job. Excellent English communication (2way), assertiveness, able to work under pressure, articulate, able to follow procedures and suggest improvements Lecturer to discuss each point with class giving examples 10911/4/2011
  • 110. Your role in action… You should be a “walking and talking “ version of your job Description and Person Specificification Tips A lot of professionals are on their best behavior at interviews and have learnt the tactics of ‘getting the job” Your behavior throughout the projects must consistently reflect the agreement you mage with organization at the onset. If the person specification details the need for a leader, you must be seen to act as a leader at all times.11/4/2011 110
  • 111. What is the importance of “Role and Responsibilities”?11/4/2011 111
  • 112. Assigning responsibilities… Documents the relationship between participants involved in the project Ensure adequate resources are available and Notifies each individual what is expected of them. Prevents Confusion i.e. who should be doing what if things go wrong or a challenge is being faced Duplication of effort due to lack of role clarity etc. Errors or substandard work products i.e. ensures the right person(skis, experience etc) is assigned to the job Classroom discussion Discuss the pros and cons of “Role creep” and “Evolving roles”11/4/2011 112
  • 113. How are roles created?11/4/2011 113
  • 114. The approach Identify what needs to be done (e.g. major assignment, tacks.) Create a list of necessary roles for the project. Identify the best resource/staff to serve in these roles. Obtain resource commitments. Create a list that includes the name and contact information for each person serving in ach role, along with the key responsibilities associated with each role. Lecturer to discuss each point with class11/4/2011 114
  • 115. Role Management11/4/2011 115
  • 116. Remits and Boundaries Roles have to be carefully managed(formally and informally) to ensure project success i.e. team members may have their roles and responsibilities clearly defined on paper however in reality weak leadership and/or team personalities can affect the dynamics of a project team Project management should watch out for individuals who (most times subconsciously)tread on other peoples territories i.e. crosses boundaries and creep into other people space. This could have a negative effect on the success of the project or hamper progress11/4/2011 116
  • 117. Learning opportunity Class discussion Why would anyone creep into their team members role/responsibilities when they have their own work to get on with? Why does this happen in the work place11/4/2011 117
  • 118. Project Success or FailureA project can succeed or fail depending on thecharacter of the community formed by its membersi.e. the corporate or team cultureIt is the members who contribute their effort andtime to realize the projects ideas and goals.Accordingly, because the project members are soimportant to the eventual success of the project, itis important that the project manager clearlyestablish the rules and guidelines determiningmember participation, including their roles, andarticulate what they can expect from the project.11/4/2011 118
  • 119. Project Role Hierarchy To effectively manage the different roles in a project/organization, reporting lines must be established and adhered to Reporting lines are essential Effective communication Effective problem _solving and issue resolution Progress monitoring Lecturer to discuss each point with class11/4/2011 119
  • 120. Project people Network Project sponsor Project manager project board E_ business consultant web developer database specialist Graphics design Marketing Networking your people into a clear framework _ OBS, OC Organization breakdown structure Organization chart11/4/2011 120
  • 121. Learning opportunity Scenarios Youve been giving the role of project coordinator to assist on a new imitative and are facing the following problems three weeks into the job:- The project manager (PM)does not invite you to key meetings and you feel in the dark about project matters The PM hogs all the work leaving you to do the filing only PM is permanently stressed and this is reflecting badly on you because people keep referring to you as the PM”s deputy and yet there is little or no improvement in his over _ stretched schedule You feel you are not adding any value What do you think the problem could be? How would you tackle the above to ensure a win _ win with the PM? Classroom Exercise11/4/2011 121
  • 122. Homework Write a report on the ff:- The importance of clearly defined roles in relation to project success covering approach for effective “Role Management Max . No. pages=511/4/2011 122
  • 123. The project Administrator11/4/2011 123
  • 124. The project Administrator This role is key to the smooth running of a project especially where paperwork and data/information management are concerned The project manager is on board to:- Coordinative the team Solve problem Make decision Keep the client/board satisfied and Ultimately deliver the product/service With the above responsibilities, it is key project manager has the right administrative support to stay focused ensuring an effective and efficient delivery. The administrative support role is kwon as the project administrator11/4/2011 124
  • 125. Project Management Professional (PMP) The project administrator role can be described as the :- Most junior PMP or First rung on the PMP ladder Entry level for novices11/4/2011 125
  • 126. Project Administrator-org. chart A• Project manager• Project coordinator• Technical consultant• Project admnistrator• Technical team A• Technical team B• Technical team N11/4/2011 126
  • 127. Project Administrator Summary The project administrator This has general administrative responsibilities, but may also require a focus on a particular area, such as finance or human resources administration. The project administrator may provide support to all people at the project, as determined by the engagement lead. Will need to have administrative experience, excellent organisational and communication skill and the ability to mange a11/4/2011 127 diverse workload
  • 128. Getting a job as a project AdministratorTo become a project administrator, some knowledge ofprojects of project management is ideal but not essential.However, if the project is large, specialist and/or complex, anexperienced individual may be required.Candidates with formal PM qualifications stand a higherchance of success when applying for project admin. RolesThe essential qualities are:-Excellent communication skills(spoken and written)Accuracy, reliability and attention –to-detailConscientiousness and diligenceExcellent time managementA practical understanding of administration and organisation11/4/2011 128
  • 129. Programme Administrator11/4/2011 129
  • 130. Programme AdministratorThe programme Administrator is a more senior form ofthe project Administrator. In this role, you are expectedto:-Support multiple project managersWork on multiple project plansFacilitate monitoring and controlling of the programmeportfolioManage interdependencies (internal and external)To be effective, you would usually work with one or moreproject administrator to cope with the demands of theprogramme.11/4/2011 130
  • 131. Programme Admin. –org. chart BProgramme managerProgramme coordinatorProgramme administratorTechnical expert industry specialist.11/4/2011 131
  • 132. Programme Administrator SummaryThe programme administrator handles day-to-dayfunctions and serves as the liaison betweencontractors, architects, and program managers.Outstanding organization and communication skill arerequired for rapid feedback and issue resolution, helping tokeep projects on schedule and within budget.Work as part of a team who get things done. You will beassisting the project managers in this lager organizationpreparing reports and documents, maintaining internalrecords, and constantly meeting strict deadlines.11/4/2011 132
  • 133. prG Admin. – Key ResponsibilitiesAct as central information source by maintaining anddistributing project detail e.g. contact details/organizationcharts and contractual details.Provide administrative assistance to the project team (e.g.workspace issues, equipment, facilities issues, and voicemail.Research, compile, process and coordinate project data e.g.data entry, report generation and work plans.Prepare correspondence, reports, and high qualitypresentations.Handle extensive travel and accommodation arrangements(including leases for housing and cars) and prepare itinerariesfor analysts, consultants and executives on the engagement.11/4/2011 133
  • 134. prG Admin.- Specific responsibilitiesSpecific responsilities include assisting project mangers with allaspects of project administration including, but not limited to:Prepare and edit requests for proposals, and contractsPrepare reports and spreadsheetsTypes and distribute meeting minutesCompile and update budget reports for projectsMaintain contact information and act as liaison betweenowners, architects, and contractorsReview for approval purchase requests, invoices, and changeordersMaintain project drawings and specificationMaintain all project files11/4/2011 134
  • 135. Person SpecificationEssential At least 1year office experience• Outstanding organizational and administrative abilities• Excellent written and verbal communication skills• Able to priorities and manage multiple tasks• Flexible, conscientious and team-oriented• Strong computer skills, including proficiency in Microsoft word, excel and power point• Good sense of humor and eagerness to learn11/4/2011 135
  • 136. prG Admin.-RequirementsRequirements:1. A solid team player.2. Able to work well within different organizational cultures.3. Ability to be resourceful and multi-task.4. Ability to work well independently and in a virtual team environment.5. Excellent written and oral communication skills6. Advanced knowledge of outlook, word excel and PowerPoint applications.11/4/2011 136
  • 137. prG Admin.-QualificationsMust have five years administrative experience, with minimum one yearin the administration of design/construction contracts forstate, federal, and country governments.Must have demonstrated consistent successful prior performance inadministration of small to larger size projects, base on projectperformance including budget an schedule, client satisfaction, projectteam satisfaction, and business unit expectations.PMP certification is preferred but not required.Must have demonstrated proficiency with project managementsoftware as well as MS outlook, and internet explorer.Experience with MS project, PowerPoint, and project is a plus, officemanagement experience is beneficial11/4/2011 137
  • 138. prG Admin.-job. Spec.Title :programme AdministratorDepartment :programmeReports to: promgrammeLocation : LondonOverall purpose of the jobThe programme administrator post is an important role withinthe UK programme department. Reporting to the programmemanager, the programme administrator will work closely withthe programme team to provide administrative support toORBIS UK,s programme department and volunteermanagement portfolio. This is a new position, ideal forsomeone who enjoys being part of a dynamic team andmanaging a diverse workload. 11/4/2011 138
  • 139. Cont…Main responsibilities:Provide day to day administrative support to theprogramme team including photocopying, word processingand data entryManage telephone calls, programme enquiries and visitorsProvide support during the recruitment processHanding equipment and supplies ordersFilling all relevant and accurate information using in-houseproject systemsEnsuring databases maintain accurate detail using in-houseproject systemsSupporting programme management portfolio by: 11/4/2011 139
  • 140. The project office(PO)How does the project/Programme Administratorrole relate to the po?11/4/2011 140
  • 141. Project Admin and The POProject and prograM Administrators are sometimes basedin the project office (po).This is prevalent on large, complex or multiple projects.The project administrator will work with the po team i.e.project/prograM office Manager, planners to facilitateeffective monitoring and control of the initiativesExperience project/prograM Administrators with training in PM methodologies and tools usually evolve into project support officer (pso) or project office managers 11/4/2011 141
  • 142. HomeworkThese two roles are sometime based in theproject officeProject manager project coordinatorTechnical consultantProject administratorTechnical team ATechnical team BTechnical team N11/4/2011 142
  • 143. The PSO(Project Support Officer) RESPONSIBILITIES The PSO will provides essential service to the members of the project team. The potholders will have experience of working with multi-disciplinary teams, good communication and organizational skills and a good general grounding in project/ Programmes in IT environment. You will also have excellent knowledge of MS office e.g. word, excel, access and have the ability to write clear, concise reports, minutes and documents. Attention to detail is essential as is an understanding of project management terminology, ideally prince 211/4/2011 143
  • 144. HomeworkWrite a report on the ff:-The roles of a project and programmeadministrators and how , in your opinion, theseroles facilitate project successMax . No Pages =511/4/2011 144
  • 145. The Technical Consultant (TC)11/4/2011 145
  • 146. At the end of this session:You should have an appreciation of:The technical consultant role and how it fit intothe project management frameworkThe relevance/ importance of the technicalconsultant where project are concernedThe job description of a technical consultantThe hallmarks of a technical consultant11/4/2011 146
  • 147. The Technical Consultant Project manager Project coordinator Technical consultant Project administrator Technical team A Technical team B Technical team N11/4/2011 147
  • 148. Why do we need a TC?Project span across all industries and areas of specialism.For this reason, project managers are needed to deliverthese initiatives on time to budget and quality standardsirrespective of their technical orientation or lack of it.Project managers with the right experience and skills- setshould be able to deliver any initiative whether they aretechnically inclined w.r.t to the project or unfamiliar withthe industry.Where a project manager does not have prior technical orindustry experience on board to provide guidance andexpertise in this respect.11/4/2011 148
  • 149. Hallmarks of a TC A Tc is a technical specialist in a particular field or industry e.g. construction, oil and gas, information technology who can be described using the following phrases… “Risen through the rank” “cream of the crop” “been there done that” See the chart on the next slide Classroom discussion(10mins.)11/4/2011 149
  • 150. Career Progression –Ogr Chart Examples• Information technology career progressionTechnical project managerTeam leaderTechnical architectAnalystJunior analystBuilding –career progressionSite managerSite supervisorForemanPlasterer /decoratorLabourerClassroom discussion (10mins.)11/4/2011 150
  • 151. Importance of the TC role This role is key to the project mangers success in the following ways:-The TC responsibilities in summary are:- Deputy and advisor (on technical matters)to the project manager Assists with recruiting and coordinating the technical team Involved in the quality assurance of the technical aspects of the project11/4/2011 151
  • 152. The TC”s Scope 1. Reporting to the project manager 2. Coordinating the technical the team 3. E.t.c. Project manager Project coordinator Technical consultant Project administration Technical team A Technical team B Technical team N11/4/2011 152
  • 153. A true expert The TC is an expert because he /she has… Started from the most junior role of the area of specialism and risen to the top and therefore “seen it all” Worked with related specialist on various projects and understands the interrelationships between the technical roles Progressed up the specialist ladder and posses a deep understanding of the potential problems, risks and challenges and how to overcome them An overview and in-depth knowledge in the area of specialism or industry 11/4/2011 153
  • 154. Learning Opportunity Lecturer to discuss the 2 sample job descriptions in detail with the class11/4/2011 154
  • 155. Homework Write a report on :-The importance of the technical consultant role in relation to industry success where projects are concernedMax. No. Pages= 511/4/2011 155
  • 156. The projectCoordinator(PC)11/4/2011 156
  • 157. At the end of this session: You should have an appreciation of: The project coordinator role and how it fits into the project management framework The relevance/importance of the project coordinator role i.e. to ensure project success The job description of a project coordinator The hallmarks of a project coordinator11/4/2011 157
  • 158. Project coordinator A PC can be described as a project managers deputy To qualify for this role, individuals should have:- Experience the full lifecycle of at least one project office personnel Posses the core skills of a project manager such as leadership, team-building, people management, time management e.tc. Though the project manager is ultimately accountable for the project, the project coordinator is responsible for the smooth running of the project and helps the project manager attain success See the chart on the next slide Classroom discussion(10mins.)11/4/2011 158
  • 159. The project coordinator –org. chart1. Reporting to the project manager2. Coordinating the entire team.Project managerProject coordinatorTechnical consultantProject administratorTechnical team ATechnical BTechnical N11/4/2011 159
  • 160. Importance of the PC roleProject FactsThe project manager role in any industry can be a quitea challenging one. This is true because even project uniqueand will have unforeseen problems and “unknown”aspects. This require the PM to be proactive and solutiondriven it all timesSuccessfully delivering a project of considerable sizerequires a varied team of individuals and each individualjoin the team with their peculiar personalities therefore itcan be quite a job managing the team(motivation, effective communication e.t.c} and in additionto this managing time, budget, quality e.t.c11/4/2011 160
  • 161. Project Coordinator HallmarksA PC can be described using the following phrases…Thoroughly understands PM concepts and methodsHas “Effective leader”People personTeam playerPlanning specialistHas “PM potential”11/4/2011 161
  • 162. Career progression-Org Chart ExamplesCareer progression Examples 1Project coordinatorProgramme plannerProject plannerJnr. Project plannerProject administratorCareer progression example 2Project coordinatorProgramme office coordinatorProject office analystProject plannerProject office administrator11/4/2011 162
  • 163. Why do we need a PC? Manager projects can be very demanding and stressful hence the need for a deputy to carry out the secondary tasks whilst the PM focuses on his/her primary responsibilities. These primary responsibilities include:- Decision-making Meeting with the board/client Authorizing Expenditure Resource management The above must be performed by the project manager and cannot be delegated to anyone else.11/4/2011 163
  • 164. Why do we need a PC(2)? However, secondary tasks such as:-Preparing presentations and other project reportsAnalysing the project plan for deviationsReviewing the issues, risk and change logsAnalyzing CVs and preliminary interviewing Can be performed in full or part by the PC giving the PM more time to effectively and efficiently perform the primary non-transferable tasks. The PMs efforts should be focused on the core aspects of managing the project to ensure success 16411/4/2011
  • 165. PC Responsibilities The PC responsibilities in summary are:- Deputy and advisor(on project and people matters)to the project manager Assists with recruiting the project team i.e PMPs Assists with coordinating the entire team(PMPs and technical/specialist) Involved in careful management of the project plan Attends certain project meetings (e.g. supplier meetings, sub-project team meeting e.t.c)on the PMs behalf A human early-warning –system … informs the PM of unrecorded issues, risk, grievance gleaned from the “grapevine”11/4/2011 165
  • 166. Learning OpportunityLecturer to discuss the 2 sample jobdescriptions in detail with the class11/4/2011 166
  • 167. HomeworkReport objective:-Compare the role of a project coordinator and project administrator highlighting similarities and differences Max. No Pages = 511/4/2011 167
  • 168. Assisting the PMThe PC is in a position to assist the project managerbecause he/she has…Started from the most junior PMp role ,has shadowed anumber of project managers and learnt from themWorked on various projects, understands the uniquenessof projects and how to achieve project successPractical understanding of project planningWorking knowledge of project control and monitoringmethods/ eyetems 11/4/2011 168
  • 169. Learning opportunity Lecturer to discuss the 2 sample job descriptions in detail with the class11/4/2011 169
  • 170. HomeworkReport objective:-Compare the role of a project coordinator andproject administrator highlighting similaritiesand differentMax. No Pages=511/4/2011 170
  • 171. The Research Analyst( RA)11/4/2011 171
  • 172. At the end of this session:You should have an appreciation of:The Research Analyst role and how it fits intothe project management frameworkThe relevance/importance of the ResearchAnalyst where project are concernedWhere project description of a ResearchAnalystThe hallmarks of a Research Analyst11/4/2011 172
  • 173. Who is a Research Analyst? An individual expert at gathering, synthesizing and compiling data into useful information for decision-making This individual is on a mission to "seek and find”11/4/2011 173
  • 174. Why do we need a RA? The RA or Research Team assists the entire project with finding “SMART” information i.e. facts and figures Specific Measurable Accurate Reliable/relevant Timely The research Analyst feeds useful information to the team which can be further analyzed by senior management and used for decision –making This resource is used especial where tendering is concerned i.e. consultancies analyze vast amounts of information to formulate the best solution to win project bids/ clients11/4/2011 174
  • 175. RA cont… Whilst the project manager concentrates on… Managing people(the team, clients, suppliers)etc Problem –solving and decision-making Communication activities The Research Analyst is on point to ”fact -find” without interruptions. Having a dedicated RA role is key to ensuring the quality of data/information especially when running a project management consultancy.11/4/2011 175
  • 176. Research Skills and Projects Aside from normal project operations, it is ideal to ensure you have effective research analysis capabilities on the team either in the form of a dedicated role or across the team. The RA role could also be a joint one i.e. Technical consultant /Research Analyst or Project coordinator/Research Analyst See org. chart on the next slide11/4/2011 176
  • 177. The Research Analyst Project manager Project coordinator (Research Analyst) Technical consultant(Research Analyst) Project administrator Technical team A Technical team B Technical N11/4/2011 177
  • 178. RA job Description - SummaryApart from information gathering i.e. facts andfigures, the RA is expected toAssist with problem –solving i.e. presenting possiblesolutions to problems faced on the project.Have a good understanding of the project objective andthe ability to think out-of-the-boxIt is essential you recruit an individual with the rightproject / technical experience to be in a position toeffectively perform the RA role and support the projectteam11/4/2011 178
  • 179. Hallmarks of an effective RA In addition to research skills, a RA should have/fit the following qualities/phrases:-MeticulousDetailedAccurateTime consciousThink-out-the-boxSolution-driven Classroom discussion(15mins.)11/4/2011 179
  • 180. A RA is expected to…Work from a sketchy outline/requestHave meeting with key staff to understand theResearch request/ information requirement orproblemPerform thorough searches using:-Multiple search engines to obtain a wide amount of information/search resultsOther source of information such as library, archives etc.Compare information and present most reliable pictureRead through vast amounts of information, performanalyses and make conclusions11/4/2011 180
  • 181. Sources of information The main source of information today is the INTERNET WHY? Easy access Non-location specific-can work from home Save printing reams of paper Easy processing –copy and paste information into your report tool Accurate data from company and government websites Saves money11/4/2011 181
  • 182. Importance of the RA role 10 reasons the RA role is essential to project success Classroom Exercise11/4/2011 182
  • 183. Project Management Professionals“research Analysis” is key skill which everyproject management personnel/ professionalshould possessEvery project manager is expected to have goodresearch skills even when he/she has a dedicatedRA on board.Classroom discussion (10mins)11/4/2011 183
  • 184. Research lifecycle -outline Request Information requirement research request Understand request have clarification meeting where required Plant the research task Report produce and publish research report Synthesis and consultant Commence research11/4/2011 184
  • 185. Learning opportunityLecturer to discuss the 4 sample jobdescriptions in detail with the class11/4/2011 185
  • 186. Homework Write a report on:-Write a detailed job description of a Research AnalystsMax. No. Pages = 211/4/2011 186
  • 187. The project Manager Who is accountable?11/4/2011 187
  • 188. Session Objective:You should already have an appreciation of theproject managers role from the e-learning andstandard certificate PM modules.This module serves as a refresher and amethod of confirming your understanding ofthe project manager roleThe lecturer will question the class throughoutthe session to test the student understanding ofthis role.11/4/2011 188
  • 189. Who is a project Manager?The individual accountable for the successful delivery of aproject(usually from inception to completion).Simply a clever juggler of timemoney, people, requests/requirements to meet an objective etcOther DefinitionsAgent responsible for managing the process of changeOversees the development of a new productIs fully responsible for a productClassroom Exercise:Each student should, in their own words, give a uniquedefinition of the term “project manager”15mins11/4/2011 189
  • 190. The project manager-org. chartProject managerProject coordinatorTechnical consultantProject administratorTechnical team ATechnical team BTechnical N11/4/2011 190
  • 191. Why are project manager needed To turn the clients dream into reality Single accountability Learning ship-no matter how highly experience or technically sophisticated the team still needs a leader for coherence and symphony Provide direction to team of expert Single point of contact between client/senior management and team. Effective use of resource- in and out approach Work out project requirements –effort, resource, timescales Allow the business champions carry on with business as usual Allow ideas-generators to get on with development of other ideas 11/4/2011 191
  • 192. Project Manager –Job DescriptionExperience ofDefining & scoping a projectPlanning activitiesManaging resourcesCo-ordinationIssue, risk and change managementReporting to senior management(and all level)Excellent communications skill (oral & written)Excellent presentation & documentation skillsPM/ planning s/w user – MS project 2000/2Methodology –PRINCE2Class to fill in the blanks 11/4/2011 192
  • 193. How do project management operate?Full understanding of objective(thinking clearly on ones feet)Attention to detailDont blow over email, read through carefully and respondstraightawayA sense of urgencyProactive communication & problem solving (nick theproblems in the bud)With a methodologyA guide from the start to the endFull of facts11/4/2011 193
  • 194. A Project Managers PersonalityExcellent leaderNegotiator (turns impossibilities into possibilities)Good judgment (premised on SMART information)Fair – listens to both (all) sidesOrganised (structured and in control)Team builder (focus on team synergy)Great communicator – spoken written body language etcPeople skills-at all level i.e. client ,seniormanagement, peers, team…etcInstills confidence – can do and does do attitude 11/4/2011 194
  • 195. The “Organised” Project Manager Operates with a project file & project book A categorized record of the project documentation IN PLACE Your note and observation IN ONE PLACE Other medium: In addition to manual records and electrons devices, computer or web- based systems can be used to log and manage project information, events etc. examples include:- PDAs Bespoke in – house project systems, MS outlook Online project solution etc11/4/2011 195
  • 196. The mindset for deliveryEvery project manager is expected to think onhis/her feet at all times proactively with aproblem – solving and tracking attitude.Classroom discussionWhat else is required for successful delivery?11/4/2011 196
  • 197. Homework  Report objective:- Compare the role of a project manager and general manager highlighting similarties and differences. Max. No. Pages = 511/4/2011 197
  • 198. Project Management concepts11/4/2011 198
  • 199. At the end of this session:You should have an appreciation of the key PMconcepts i.e.1.Project definition2.Project strategy & work breakdown structure3. Project management methodologies4.PM software tools5. Project control6. Project success 11/4/2011 199
  • 200. 1. Project Definition11/4/2011 200
  • 201. Project DefinitionA project definition describes exactly the common understanding, its extent and nature, among the key people involved in a project.The definition provides a foundation upon which successful project are built.In many cases a definition serves as a sort of contract between the parties participating in a project, clearly stating expectation for project time, resource11/4/2011 201
  • 202. Who develops a project Definition?A project manager drafts a projectdefinition, but its development is a team effort.The definition is an agreement among keyparticipants in a project, and must have inputfrom all of those participants.11/4/2011 202
  • 203. What kinds of projects need a project definition?All projects need to go through the definitionprocess. Lack of a definition leads to unclear andambiguous goals, confusion,misunderstanding, and poor communication.Failure to formalise and documentscope, goals, and expectations puts a project atrisk before it even beings.11/4/2011 203
  • 204. Getting StartedTo get started with the project definitionprocess, the project manager needs tounderstand and be able to communicate thefollowing information tosponsors, customers, management prospectiveteam members (much of this information will bederived from the project managers interactionwith these same people)11/4/2011 204
  • 205. Project Definition Template FormA project definition template is available to help getyour project started. The process of completing thistemplate is intended to raise questions that willrequire effort to find the answers. The morecomplete the answers the better the projectdefinition.See the attached.Class exercise: using the attached project definitiontemplate produce a project definition for theongoing JCH project11/4/2011 205
  • 206. 2. Project Strategy & Work breakdown Structures a) Strategy (clear and structure) b) Breakdown structures11/4/2011 206
  • 207. Project strategy6 key questionsWhat?Why?How?When?Who?Where?11/4/2011 207
  • 208. How?.......... The Approach• safety11/4/2011 208
  • 209. Project Strategy (2) The 6 key question forms the basis for most project documentation Answering these question ensure all area are assessed and addressed objectively Facilitates clarity of thought and feasibility Facilitates communication of the projects importance to stakeholders Basis for working out the project benefits Guarantees a more successful outcome11/4/2011 209
  • 210. Project Strategy - Example6 key questionsWhat: become a project managerWhy: professional development and higherremunerationHow: attend a training course & gain work experienceWhen: march 2003Who: expertprojectmanager.comWhere: united kingdomPM TIP –thinking it through before stepping forward11/4/2011 210
  • 211. Breakdown StructuresSuccessfully getting to the end point by design and not accidentCan –do attitude – I can do all thingsThe art of chunking for easier assimilation i.e.Disintegrating and de-categorizationCategorization and re- integratingEnabling effective delegationAnd perfecting then consolidating for successThe sum of the parts makes the whole – sanity checkGrouping into similar themes-creating orderEnsuring all parts are covered – completeness checkEvery aspect has a home = “no lost action”11/4/2011 211
  • 212. Why Breakdown Structures?  See the trees from the forest  Motivation to act and deliver  Eases delegation, scheduling and cating  Counters project failure  Chaos  Crisis  Confusion  Fear (being overwhelmed)  Street map – code of recognition  Effective control & monitoring  Identifying and solving problems  Manager dependencies11/4/2011 212
  • 213. Breakdown Structure-Success by design  Used to form the basis for Writing project documents Producing plans Project breakdown i.e. for scoping Producing budgets Preparing agendas Designing workshops And so on………..11/4/2011 213
  • 214. Breakdown Structures-TechniquesBottom –up design Starting with the objective, Brainstorm activities and then order logically top down Chunk the project work into smaller sections/departments/area Further chunk to the lowest level of details (task) 11/4/2011 214
  • 215. Breakdown Structures – how?Bottom-upBrainstorming- listing out activities required with people involvedNo missing componentsGroup according to common thread/theme i.e. dept. location.etcCreate a skeleton and hang the piecesDoes it all add up? Top down Analyze the objective Create logical homes 1st level compartments De- compartmentalization11/4/2011 215
  • 216. Breakdown Structure Class exercise: Produce a work breakdown structure for the ongoing JCH project11/4/2011 216
  • 217. 3. Project ManagementMethodologies11/4/2011 217
  • 218. Project Management Project management is a carefully planned and organized effort to accomplish a specific (and usually) one-time effort, for example, construct a building or implement a new computer system. Project management includes developing a project plan, which includes defining project goals and objectives, specifying tasks or how goals will be achieved, what resources are need, and associating budgets and timelines for completion. It also includes implementing the project plan, along with careful controls to stay on the “critical path” that is, to ensure the plan is being manager according to plan.11/4/2011 218
  • 219. Project ManagementMethodologies 1Modern thinking leads systems developers to havea plan of their project, so that various phases can beidentified and dealt with in an orderly and effectivemanner.Methodologies have been developed to effectorderly delivery in the systems world and beyondi.e. where projects are concernedThere has been written criticism in the I.S literaturestating planning is stifling innovative project work. 11/4/2011 219
  • 220. Project Management Methodologies 2 PM theory (and practice) does not agree with the above as planning is a key PM technique for successful delivery. The innovation and delivery teams should work hands in hand to delivery innovative solution/projects on time. This is usually achieve through the use on an appropriate methodology(technical and/or PM)11/4/2011 220
  • 221. PM Methodologies cont… This section covers a number of “methodologies” for delivery projects. Some are developed “in-house” by companies for their own environment and are considered to be commercial-in-confidence releasing little information into the public domain. Others are developed commercially and require a license fee before more information is released. Each methodologies will be discussed to highlight the similarities and reinforce the benefits of organized project delivery.11/4/2011 221
  • 222. prompt Project Resource organization management & planning technical A project management framework develop originally by the central computing and telecommunications Agency(CCTA- the civil service technical branch)in response to an outcry that computer projects were over-running on time estimated for completion and initial budgets are set in the feasibility study. Factors of double, treble and even ten-times were experienced. PROMPT was an attempt to set down guideline for the stage flow through a computer project as follows: 11/4/2011 222
  • 223. Cont….Feasibility Study- to determine whether the project should bedone/can be done/will work if it is done.Initial Stage- where the project organization is set up.Specification stage- in which the user specification was detailed.Design Stage- where the logical and from this the physical design ofthe computer system was designed in detailDevelopment Stage- the system is built and tested.Installation Stage- the user accepts (hopefully) a working system.Operation Stage-when the system is tuned for the work in hand.This led on to the development of PRINCE11/4/2011 223
  • 224. PRINCEProject IN controlled Environments:Produced in 1989 by the central computing andTelecommunications Agency (CCTA) a government agency forthe development and implementation of IS/IT projects.The main features are:A defined management structure.A system of plans for resourcing and technical issuesA set of control proceduresA focus on products-deliverable to the customer andproject deliverables for the management of the project.11/4/2011 224
  • 225. PRINCE cont….Business assurance co-ordinator known as the BAC whose function is tomonitor that the project is in line with the business mission of thecompany, and to report back at progress meetings. This assures that theproject stays in the best interests of the company and other work in otherprojects.Technical Assurance co-ordinator who monitors the technical aspects ofthe project and assures that it does not get into technical difficulties.User Assurance co-ordinaor who represents the eventual user. Noticethat this is done all through the project and not left (as in days gone by)to the last minute after software has been developed and hardwarepurchased.All in all a sensible and workable syetem 11/4/2011 225
  • 226. PRINCE cont(2)… However the PRINCE methodologies developed a reputation as being too unwieldy too rigid and applicable only to large projects. In our experience this method can and should be adapted to the company culture and project in hand, and has been used on a variety of project right down to single person projects. It can work to the great advantage of managing a project. But equally people can misuse it to draw opposite conclusions. It is true that a few determined people can persuade the majority away from PRINCE11/4/2011 226
  • 227. Useful web site for PRINCEhttp://www.ccta.gov.uk/prince.htm{PRINCE 2}http://www.pug.mcmail.com/index.htm{PRINCEusers’ Group}http://www.prince2.com{covers PRINCE 2}http://www.apmgroup.co.ukhttp://.bcs.org.uk/siggroup/sg47.htm{PROMS-G}http://www.pmi.org/http://www.noggon.com/p2http://www.spoce.com11/4/2011 227
  • 228. IDEALInitiation1. Set context2. Build sponsorship/support3. Character infrastructure Diagnostics1.Characteris current and desired states2.Develop recommendations Establishing1.Set priorities2deveiop approach3.Plan actionsAction1.Create solution2.Pilot and test solution3.Refine solution4.Improve solution 11/4/2011 228
  • 229. BPMMBATES project Management Methodology5 major planning steps as follows:Project charterWBS(work Breakdown structure)Work package planProject scheduleProject budgetWeb site : http:/www.bates.ca/11/4/2011 229
  • 230. Prodigy Prescribing RatiOnally with Decision-support in General practice studY Relating to the Nation Health Service and medical industry. Project management group consist of who are responsible for strategy Project manger Project team leader PMO from the NHS Executive Branch head from NHS Executive SMO from NHS Executive Branch head from NHS Executive11/4/2011 230
  • 231. 5 STEPS 5 steps To Ensure Project Success 5- STEP is a structure methodology designed to assist individual project teams deliver the project on time within budget. The focus is on developing a realistic schedule for a project and then managing it. Each step must be validate by all participants before moving to the next step. The 5 step must be executed sequentially in this order: Organize the project Structure the process model Set reasonable objectives Gain commitment. Manage the project.11/4/2011 231
  • 232. SUPRAThe framework for SUPRA is similar to PRINCEand consists of the following:Project organization structure –which is brokendown into: Overall project level Work package levelTechnical plan.Project monitoring and control.Quality assurance. Document management.11/4/2011 232
  • 233. Impoverished Leader (low task, lowrelationship)A leader who uses a “delegate and disappear” management style.Since they are not committed to either task accomplishment ormaintenance they essentially allow their team to do whatever it wishesand prefer to detach themselves from the team process by allowing theteam to suffer from a series of power struggles.The most desirable place for a leader to be along the two axes at mosttimes would be a 9 on task and a 9 on people- the team leader. However , do not entirely dismiss the other three. Certain situationmight call for one of the other three to be used at times. For example, by playing the impoverished leader, you allow your team to gain self-reliance. Be an authoritarian leader to instill a sense of discipline in anunmotivated worker. By carefully studying the situation and the forceaffecting it, you will know at what points along the axes you need to beorder to achieve the desired result.11/4/2011 233
  • 234. LeadershipStyles11/4/2011 234
  • 235. Styles of leadershipThere are ways to lead and every leader has his or her own style. Someof the more common styles includeautocratic, bureaucratic, democratic, and laisssez-faire.In the pas several decades, management experts have undergone arevolution in how they define leadership and what their attitudes aretoward creative, participative approach. Somewhere along the line , itwas determined that not everything old was bad and not everything newwas good. Rather, different styles were needed for different situationsand each leader needed to know when to exhibit a particular approach.Four of the most basic leader styles are:AutocraticBureaucraticLaissez-fairedemocratic 11/4/2011 235
  • 236. Autocratic Leadership Style This is often considered the classical approach. It is one in which the manager retains as much power and decision- making authority as possible. The manager does not consult employees, nor are they allowed to give any input. Employees are expected to obey orders without receiving any explanations. The motivation environment is produced by creating a structured set of rewards and punishments. This leadership style has been greatly criticized during the past 30 years. Some studies say that organizations with many autocratic leaders have higher turnover and absenteeism than other organizations. Certainly Gen X employees have proven to be highly resistant to this management style.11/4/2011 236
  • 237. Autocratic Leader Style - 2 These studies say that autocratic leader: Rely on threats and punishment to influence employees Do not trust employees Do not allow for employee input Yet, autocratic leadership is not all bad. Sometimes it is the most effective style to use. These situations can include: new, untrained employees who do not know which tasks to perform or which procedures to follow Effective supervision can be provided only through detailed orders and instructions Employees do not respond to any other leadership style11/4/2011 237
  • 238. Autocratic Leader Style -3There are high- volume production needs on a basisThere is limited time in which to make a decisionA managers power is challenged by an employeeThe area was poorly managedWork needs to be coordinated with another department or organizationThe autocratic leadership style should not be used when:Employees become tense, fearful, or resentfulEmployees expect to have their opinions heardEmployees begin depending on their manager to make all theirdecisionsThere is low employee morale, high turnover and absenteeism andwork stoppage 11/4/2011 238
  • 239. Bureaucratic Leadership StyleBureaucratic leadership is where the manager “by the book”everything must be done according to procedure or policy. If it isntcovered by the book, the manager refers to the next level above him orher.This manager is really more of a police officer than a leader: he or sheenforces the rules.This style can be effective when:Employees are performing routine tasks over and over.Employees need to understand certain standards or procedures.Employees are working with dangerous or delicate equipment thatrequires a definite set of procedures to operate.Safety or security training is being conducted.Employees are performing tasks that required handling cash.11/4/2011 239
  • 240. Democratic Leader StyleThe democratic leadership style is also called theparticipative style as it encourages employees to be apart of the decision making. The democratic managerkeeps his or her employees informed about everythingthat affects their work and shares decision making andproblem solving responsibilities. This style requires theleader to be a coach who has the final say, but gathersinformation from staff members before making adecision.Democratic leadership can produce high quality and highquantity work for long periods of time. Many employeeslike the trust they receive and respond withcooperation, team spirit, and high morale.11/4/2011 240
  • 241. At the end this session: You should have an appreciation of: The definition of a Programme The definition of Programme Management Relationship between Projects and Programmes The difference between Project and Programmme Management11/4/2011 241
  • 242. Project Hierarchy Is my project the be-all and end-all of the company? No Normally part of a programme or corporate initiatives portfolio11/4/2011 242
  • 243. What is a Project A group of activities to bring about change or create a new product/service Attributes Finite define life span Defined and measurable benefits11/4/2011 243
  • 244. What is a Programme A programme is a porfolio a co-ordinated way so to achieve a sect of defined business business objectives Programme- porfolio of projects11/4/2011 244
  • 245. What is ProgrammeManagement? Programme management is the planning, co- ordination and overseeing of a porfolio of projects with a common theme. Common Theme: Same delivery date, Same product, Same Technical Environment, Same Industry.11/4/2011 245
  • 246. Programme WBS Programme Project A Project B Project C User acceptance OperationalDesign system Build & Unit test System test Model office test acceptance test11/4/2011 246
  • 247. Example of a Programme  JC Heritage has a new mission to develop residential communities in key countries in Africa and the Caribbean islands.  How is the above a Programme? Prove it  Classroom Discussion11/4/2011 247
  • 248. Programme OrganizationClass exercise:Complete the JCHProgramme frameworkBase on theInformation receivedFrom JCH Project Term11/4/2011 248
  • 249. Learning OpportunityLecturer to discuss the 2 sample jobdescription in detail with the Class 11/4/2011 249
  • 250. Homework Write a report:-The difference between Project and programme ManagementMax. No. Page=511/4/2011 250
  • 251. Managementby Projects11/4/2011 251
  • 252. At the end this session : You, the aspiring PM professional, should Have an attitude of achieving business andPersonal objective by applying the PMTechniques learnt to date Knowing acquiring from classroom sessions and skills gained from the workshops Appreciate the importance of work-experienceand certification when starting a PM career11/4/2011 252
  • 253. Projects and Business “Management by Project” is an organised way of delivering initiatives and objectives to guarantee successful delivery. In a business context, “Management by Projects” is the medium for business expansion and gaining competitive advantage in the industry . Certain aspect of business are “as usual” and do not require project management expertise i.e. activity in the core business department e.g. Sales and Marketing, Finance and Account, Legal and Compliance etc Businesses are recognising the need to have a “Strategic and Delivery” programme as a department in its own right for the effective delivery of business-wide deliverables/products. Professional belongs within a business/organisation11/4/2011 253
  • 254. Project-oriented thinking  Now you can covered projects, Programmes and the various Project Roles in depth, we expect you to be project-oriented in the workplace (and in your personal life)  i.e. when posed with huge challenge, or multiple business objectives, use the project techniques learnt to achieve!  Project Management is an Achiever’s tools11/4/2011 254
  • 255. Operational ManagementVS. Project Management(1) An Operations/Business Manager is responsible for the day-to-day running of an organisation. This role entails:- Ensure employees work to their job descriptions Poutine Management i.e. most employees will have a set number of tasks to achieve on a daily/weekly basis Ensuring the business processes under their jurisdiction are running smoothly Meeting targets set by the CEO or Senior Management11/4/2011 255
  • 256. Operation ManagementVS. Project Management(2) In comparison, Project Management… Is a lot complex i.e. involve:- Multi-tasking across different business areas Jugging timescales , people and budgets Sometimes dealing with unknown territories and complex issues Management interfaces and dependencies In spirit of the above, project Managers are able to succeed because of the tried and tested techniques, methodologies and tools which have been formalised under the discipline “Project Management”11/4/2011 256
  • 257. The Project Management Profession  Though PM techniques have been practiced informally throughout history, Project Management as a discipline/processional is relatively new compared other professions  As the Project Management Profession is becoming more popular, it is essential PMPs have the required knowledge, experience and certifications to succeed in the global workplace  The quality of PM training one receives is essential however without work experience i.e. practicing the concepts, techniques learn on real projects, you may find it difficult to succeed on a project.11/4/2011 257
  • 258. The importance of work-experience  Project Management is very practical in its application and having experience is what facilitates the successful delivery of a project  Skill is required to contribute to the success of any project. PM skill are developed through practice i.e. work-experience  PMC has introduced PM workshops to ensure our students obtain some PM experience and develop the basic PM skills required to be able to perform in the workplace upon graduation11/4/2011 258
  • 259. Today’s Workplace… Employers expect employee (even the most junior) to hit the ground running from day one of starting the job I.e be able to get on with work and “add-value” with little or no supervision Without practical appreciation of projects and “how they work” finding and sustaining a job may challenging or impossible! The PM workshops serve as a medium for all PMC students to obtain work experience and a reference for professional job-hunting purposes at the end of the course Having some project experience will stand in good stead especially in the fierce competition for graduate-jobs11/4/2011 259
  • 260. The importance of certification As Project Management is becoming more and more accepted globally as a stand-alone profession, Employers encourage their employees to obtain world- recognized qualifications/ certifications to ensure project are be delivered to an acceptable standard PMC encourages Certification by:- APM- Association for Project Managers UK & world PMI- Project Management Institute USA & Worldwide11/4/2011 260
  • 261. In conclusionStudents are reminded to1. purchase and read the three prescribed PM books2. Attend the workshops to gain the necessary experience to works as a PMP3.Obtain professional Membership APM (see the college coordinator for more details)4. Register and pay for the Professional Examinations APM (see the college coordinator for more details)11/4/2011 261
  • 262. HOMEWORK Produce a powerpoint presentation on:- The benefits of Managing government initiatives/opportunities by projects in the developing world Presentation Audience: President and Ministerial Cabinet11/4/2011 262
  • 263. Quality Management- Projects11/4/2011 263
  • 264. Module Aims Quality and its management are key aspects of modern business, and have a great impact on both industrial and service sector enterprises. This module aims to develop an understanding of the issues involved and the approaches employed in quality improvement. Students should be able to answer the following:- What is Quality? What is Quality Management (QM)? Why QM for Project? QM Tools and Techniques11/4/2011 264
  • 265. At the end this session: Have a good understanding of Quality Management in project terms You’ll examine the critical components project quality: Identifying planning quality control, quality assurance and quality improvement You’ll also learn (from the PM workshops) about the quality management processes such as Indentifying customer requirements Cost-benefit analysis Benchmarking Cause and effect diagrams, flowcharting , control charts , pareto diagrams and quality audits, with hands-on-practice of many of those tools11/4/2011 265
  • 266. What is Quality? Quality is ultimately defined by the client and represents how close the project and the deliverables come to meeting the client requirements and expectations . The old adage about quality being in the eyes of the beholder is true-quality is ultimately measured by your client Your goal is to understand the client’s requirements and expectations, and then meet those requirements. This is a critical concept about quality.11/4/2011 266
  • 267. Quality is defined by… Quality is defined by the client and the approved industry/technical standard Sometimes there is a tendency to think that ‘quality’ means the best material, the best equipment and absolutely zero defects. However, in most cases, the clients dose not expect, and can not afford, a perfect solution. If there are a few bumps in the project or a few defects in the deliverables, the client can still say that the solution was delivered with a high level of quality. On the hand, a flawlessly designed, defect-free solution that dose not meet the client’s needs is not considered high quality. The purpose of quality management is to first understand the expectations of the client in terms of quality, and then put a proactive plan in place to meet those expectations.11/4/2011 267
  • 268. Other considerations In addition to understanding the client’s definition of quality, it is important to recognise other stakeholder’s interest as well. Depending on the role of the stakeholders, they may have other quality requirements that need to be satisfied. For instance: The company- The solution meets strategic goals Buyers- The solution meet specifications End User-The solution helps them do their job better, faster, easier Support organisation- The solution is stable, has few errors/defects, is understandable and can be modified easily.11/4/2011 268
  • 269. Why QM? Project quality management (PQM) helps supervisors monitor projects to ensure that they meet their intended goals. Upfront inspection and prevention costs may increase with effective quality management. However, this increase will be more than offset by a decrease in the overall costs of quality over the product lifecycle. (including internal and external failure costs) One of the purpose of quality management is find errors and defects as early in the projects the project as possible. Therefore, a good quality management process will end up taking more effort hours and cost up-front. However, there will be large payback as the project progresses.11/4/2011 269
  • 270. Why QM? (continued) For instance, it is more easier to sport problems with the business requirements during the analysis phase of the projects, rather than have to redo work to fix the problems during testing. It is also much cheaper to find a problem with a computer chip when the chip is manufactured , rather than have to replace it when a customer brings the computer in for service after a purchase. In other words, the project team should try to maintain high quality and low defects during the deliverable creation processes, rather than hope to catch and fix problems during the testing phase at the end of the project (or worse, have the client find the problem after the project have been completed)11/4/2011 270
  • 271. Agreeing on Quality For a project to be successful, a balance must be struck between its scope, cost, schedule and the level of confidence in the quality of it deliverables. The level of confidence in its deliverables is directly related to the investment in the quality management process. For example, a project can be completed quickly with minimal investment in quality management, but the level of confidence in the quality of its deliverables may be affected.11/4/2011 271
  • 272. Agreeing on Quality…1 The project sponsor , steering committee and all other levels of management that are Involved with the project must work together to define and agree the level of confidence that is required in the quality of the project’s deliverables. The level of confidence that is required will depend on several factors including the; Criticality of the project’s deliverables to the organisation; Magnitude of the risk of project failure; Cost of the organisation if the project fails; Once the level of confidence has been agreed, the scale of the investment that is required in the quality management process can be determined. Critical business applications will normally require a large investment in the: Definition of comprehensive and rigorous quality control procedures; Effort in performing those quality control procedures.11/4/2011 272
  • 273. What is Quality Management(QM)? Quality management is concern with all activities and deliverables of a project, including project planing, design, documentation, specifications, procedures, trainin g, risk assessment, benefit management and implementation planning that combine to meet the expectations of stakeholders. A project is more likely to meet its objectives when all deliverables are produced correctly the first time. Everybody involved with the project must adopt this philosophy and ensure that the project’s agreed methodologies and standards are adhered to. External stakeholders, such as independent regulatory authorities, unions and public interest groups, often have an interest in a project’s quality and their needs should be a consideration when planning for quality.11/4/2011 273
  • 274. Quality Management vs. Quality Audit By Quality Management, we mean all the activities that are intended to bring about the desired level of quality. By Quality Audit we mean the procedural controls that ensure participants are adequately following the required procedures.11/4/2011 274
  • 275. Is Quality an absoluterequirement? It is wrong to assume that maximum quality is desirable. Should every car be built to the same quality as a Rolls Royce? Should every computer system be held back until there is not one single flaw remaining ? Required quality should be considered as part of the overall Project Definition work. It will impart upon such things as the estimates and benefit case. Such things are business decisions . They can only be taken by the Project Sponsor and senior and management team of the organisation. Quality decisions are not just a matter of the reliability of the end product – they can also affect the scope and project approach. This is particularly an issue with e-solutions.11/4/2011 275
  • 276. Questions…. To ask Client.. Do you want something magnificent, or do you want something fast before your competitors get ahead? Do you want a complete solution, or will you settle for a partial solution and come back to finish it at a later date? You need to make it clear that these are mutually exclusive alternatives- you cannot magnificent, complete and fast. Very often, commerce pressures means that the best business decision is to achieve an “80%” solution fast. Many early e-commerce business-to- consumer solutions looked great to the customer but involved staff re- keying data into the sales order systems or manually processing credit card transaction.11/4/2011 276
  • 277. The QualityProcess11/4/2011 277
  • 278. Quality Process As Figure 1illustrate three key elements of the quality management process are: Quality assurance ; Quality control; corrective action and feedback. 1. Define & establish the process and procedure (including quality control ) that are followed 2. Quality control ensure there is an Execution of the appropriate level of procedure identified in (1) confident in a project’s This verifies that deliverables deliverables comply with specifications and standards and meet the requirement of the business 3. Corrective actions & feedback This step taken to addresses defects, noon- comformation issues orFigure 1: Key element of the Quality Management process problems that are identified through the quality control process(2)11/4/2011 278
  • 279. Quality Process11/4/2011 279
  • 280. QUALITY MANAGEMENT FLOWCHART11/4/2011 280
  • 281. Quality-Roles &ResponsibilitiesPeople make project tick11/4/2011 281
  • 282. Responsibilities for Quality The Product Manager will, of course, have overall responsibility for the quality of the project. Tips for the Project Manager:- It is equally true that all participants have a role to play in delivering good results. Developing a quality culture amongst the team will normally generate greater value and satisfaction. Encourage the belief that the right level of quality is more important than getting things done fast. If there is a choice to be made between quality and progress it should be a matter for the Steering Committee to decide11/4/2011 282
  • 283. Responsibities for Quality (2) Other managers will also be involved in the Quality Management process. E.g. Related projects. On large projects there may be a Quality Manager and Quality Team. Team Leaders and other senior staff will also be involved in the processes. In some environments, certain Quality Management functions may be performed by independent reviewers from outside the project team. Responsibilities for quality should be agreed and communicated to all participants from the onset of the project.11/4/2011 283
  • 284. Responsibilities for Quality (3) The project team and the business must work closely together to ensure that there is an appropriate level of confidence in the quality of deliverables. The key management roles, and their major responsibilities are: Senior Management, who must fully support the action that are required to maintain the project’s quality and ensure that all stakeholders and participants in the project adhere to those actions. Projects sponsor, Who is responsible for: Ensuring that the required resources are available ; Ensuring there is action participation in the quality management process by all stakeholders in the project. Monitoring the effectiveness of the quality assurance framework. Project managers, Who is responsible for: Driving and managing all aspects of the projects quality; Planning for quality and the development and implementation of the quality assurance framework ; Continual monitoring of the effectiveness of the quality assurance framework; Regular reporting of process to the project sponsor and steering committees. Business unit representative, who must support the implementation of the actions and processes that are adopted for the quality assurance framework; Project team members, who are responsible for: Adhering to the guidelines set out in the quality assurance framework : Conducting quality control activities. Some projects may also warrant specialist quality assurance and control resources . These resources may be assigned to the project team or may be required to act as an external quality audit function.11/4/2011 284
  • 285. Quality Plan11/4/2011 285
  • 286. Project Quality Plan Purpose The purpose of the project Quality Plan is to define how the supplier intends to deliver products that meet the customer’s quality expectations and the supplier’s quality standards. Fitness for purpose checklist: Those the plan clearly define ways In which the customer’s quality expectation will be met? Are the defined way sufficient to achieved the required quality? Are responsibilities for quality defined up to a level that is independent of the project and project manager? Dose the plan conform to the corporate quality policy?11/4/2011 286
  • 287. The Quality Plan The Quality Plan is a broad concept covering many aspects of achieving quality. In many projects these might be covered in an array of different deliverables. In particular, procedures and standards might be documented separately from quality goals and controls. Many organisations will have pre-existing standards and procedures which should be applied. Check that they are appropriate to the current project – you do not want to develop a web site using standards that were written for custom development of mainframe applications. Here are some types of thing you should consider. See quality matrix attached11/4/2011 287
  • 288. The Quality Plan…(2) The Quality Plan is often an evolving document. As the project progresses it will need to adapt to changes and decisions. For example, detailed website design and navigation is likely to be defined at the start of the project unless you are adding to an existing solution.11/4/2011 288
  • 289. Project Quality Plan CompositionThe project Quality Plan should containCustomer quality expectationsAcceptance criteria, a prioritized list of criteria for the final product(s) that mustbe met before the customer will accept the final product(s)Quality responsibilities, who is responsible for each of the aspects of quality ofthe final products.References to any standards that need to be met.The quality-control and audit processes to be applied to project management.quality-control and audit processes requirements for specialist work.Change management procedures.Configuration management plan.Any tools to be used to ensure quality.Derivation???Customer quality expectations and requirementsOrganisational or programme quality management system and standardsConfiguration management and change control requirements 11/4/2011 289
  • 290. Project Quality PlanCompositionThe Project Quality Plan should contain: Customer quality expectations Acceptance criteria, a prioritised list of criteria for the final product(s) that must be met before the customer will accept the final product(s) Quality responsibilities, who is responsible for each of the aspects of quality of the final product(s). Reference to any standards that need to be met The quality-control and audit processes to be applied to project management Quality-control and audit process requirements for specialist work Change management procedures Configuration management plan Any tools to be used to ensure quality Derivation ??? Customers quality expectations and requirements Organisational or programme quality management system and standards Configuration management and change control requirements11/4/2011 290
  • 291. Learning opportunity Prepare a draft quality plan for the ongoing JCH project11/4/2011 291
  • 292. Implementingthe Plan11/4/2011 292
  • 293. Preparing for QualityManagementAt the start of each phase: When the detailed plan for each phase is completed it will be possible to identify the specific Quality methods and controls that should be applied and what they should be applied to. One basic approach is to create two list  All the work that should be done( including the methods, techniques and procedures to be used) All the deliverables that should be produced (including the formats and standards that should be applied)  This provides a guide for the people conducting the work and a checklist for the phase-end review. It is good project management practise, as well as a quality management process, to identifying advance all the anticipated deliverables. For each one, you should identify: 11/4/2011 293
  • 294. Preparing for QualityManagement (2) •Nature, description and purpose of the deliverable. •Quality standard (e.g. discussion draft, final quality, reviewed or tested for external publication). •Dependencies (what must be completed prior and what further deliverables depend upon this one). •Date required •Author/creator. •People who have to review it. •People who have to approve it. •people who should receive it for information or use (but who do not get the opportunity to review or approve) •Other distribution (e.g. third parties, auditors, publishing, filing) •Security/secrecy requirements-i.e. who can not see or use it. •Currency information (e.g. must be maintained, updateable, one-off, temporary, final project deliverable) 11/4/2011 294
  • 295. Reviewing Quality• At the end of a phase  There should be little to do at the end of the phase-if there are significant problems it is too late to do anything without an adverse impact on costs and timescales. The Quality methods you have applied throughout the phase should have ensured that there is no surprise at the end of the phase.  Before the phase can truly be considered to be complete, you should review that you have:  Done everything you said you would do in the way you said you would do it, and  Produced everything you said you would produce to an acceptable standard  There will, of course, be deviations. In each case it should be clear whether:  The change was agreed and its impact has been dealt with  The shortcoming was not desirable but is acceptable in terms of delivering the overall benefit from the project  The failure will be remedied at a later (defined stage)  The fault must be remedied now before the phase can be completed.  The phase –end Quality Review should be agreed and signed off by the Project Sponsor and/or senior leadership representing the organisation 11/4/2011 295
  • 296. Reviewing Quality At the end of the project  Similar considerations apply at the end of the project. The senior leadership will consider the extent to which the project has adequately completed the planned work and deliverables (subject to agreed changes during its course0 As well as the quality management aspect of such a review, there will also be many other reasons to examine the success of the project, for example,  learning lessons  Planning further improvements  Improving estimating techniques, paying contractor and suppliers etc. 11/4/2011 296
  • 297. Key issues- QM11/4/2011 297
  • 298. Key Issues• Quality management should be applied to a project pragmatically. It is essential that the measures adopted to promote quality on a project are cost effective and add value• When determining the level of investment to be made in quality management, the risk rather than the size of the project should be the major consideration. For example, a small project costing £500,000 could be critical to an organisation’s success and this project would warrant high levels of investment in formal quality management.• Organisations that do not have skilled quality assurance and control resources that can assist with a project can obtain these resources from a third-party such as consultancies or independent specialist quality professionals.• In an external quality assurance function is established for a project, it must remain independent without developing a “quality police” role. All participants and stake holders are responsible for quality and the independent quality assurance function must add value by working in a consultative manner with the project team to develop and improve the quality of deliverables. 11/4/2011 298
  • 299. Key issues cont…• There is no effective way of guaranteeing that project outcomes will be free of defects and always function as intended. However, the processes, approach and quality assurance mechanisms that are followed to develop the project deliverables must provide the level of confidence that is required for the project.• Stakeholder expectations of quality must be managed throughout a project. If the stakeholders form unrealistic expectations about the quality of deliverables then they may perceive that the project has not met its objectives• The quality measures that are adopted for a project must conform to the agency’s overall quality philosophy and mechanisms. This is normally achieved by following the agency’s approved project management methodology11/4/2011 299
  • 300. Quality Project Management Techniques• Continuous improvement is the output of a good quality Management process and continuous improvement requires the proper application of quality tools and Techniques. One of the most recognise Quality Tools is the “demming Wheel”. The Demming wheel is a simple diagram that focuses efforts around: PLAN, DO, CHECK and ACT (PDCA cycle). While this diagram may seem simplistic at first sight, it is a very powerful tool when applied to projects. In fact, project management is dependent upon the PDCA Cycle to deliver effective results.A quick summary of the PDCA cycle follows. Plan is the initial phase of the PDCA Cycle. High level goals and objectives are agreed upon and resources are acquired. In this Phase we are identifying a particular problem or problems and breaking them down into manageable tasks. we want to decide specifically how we will solve the problem and establish metrics to measure progress. Do is executing the plan. Also reporting is done in this phase to check progress. Do can be prototyping in the IT world, designing experiments, constructing a building, building a model etc. Check is the evaluation phase. Did we do what we were going to do? Did we meet the project’s objectives? What does the data tell us? This is where metrics are analysed. We are looking at our KPI’s (key Performance Indicators) and making recommendations for action. Act is the adjustment phase. What are we going to do to get back on track or to make improvements? should we continue or cancel the project? do we need to re-plan and start the cycle over again? here we are acting on our findings from the check phase. We want to make sure we are acting on the right information at the right time.The PDCA cycle is a great tool to help us be successful in project management. using proven quality Management tools that support continuous improvement. 11/4/2011 300
  • 301. The Demming Cycle• W. Edwards Deming in the 1950s proposed that business processes should be analysed and measured to identify sources of variation that cause products to deviate from customer requirements.• He recommended that business processes be placed in a continuous feedback loop so that managers can identify and change the p[arts of the process that need improvements. As a teacher Deming craeted a (rather oversimplified) diagram to illustrate this continuous process, commonly known as the PDCA cycle for Plan , Do, Check, Act:  PLAN: design or revise business process components to improve results  DO: implement the plan and measure its performance  CHECK: assess the measurements and report the results to decision makers  ACT: decide on changes needed to improve the process• Deming’s PDCA Cycle can be illustrated as follows11/4/2011 301
  • 302. Deming’s PDCA Cycle Act Plan Check Do11/4/2011 302
  • 303. In conclusion A commitment to continuous improvement will help project managers to do a better job when managing their projects. Combining these Quality principles below with your project Management processes will lead to powerful results for your customers/clients  Principle 1 customer focus-Organisations depend on their customers and therefore should understand current and future customer needs, should meet customer requirements and strive to exceed customer expectations.  Principle 2 Leadership- Leaders establish unity of purpose and direction of the organisation. They should create and maintain the internal environment in which people can become fully involved in achieving the organisation’s objectives.  Principles 3 Involvement of people- People at all levels, are the essence of an organisation and their full involvement enables their abilities to be used for the oragnisation’s benefit.  Principle 4 process approach- a desired result is achieved more efficiently when activities and related resources are managed as a process.  Principle 5 system approach to management-identifying, understanding and managing interrelated processes as a system contrinbutes to the organisation’s effectiveness and efficiency in achieving its objectives  Principle 6 continuous improvement- Continuous Improvement of the organisation’s overall performance should be a permanent objective of the organisation.  Principle 7 factual approach to decision making- effective decisions are based on the analysis of data and information.  Principle 8 Mutually beneficial supplier relationships- An organisation and its suppliers are interdependent and mutually beneficial relationship enhances the ability of both to create value 11/4/2011 303
  • 304. Homework• Write a report on:The importance of quality management to achieve successful project delivery11/4/2011 304
  • 305. Finance forProject managers11/4/2011 305
  • 306. Module aims• Finance for Project Managers  Projects are essentially about managing change. The measurements of success of a project are primarily financial in nature and all project managers should have sound grounding key financial principles.• Key advantages to Project Managers understanding finance  prepare financial business case (this will be covered on the Diploma programme)  Compare project financial returns  Prepare and monitor project financial budgets  Use financial metrics in project scheduling and cost control  Minimise project financial risk  Understand how projects are assessed by budget holders  Ability to communicate with finance function and senior management11/4/2011 306
  • 307. At the end of this session• You will: Have a good understanding of Financial Management in project terms Understand the roles and responsibilities for project financial control Understand how to create cost breakdown structures Understanding the cost planning process Have the understanding, knowledge and techniques to manage the complete financial life cycle of a project, from inception to project close.11/4/2011 307
  • 308. Finance for PMs• Amongst the many chores of a Project Manager, he/she is expected to keep an eye on the project finances to ensure financial victory at the end of the project.• Bearing in mind project management success is measured in terms of: – Meeting timescales – Meeting agreed Quality and – Delivering within budget11/4/2011 308
  • 309. Delivering within budget……• Can only be achieved if the Project Manager – Keeps a close eye on expenditure and – Compares actual spend against planned estimates• ….throughout the project’s life cycle! ⁻ To successful do the above, knowledge, skills and experience of Finance and Accounts in project terms is required11/4/2011 309
  • 310. Project manager• A construction company with T/O in excess of £900m requires an experienced,BIG4 Chartered accountant to undertake this very diverse role. Working from their UK headquarter offices in Northwest London, you will not only be heavily engaged in managing large projects and ventures but will be involved in internal audit, as well as assuming command when filling in for various finance Directors as and when they are engaged in other duties. This is a fantastic varied opportunity for a candidate > Type: temporary Location: London Country: England Start: ASAP Posted: 24/08/2005 18:11:20 Reference:JSRLI41640• £900m is a huge budget to manage and small mistakes and oversights can have huge consequences! 11/4/2011 310
  • 311. Finance- project• What do project managers need to know about finance• Project managers are not expected to be financial experts however, you are required to have a good enough understanding of finance and accounts to; Manage the project budget Liaise with the organisation’s/client’s finance department Produce financial reports for decision-making on project-related matters i.e. problem-solving, issues resolution etc. 11/4/2011 311
  • 312. Pre-project task• One of the first pre-project(start-up stage) tasks is to have a budget. Without an approved budget, there is no guarantee the project will ever commence• Although the budget may not be finalised until the……. – Scope is determined – Work breakdown structure analysed and – Cost planning is complete• ……the client will have a good idea how much they plan/ are willing to spend on the project which serves as a guide for the magnitude of the initiative i.e. the task at hand  Is the project likely to cost <£1M >£1M >£10M  This should give you an idea of the size and effort required to deliver successfully. 11/4/2011 312
  • 313. Finalising the project budget• The Project manager is expected to work with the client to determine/finalise the project budget• Beyond budget finalisation, the client expects the Project Manager to manage (effectively and efficiently) the project finance by – Measuring actual spend against planned figures – Ensuring value-for-money i.e. the quality of the products and services • E.g. Recruiting highly skilled and competent staff • Ensuring the suppliers of equipment and materials do not compromise on product quality 11/4/2011 313
  • 314. Project FinanceBudget INCOME i.e. BUDGET must be equal to or greater than---------------------------------- -EXPENDITUREExpenditure Income>= Expenditure 11/4/2011 314
  • 315. Financial flow• The “project income” i.e. finance comes from the client/sponsor and is known as the budget• Project Expenditure is………. – Every product/service purchased in relation to the project i.e. • Materials/Supplies • Equipment • Services • Human resources etc11/4/2011 315
  • 316. Balancing the books• The project Manager is expected to keep a close eye on the expenditure and authourise every spend in line with the planned estimates as per the agreed budget.• The above is achieved by – Continuously comparing planned vs actual spend – i.e. checking you do not go over budget throughout the project lifecycle11/4/2011 316
  • 317. Project financeRoles andResponsibilities11/4/2011 317
  • 318. Roles and Responsibilities • Giving the multi-faceted nature of a project manager’s job description, it is infeasible for the PM to:- – Log expenditure and control the financial activities within the project on a daily basis • ‘Financial Control” is broken into four main processes 1. Data gathering of financial information i.e. expenditure 2. Financial analysis i.e. processing the data into meaningful information, categorisation, cost-code analyses etc 3. Reporting: production statistical views, progress information, summation/aggregations etc 4. Decision making: taking action, re-planning re-scoping etc 11/4/2011
  • 319. Roles and Responsibilities(2)• Processes 1,2 & 3 are responsibilities normally assigned to the Project Coordinator or Project Office. With strict/careful guidelines from the Project Manager, the PC/PO is responsible for accurate: – Data gathering – Financial analysis – Producing reports• The project Manager is responsible for reviewing the financial reports and communicating the financial progress/issues to Senior Management, the Client and Finance Department for decision-making• On very large projects, a dedicated project accountant is recruited to perform processes 1,2& 3 considering the large amounts of data generated. Projects of over £1M would normally have dedicated (part-time or full-time) Project Accountants responsible for managing the expenditure and income. 11/4/2011 319
  • 320. Job descriptionProject Financial Coordinator• Project Financial coordinator-Heathrow/Gatwick. Our FTSE 100 client requires a Project Financial Coordinator to support one, or a number of Project Managers associated with a larger project or programme. It is a value adding role to the project and will be able to understand the individual project and relieve the Project Manager from key financial support functions. You will be responsible for assisting in the preparation of the programme /project cost estimates and plans, and maintain more. .Type : Temporary Location: West London Country: England start: ASAP posted: 24/08/2005 11:31:03 Reference: JSLJB/PFC11/4/2011 320
  • 321. Roles and Responsibilities(3) • Finance and accounting Departments • Liaise with the organisation’s Finance Department 11/4/2011 321
  • 322. Cost Planning11/4/2011 322
  • 323. Cost & ResourceManagement How much ? Who is responsible? • Finance & people Analysis 11/4/2011 323
  • 324. Cost Management• In addition to activity planning, it is essential every item required for the project is costed (i.e. budget) and monitored throughout the project lifecycle (planned vs. actual)11/4/2011 324
  • 325. Programme Cost Breakdown Structure (CBS) Y2K Compliance Programme Integration Tools and Testing andIn-house infrastructure office continuity management testing Support planning The cost or finance code will mirror the WBS code 11/4/2011 325
  • 326. Subprogramme CBS 02 Infrastructure 0201 0202 0203 0204 comms CMK Desktop N&P ‘Ensure every cost is accounted for’ Slide 34111/4/2011 326
  • 327. Budget Creation Process (ABC) Financial plan Step 5 cost control Tracking step 4 cost communication Reporting step 3 Cost Planning Scheduling Step 2 Cost Analysis Categorisation CBS codesProgramme plan Step 1(activity) Cost Resource / Identification Equipment/ 11/4/2011 other 327
  • 328. Cost breakdown structures andcodes • Control and trafficking • Easy to show different views e.g. – Expenditure on human resources 11/4/2011 328
  • 329. Learning opportunity• Produce a rough for the ongoing JCH project using the WBS as a guide for producing the CBS11/4/2011 329
  • 330. Home work• Write a report on:-The importance of financial management to achieving successful project delivery.11/4/2011 330
  • 331. Mathematics forProject Managersteclab11/4/2011 331
  • 332. At the end of this session:-• You should be able to perform basic mathematical calculations using MS Excel reducing the neeed for mental maths or calculators• You should be able to write formulas that automatically perform the following:- – Summations – Subtractions – Divisions – Percentages – Fractions etc• Every PMP is expected to use MS office expertly; MS excel being one of the programs for mathematical calculations11/4/2011 332
  • 333. Classroom Exercises• Using the spreadsheet provided, use the knowledge gained from the It and career workshops to do the exercises on the subsequent slides• Guidelines: – You are NOT allowed to perform mental calculations or use a calculator – The formulae will marked and count towards passing this module – *The Lecturer • Is on point to assist, if you have difficulties, with the logic for creating formulae and/or presentation formatting • Will not create the formulae for you! 11/4/2011 333
  • 334. Summation• Sum the figures in column C11/4/2011 334
  • 335. Fractions• Human resources is 23/4 ÷ 5 of the cost of Building Materials11/4/2011 335
  • 336. Decimals• Cost of Services is 0.37 of the Building Materials cost11/4/2011 336
  • 337. Percentages• Miscellaneous costs have been estimated at 10% of [building materials + Human resources + Services]11/4/2011 337
  • 338. Summation (2)• Sum total columns C to F11/4/2011 338
  • 339. Answer the following:• What is the total cost of Programme?• What is the cost of the Services? – For the programme – For the Africa sub-programme• What is the cost of building materials – For the programme – For the Caribbean project11/4/2011 339
  • 340. Learning opportunity• Produce a rough budget for the ongoing JCH in MS Excel format using the in-built mathematical functions and/or creating your own formulae11/4/2011 340
  • 341. Homework• Submit your spreadsheet containing the formula i.e. answers to the classroom exercises to tutor@pmcollege.co.uk• Deadline: END OF TODAY’S SESSION• Lecturer to ensure the above is accomplished11/4/2011 341
  • 342. Problem solving11/4/2011 342
  • 343. At the end of this session:You should – Appreciate the importance of having keen problem-solving ability in the workplace – Have the tools and techniques to: • Effectively solve problems and • Contribute to product innovation & development11/4/2011 343
  • 344. Problem –A definition• A situation, matter, or person that represents perplexity or difficulty.• Problems are a regular occurrence in day-to- day life and in the workplace.• Every professional is expected not to shy away from problems , but rise up to the challenge and find a solution11/4/2011 344
  • 345. Problems and Projects• Problems are inevitable on projects as you are usually dealing with an uncharted route i.e. “the unknown”• Solution can be derived by using simple problem-solving strategies such as looking for a pattern, drawing a diagram, making an organised list, and so on.• The next slide provides a quick method for solving problems11/4/2011 345
  • 346. Problem solving strategies• The problem-solving method below is a quick guide that can be used in the workplace and consist of four basic steps: – FIND OUT • Look at the problem. • Have you seen a similar problem before? • If so, how is this problem similar? how is it different? • What facts do you have? • What do you know that is not stated in the problem? – CHOOSE A STRATEGY • How have you solved similar problems in the past? • What strategies do you know? • Try a strategy that seems as if it will work • If it doesn’t it may lead you to one that will. – SOLVE IT • Use the strategy you selected and work the problem – LOOK BACK • Reread the question. • Did you answer the question asked? • Is your answer in the correct units? • Does your answer seem reasonable? 11/4/2011 346 slide 361
  • 347. Creativity, Innovation and Problemsolving• True Creativity and Innovation consists of – SEEING what everyone else has seen – THINKING what no one has thought and – DOING what no one else has dared!• This is how companies stay ahead of their competitor and gain major market-share• To ensure you amongst the cutting-edge thinkers and doers of your organisation, it is essential you learn and apply the problem-solving techniques in the following slides 11/4/2011 347
  • 348. Problem-solvingtechniques inDetail11/4/2011 348
  • 349. The following methods /techniques tobe covered are:-1. START WITH THE CUSTOMER OR END USER2. IMPORTANCE OF ASKING THE RIGHT QUESTIONS AND MAKING A PROPER PROBLEM STATEMENT3. DEVELOP THE PROPER TOOLS AND PROCEDURES4. GETTING GOOD IDEAS FROM EVERYONE AND EVERYWHERE5. SERENDIPITY6. SEARCH FOR MULTIPLE SOLUTIONS7. BRAINSTORMING8. VALUE OF EXPERIMENTATION, PLAY, EXAGGERATION & PERSISTENCE9. PATENT AND PROJECT NOTEBOOKS10. INNOVATIVE COST REDUCTION11. EFFECTIVE USE OF NOTES 11/4/2011 349
  • 350. START WITH THE CUSTOMER OR ENDUSER• The customer is always your first and most important creative challenge. listen!• Try to see the customer’s problems and needs from his point of view• Restate the problem and the customer’s need in his terms and iterate until a consensus is reached.• Ask not only what his problems are, but what special methods or tools he is presently using to solve them.• Work together with or in the place of the end user or customer• Use fictitious product descriptions to stimulate ideas and discussion• Remember that effective market research and sales strategy requires just as much creativity, enthusiasm and perfection as does product development 11/4/2011 350
  • 351. IMPORTANCE OF ASKING THE RIGHT QUESTIONSAND MAKING A PROPER PROBLEM STATEMENT• The problem as first stated is rarely the true problem• Ask at least five times• Always restate the problem as many ways as you can; change the wording, take different viewpoints, try it in graphical form.• Describe the problem to laymen and also to experts in the field• Don’t try to learn all the details before deciding on a first approach.• Make the second assault on a problem from a different direction• Transforming one problem into another or studying the inverse problem often offers new insights if you don’t understand a problem try explaining it to others and listening to yourself.• Test the extremes .if you can’t make it better, try making it worse and analysing what happens. get a ‘super Tech’ to help. Imagine how an ideal super technician would perform the required function and then try to implement equivalent in hardware and/or software.• Why are we so much better at answering questions that at answering the right questions? is it because we are trained at school and university to answer questions that others have asked? if so, should we be trained to ask questions?’ *or trained to ask the complete set of right questions in the right way? 11/4/2011 351
  • 352. DEVELOP THE PROPER TOOLS AND PROCEDURES:• Creative problem solving depends on using the right tools, procedures or methods of analysis.• In some cases new tools and methods of analysis must be developed from scratch by the inventor before a problem can be solved and in other cases special tools and procedures must be developed to take the final critical step of enabling successful commercial applications. 11/4/2011 352
  • 353. GETTING GOOD IDEAS FROM EVERYONE AND EVERYWHERE• Asking once is rarely effective ,you have to ask many times in many ways• Look at all possible sources of good ideas: your customers, your competitors, your peers, the literate, patents, and your own subconscious.• Give others some examples, this serves both to illustrate what you’re talking about and encourages them to suggest improvements to your ideas• Tell them also what *you believe+ you don’t want and which solutions *you believe+ wont work.• Remember that breakthrough innovations often come from the outside. work with high performers in fields related to your own to identify and adopt their relevant methods, tools and ‘tricks of the trade’ trade ideas with all. 11/4/2011 353
  • 354. SERENDIPTY• Serendipity is a very effective process for coming up with useful new ideas, but requires you to keep your eyes open and imagination switched on.• Learn from mother nature (the originator of serendipity ), and study the lessons or investigate any unexplained phenomena she may reveal to you.• Find useful solutions by reviewing your backlog of problems while you browse at random in libraries, trade shows, and the real world.• Review your problems before you go to sleep at night and keep a notepad and audio recorder handy• Meditate out under a tree or in an open field.• Play with combinations of ideas and concepts.• Think about analogies to the problem. 11/4/2011 354
  • 355. Search for multiple solutions:• “Nothing is more dangerous than an idea when it is the only one we have”• The first solution found is usually inadequate or non-optimum.• There is usually more than one acceptable solution.• Suspend judgment and criticism when first collecting ideas 9see brainstorming)• Studying multiple problems jointly often generate unique solutions.• Look for solutions using combinations of ideas from different or evolving technologies.• Even if you have one optimum solution, it may be necessary to get patent coverage for all the other effective solutions so as to protect your market.• Team up with others in applying these techniques11/4/2011 355
  • 356. BRAINSTORMING• In the initial phase of a brainstorming session participants are encouraged to suggest any idea that comes to their minds.• During this initial phase ,it is a firm rule that none of the participants can criticize or react negatively to any of the ideas that are proposed.• Following sessions are used to critique the ideas: selecting, improving, modifying, and combining them to produce the final working solution. have someone throw in ideas from Mother Nature (see serendipity)• Encourage examination of the problem statement itself (use a separate chart)• Encourage ideas on improving the brainstorming process itself• Use different media/descriptions of concepts, problems relationships (text, graphics, paste-up items, show and tell table).use a separate chart (parking lot) for unclassifiable ideas• Use separate wall charts to record – Guesses as to objectives, specs, customer needs/wants, trends – Related areas, related businesses or companies, information sources, problem solving methods – Things that are “impossible”, approaches that “cant possibly work”. 11/4/2011 356
  • 357. VALUE OF EXPERIMENTATION, PLAY, EXAGGERATION & PERSISTENCE• Get your hands dirty. spend some time trying things you “know wont work” or “don’t know how they will work”. If you don’t fail frequently, you aren’t working hard enough and may be missing a lot of good opportunities• Try Tom Peter’s algorithm: ”READY, FIRE, AIM.”• Persist, persist, persist• As Edison said “invention is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration *Persistence?+”• Be very stubborn about solving a problem, but be flexible about the definition of the true problem and be very flexible and open-minded about the form of the solution. 11/4/2011 357
  • 358. PATENT AND PROJECT NOTEBOOKS:• Patent notebooks are used to provide legal protection for inventions, but can have many other useful, complementary functions: a recorder, a reminder, a source of ideas, a means of ensuring project continuity, and a way to communicate with yourself and within a project group.• Neatness is not essential, but clarity and conformance to legal standards is critical.• Other things that should be recorded: sources, questions, what doesn’t work, things to try.• A truly effective, comprehensive patent requires planning, teamwork and iteration: invite everyone to participate in finding ways around your patent claims or to break them or improve on them.• A one page summary sheet of the important procedures and checkpoints should be included inside the front cover of every patent notebook issued 11/4/2011 358
  • 359. INNOVATIVE COST REDUCTION:• Remember that the real objective is higher profits. raising the selling price by adding value or retargeting the market can be an alternative or supplement to cutting costs.11/4/2011 359
  • 360. EFFECTIVE USE OF NOTES:• Try file cards with text and graphics 9diagrams, flow charts, block diagrams, elementary circuits)• Keep them simple and easy to change 9use pencil or wipe-off transparencies for overlay)• Scramble the cards, lay them out together in different arrangements.• Consider computer equivalents: outliners, rolodexes, Canvas, MindLink, HyperCard or SuperCard.• Mark ideas and questions in a way that makes them obvious to a reader and searchable by computer.• Avoid software that eats up all your creative energy trying to make it work! 11/4/2011 360
  • 361. Examples andRelated Stories:11/4/2011 361
  • 362. (1) An example of World Class patentStrategy at General Electric• GE uses a very powerful “standard optimizing procedure” in preparation of filing a patent: a brief patent disclosure is circulated within the company before any formal patent application is prepared. Everyone is invited to find ways to improve upon, extend or “break” the patent. All the relevant ideas are then incorporated into the formal patent application(s) and all contributors become inventors. There are many advantages to this approach.• It results in more “industrial strength patents” that are more valuable, more comprehensive , more likely to stand up in court and hence more profitable than the initial homework.• If a new product results from the patent, it will have more “patents” or “champions” eager to work, fight and solve problems to ensure its ultimate success.• The increased communication and critical reviews may result in radical new approaches and solutions to the problem.• The review process encourages more people in the company to be aware , supportive and active in the patent process. 11/4/2011 362
  • 363. (2) Invention of the transistor- the benefitsof “creative failure methodology” • ….. Examples of the use of planned serendipity • William Shockley described the process of inventing the transistor at Bell Labs as ‘creative failure methodology”. A multi-discipline Bell Labs team was formed to invent the MOS transistor and ended up instead with the junction transistor and the new science of semiconductor physics. These developments eventually led to the MOS transistor and then to the integrated circuit and to few breakthroughs in electronics and computers. • Richard Feynman, also a Nobel Laureate physicist believed in getting his hands dirty and doing lots of experiments, saying “to develop working ideas efficiently I try to fail as fast as I can” 11/4/2011 363
  • 364. (3) The True Story! Newton’s Laws wereInspired by a combination of Visual Images• Seemingly independent visual or mental images that are considered concurrently may inspire unique ideas. According to his own story (and in contradiction to the story of being hit on the head by a falling apple), Newton conceived the concept of universal gravitation when he observed an apple falling and at the same time noticed the moon in the sky. These simultaneous images inspired him to speculate if the same laws governed the falling apple and the moon orbiting the earth. This in turn led him to develop the laws of mechanics and established mathematical analysis and modeling as the principal foundations of science and engineering 11/4/2011 364
  • 365. (4) The Telephone and the importanceof Patent Documentation • The basic bell patents for the telephone were defended in court and the survival of Bell Telephone was ensured by a few crude notes made by Bell on the back of an envelope which (luckily) had been properly signed, witnessed and dated 11/4/2011 365
  • 366. (5) The Invention of the telescope –Always Keep Your Eyes Open: • An extreme example of people keeping their eyes closed (literally and figuratively) was the simple experiment that led to the invention of the telescope and microscope • It took more than 300years after glasses were in common use before Hans Uppershey, in 1608, observed the joint magnifying action of two lenses, built a simple telescope and then took action to publish his findings!shortly afterwards galileo applied the telescope to the planets and quickly discovered that the “facts” of classical philosophy were wrong. • When he invited the scholars of the day to look through his telescope and see for themselves they refused! 11/4/2011 366
  • 367. (6) The discovery of the ElectromagneticLaws – Always Keep an Open Mind: • The relationship between electricity and magnetism was first observed in 1820 by Oersted in a public lecture at which he was demonstrating the “well known fact” that electricity and magnetism were completely independent phenomena. • This time the experiment failed! – an electric current produced a magnetic effect. Oersted was observant enough to notice this effect, honest enough to admit it, and diligent enough to follow up and publish. • Maxwell used these experiments to extend Newton’s methods of modeling and mathematical analysis in the mechanical and visible world to the invisible world of electricity and magnetism and derived Maxwell’s Laws which opened the doors to our modern age of electricity and electronics 11/4/2011 367
  • 368. (7) Von Hipple’s Law of user innovation –Source of New Product Opportunities• Eric Von Hipple of the MIT Business School made many studies of the sources of innovation in the electronics industry and concluded that more than 70% of the product innovations came from the users, who initially can’t find the tools or equipment they need on the market and are forced to develop them in-house. [Most companies ignore this process and consequently miss many good, easy opportunities for new products or product enhancements].• A related rule is that most breakthroughs in new products and processes come from outside the industries that these breakthroughs will affect most! 11/4/2011 368
  • 369. (8)Instant photography was inspired by asking theright “silly’ question (while other companiescome up with the wrong silly answer • Edward Land was taking pictures of his family while on a vacation trip in the southwest. His young daughter asked “why do we have to wait to see the pictures?” and land thought to himself “good question!’, sketched out some ideas and tried them after he returned to his lab in Boston. The Polaroid Camera and the science of instant photograph appeared soon thereafter • Kodak marketing decided that their customers for cameras and films wouldn’t mind “waiting to see their pictures” as they always had. Kodak didn’t get involved in the business of instant photography until too late, when development costs and patent infringement suits cost them billions of dollars and a lost market. Kodak then repeated this pattern by first ignoring customer interest in video cameras and most recently ignoring customer interest in low cost digital cameras with built in view screens. 11/4/2011 369
  • 370. Figure 2: Example Paired Comparison analysis Table (filled in); Here it is important to improve customer service (c) and then to tackle export markets (A). Quality is not a high priority- perhaps it is good already.11/4/2011 370
  • 371. Figure 2: Example Paired Comparison Analysis Table (filled in):11/4/2011 371
  • 372. Key points  Paired comparison Analysis is a good way of weighing up the relative importance of different courses of action. It is useful where priorities are not clear, or are competing in importance.  The two provides a framework for comparing each course of action against all others, and helps to show the difference in importance between factors. 407 11/4/2011 372
  • 373. Grid Analysis -Making a Choice Where Many Factors Must be Balanced How use tool: Grid Analysis is a useful technique to use for making a decision. It is most effective where you have a number of good alternatives and many factors to take into account. The first step is to list your options and then the factors that are important for making the decision. Lay these out in a table , with options as the row labels, and factors as the column headings. Next work out the relatives importance of the factors in your decision. Show these as numbers. We will use these to weight preferences by the importance of the factor. These may be obvious. If they are not, then use a technique such Paired Comparison Analysis to estimate them. The net step is to work your way across your table scoring each option for each importance factors in your decision. Score each option from 0(poor) to 3(very good). Note that you do not have to have a different score for each option-if none of them are good for a particular factor in your decision, then all option should score 0. Now multiply each of your scores by the values for relative importance. This will give them the correct overall weight in your decision. Finally add up these weighted scores for your options. The option that scores the highest win! 11/4/2011 373
  • 374. Example A windsurfing enthusiast is about to replace his car. He needs one that not only carries a board and sails, but also that will be good for business travel. He has always loved open-topped sports cars. No car he can find is good for all three things. His options are: A four where drive, hard topped vehicle A comfortable ‘family car’ An estate car A sports car11/4/2011 374
  • 375. Example Cont… Criteria that he wants to consider are: Cost Ability to carry a sail board at normal driving speed Ability store sail and equipment securely Comfort over long distance Fun Nice look and build quality to car Firstly he draws up the table shown in figure 1, and scores each option by how well it satisfies each factor:11/4/2011 375
  • 376. Example Cont…Figure 1: Example Grid Analysis Showing Unweighted Assessment of How Each Type of Car Satisfies Each FactorFactors Cost Board Storage Comfort Fun Look TotalWeights:Sports Car 1 0 0 1 3 34 Wheel Drive 0 3 2 2 1 1Family Car 2 2 1 3 0 0Estate Car 2 3 3 3 0 1 Next he decides the relative weights for the factors. He multiplies these by the scores already entered, and totals them. This is show in Figure 2: Figure 2: Example Grid Analysis Showing Weighted Assessment of How Each Type of Car Satisfies Each FactorFactors Cost Board Storage Comfort Fun Look TotalWeights: 4 5 1 2 3 4Sports Car 4 0 0 2 9 12 274 Wheel Drive 0 15 2 4 3 4 28Family Car 8 10 1 6 0 0 25 11/4/2011 376Estate Car 8 15 3 6 0 4 36
  • 377. Example Cont… This gives an interesting result: Despite its lack of fun, an estate car may be the best choice If the wind-surface still feels unhappy with the decision, maybe he has underestimated the importance of one of the factors. Perhaps he should weight ‘fun’ by 7! Key Points: Grid Analysis helps you to decide between several options, while taking many different factors into account To use the tool, lay out your options as rows on a table. Set up the columns to show your factors. Allocate weights to show the importance of each of these factors Score each choice for each factor using numbers from 0 (poor) to 3 (very good). Multiply each score by the weight of the factor, to show its contribution to the overall selection. Finally add up the total scores for each option. Select the highest scoring option. 11/4/2011 377
  • 378. Decisions Tree Analysis-Choosing Between Options By Projecting Likely Outcomes How to use tool:  Decision Trees are excellent tools for helping you to choose between several courses of action. They provides a highly effective structure within which you can lay out options and investigate the possible outcomes of choosing those options. They also help you to form a balanced picture of the risks and rewards associated with each possible course of action 11/4/2011 378
  • 379. Decision Tree Analysis *cont…+-Choosing Between Options by Projecting Likely Outcomes  Drawing a Decision Tree  You start a Decision Tree with a decision that you need to make. Draw a small square to represent this towards the left of a large piece of paper.  From this box draw out lines towards the right for each possible solution, and write that solution along the line. Keep the lines apart as far as possible so that you can expand your thoughts.  At the end of each line, consider the results. If the result of taking that decision is uncertain. Draw a small circle. If the result is another decision that you need to make, draw another square. Squares represent decisions, and circles represent uncertain outcomes. Write the decisions or factor above the square or circle. If you have completed the solution at the end of the line; just leave it blank. 11/4/2011 379
  • 380. Decision Tree Analysis *cont…+-Choosing Between Options by Projecting Likely Outcomes Drawing a Decision Tree Starting from the new decision squares on your diagram, draw out lines representing the options that you could select. From the circles draw lines representing possible outcomes. Again make a brief note on the lines saying what it means. Keep on doing this until you have drawn out as many of the possible outcomes and decisions as you can see leading on from the original decisions. Outcomes you have not considered. If there are, draw them in. if necessary, redraft your tree if parts of it are too congested or untidy. You should now have a good understanding of the range of possible outcomes of your decisions.11/4/2011 380
  • 381. Figure 1:Example Decision TreeProduct Or Consolidate An example of the sort of thing you will end up with is show in Figure 1: 11/4/2011 381
  • 382. Evaluating Your Decision Tree Now you are ready to evaluate the decision tree. This is where you can work out which option has the greatest worth to you. Start by assigning a cash value or score to each possible outcome. Estimate how much you think it would be worth to you if that outcome came about. Next look at each circle(representing an uncertainty point) and estimate the probability of each outcome. If you use percentages, the total must come to 100% at each circle. If you use fractions, these must add up to 1. If you have data on past events you may be able to make rigorous estimates of the probabilities. Otherwise write down your best guess. This will give you a tree like the one shown in figure 2: 11/4/2011 382
  • 383. Figure 2:Example decision Tree:Should we develop a newproduct or consolidate? Once you have done this, review your tree diagram square and circle to see if there are any solutions or 11/4/2011 383
  • 384. Calculating Tree Value Once you have worked out the value of the outcomes, and have assessed the probability of the outcome of uncertainty, it is time to start calculating the values that will help you make your decision. Start on the right hand side of the decision tree, and work towards the left. As you complete a set of calculations on a node (decision square or uncertainty circle), all you need to do is to record the result. You can ignore all the calculations that lead to that result from then on. Calculating The Value of Uncertain Outcome Nodes Where you are calculating the value of uncertain outcomes (on the diagram). Do this by multiplying the value of the outcomes by their probability. The total for that node of the tree is the total of these values. In the example in figure 2, the value for ‘new product, thorough development is: 0.4 (probability good outcome) x 500,000 (value) = 200’000 0.4 (probability moderate outcome) x 25,000 (value)= 10,000 0.2 (probability poor outcome) x 1,000 (value) = 200 210,200 11/4/2011 384
  • 385. Figure3Example Decision treeshould we develop a newproduct or consolidate? Figure 3 show the calculation of uncertain outcome nodes: Note that the values calculated for each node are shown in the boxes. 11/4/2011 385
  • 386. Calculating The Value of DecisionNodes When you are evaluating a decision node, write down the cost of each option along each decision line. Then subtract the cost from the outcome value that you have already calculated. This will give a value that represents the benefit of that decision. Note that amounts already spent do not count for this analysis- these are ‘sunk costs’ and ( despite emotional counter-arguments) should not be factored into the decision. When you have calculated these decision benefits, choose the option that has the largest benefit, and take that as the decision made. This is the value of that decision node.11/4/2011 386
  • 387. Figure 4:Example Decision tree:Should We develop a newproduct or consolidate? Figure 4 shows this calculation of decision nodes in our example:11/4/2011 387
  • 388. Cont… In this example, the benefit we previously calculated for ‘new product , thorough development was $210,000. We estimate the future cost of the this approach as $75,000. This give a new benefit of $135,000. The net benefit ‘new product, rapid development’ was $15,700. On this branch we therefore choose the most valuable option, new product, thorough development’ and allocate this value to the decision node. Result By applying this technique we can see that the best option is to develop a new product . It is worth much more to us to take our time and get the product right , than to rush the product to market. It is better just to improve our existing products than to botch a new product, even though costs us less.11/4/2011 388
  • 389. Key points: Decision tree provide an effective method of decision Making because they: Clearly lay out the problem so that all options can be challenged Allow us to analyse fully the possible consequences of a decision Provide a framework to quantify the values of outcomes and the probabilities of achieving them Help us to make the best decisions on the basis of existing information and best guesses. As with all Decision Making methods, decision tree analysis should be used in conjunction with common sense- decision trees are just one important part of your Decision Making too kit.11/4/2011 389
  • 390. 5.PMI-Weighing the Pro and cons of a Decision How to use tools: PMl stands for ‘Plus/Minus/Implications’. It is a valuable improvement to the ‘weighing pro and cons’ technique used for centuries. PMl is an important Decision Making tool: the mind tools used so far in this section have focused on selecting a course of action from a range of options. Before you move straight to action on this course of action , it is important to check that it is going to improve the situation (it may actually be best to do nothing!) PMl is a useful tool for doing this. To use PMl, draw up a table headed up with ‘Plus’ , ‘Minus’, and ‘Implications’. In the column underneath ‘plus’, write down all the positive results of taking the action. Underneath ‘Minus’ write down all the negative effects. In the ‘Implications’ column write down the implications and possible outcomes of making the action, whether positive or negative. By this stage it may already be obvious whether or not you should implement the decision. If it is not, consider each of the points you have written down and assign a positive or negative score to it appropriately. The scores you assign may be subjective. Once you have done this, add up all the score. A strongly positive score shows that an action should be taken, a strongly negative score that it should be avoided.11/4/2011 390
  • 391. Example: A young professional is deciding where to live. Her question is‘Should she move to the big city?’ She draws up the PMl table below:Plus Minus ImplicationsMore going (+5) Have to sell house(-6) Easier to find new job?(+1)Easier to see friends(+5) More pollution(-3) Meet more people? (+2)Easier to get places(+3) Less space (-3) More difficult to get own work done? (+4) No country side (-2)+13 -18 -1•She score the table as 13 (Plus) -18 (Minus)-1 ( Interesting)=-6•For her, the comforts of a settled rural existence outweigh the call of the ‘bright lights’ –it would be much better for her to live outside the city, but close enough to travel in ifnecessary.11/4/2011 391
  • 392. PMl cont… Key points: PMl is a good way of weighing the pros, cons and implications of a decision . When you selected a course of action, PMl is a good technique to use to check that it is worth taking. To use the technique, draw up a table with three columns headed Plus, Minus and Implications. Within the table write down all the positive points of following the course of action, all the negatives and all the interesting implications and possible outcomes. If the decision is still not obvious, you can then score the table to show the importance of individual items. The total score should show whether it is worth implementating the decision.11/4/2011 392
  • 393. 6. Force Field Analysis-Understanding The Pressures For and Againstchange How to Use the tool: Force Field Analysis is a useful technique for looking at all the forces for and against a decision. In effect, it is a specialized method of weighing pros and cons. By carrying out the analysis you can plan to strengthen the forces supporting a decision, and reduce the impact of opposition to it. To carry out force field analysis, follow these steps: list all forces for change in one column, and all forces against change in another column. Assign a score to each force, from 1 (week) to 5 (strong). show the size of each force as a number next to it.11/4/2011 393
  • 394. FigureForce Field Analysis Example Forces for Change Forces against Changes Loss of staff4 Customers want now product overcome Staff frightened of2 Improve speed Of production Pain new technology Upgrade Faction with Environmental new impact of new Raise volumes3 output manufacturin g equipment technology Cost Customersing1 maintenance cost Disruption11/4/2011 394
  • 395. Example cont… Once you have carried out an analysis, you can decide whether your project is viable. In the example above, you might initially question whether it is worth going ahead with the plan. When you have already decided to carry out a project, Force Field Analysis can help you to work out how to improve its probability of success. Here you have two choices: To reduce the strength of the forces opposing a project, or To increase the forces pushing a project Often the most elegant solution is the first: just trying to forces changes through may cause its own problems People can be uncooperative if changes is force on them. If you had to implement the project in the example above, the analysis might suggest a number of changes to the initial plan: By training staff (increase cost by 1) you could eliminate fear of technology (reduce fear by 2) It would be useful to show staff that changes is necessary for business survival (new force in favour, +2) Staff could be shown that new machines would introduce variety and interest to their jobs (new force, +1) You could raise wages to reflect new productivity (cost+1, loss of overtime -2) Slightly different machines with filters to eliminate pollution could be installed (environmental impact-1) These changes would swing the balance from 11:10 (against the plan), to 8:13 (in favour of the plan).11/4/2011 395
  • 396. 7. Force Field Analysis Keypoints: Force Field Analysis is a useful technique for looking at all the forces for and against a plan. It helps you to weigh the importance of these factors and decide whether a plan is worth implementing. Where you have decided to carry out a plan, Force Field Analysis helps you identify changes that you could make to improve it.11/4/2011 396
  • 397. Six Thinking Hats-Looking at a Decision From All Points of view How to use tools: ‘Six Thinking Hats’ is an important and powerful technique. It is used to look at decisions from a number of important perspectives. This forces you to move outside your habitual thinking style, and helps you to get a more rounded view of a situation. This tool was created by Edward de Bono. Many successful people think from a very rational, positive viewpoint. This is part of the reason that they are successful. Often, though, they may fail to look at a problem from an emotional, intuitive, creative or negative viewpoint. This can mean that they underestimate resistance to plans, fail to make creative leaps and do not make essential contingency plans. Similarly, pessimists may be excessively defensive, and more emotional people may fail to look at decisions calmly and rationally. If you look at a problem with the ‘Six Thinking Hats’ technique, then you will solve it using all approaches. Your decisions and plans will mix ambition, skill in execution, public sensitivity, creativity and good contingency planning.11/4/2011 397
  • 398. How to Use the Tool: You can use Six Thinking Hats in meetings or on your own. In meetings it has the benefit of blocking the confrontations that happen when people with different thinking style discuss the same problem.Each ‘Thinking Hat’ is a different style of thinking. These are explained below: White Hat: With this thinking hat you focus on the data available. Look at the information you have, and see what you can learn from it. Look for gaps in your knowledge, and either try to fill them or take account of them. This is where you can analyse past trends, and try to extrapolate from historical data. Red Hat: ‘Weaning’ the red hat, you look at problems using intuition, and emotion. Also try to think how other people will react emotionally. Try to understand the responses of people who do not fully know your reasoning. Black Hat: Using black hat thinking, look at all the bad points of the decision. Look at it cautiously and defensively. Try to see why it might not work. This is important because it highlights the weak points in a pain. It allows you to eliminate them, or prepare contingency plans to counter them.11/4/2011 398
  • 399. How to Use the Tool (2) Black Hat thinking helps to make your plans ‘tougher’ and more resilient. It can also help you to stop fatal flaws and risks before you embark on a course of action. Black Hat thinking is one of the real benefits of this technique, as many successful people get so used to thinking positively that often they cannot see problems in advance. This leave them under-prepared for difficulties. Yellow Hat: The yellow hat helps you to think positively. It is the optimistic viewpoint that helps you to see all the benefits of the decision and the value in it. Yellow Hat thinking helps you to keep going when everything looks gloomy and difficult . Green Hat: The Green Hat stands for creativity. This is where you can develop creative solutions to a problem. It is a freewheeling way of thinking, in which there is little criticism of ideas. A whole range of creativity tools can help you here. Blue Hat: The blue Hat stands for process control. This is the hat worm by people chairing meetings. When running into difficulties because ideas are running dry, they may direct activity into Green Hat thinking. When contingency plans are needed, they will ask of for Black Hat thinking ,etc. A variant of this technique is to look at problems from the point of view of different professionals (e.g. doctors, architects, sales directors, etc.) or different customers.11/4/2011 399
  • 400. Example: This directors of a property company are looking at whether they shouldconstruct a new office building. The economy is doing well, and the amount of vacant office space is reducingsharply. As part of their decision they decided to use the 6 Thinking Hats technique during a planning meeting. Looking at the problem with the White Hat. They analyse the data they have. They examine the trend in vacant office space, which shows a sharp reduction. They anticipate that by the time the office block would be completed, that there will be a severe shortage of office space. Current government projections show steady economic growth for at least the construction period. With Red Hat thinking, some of the directors think the proposed building looks quite ugly. While it would be highly cost-effective, they worry that people would not like to work in it. When they think with the Black Hat, they worry that government projections may be wrong. The economy may be about to enter a cyclical downturn’, in which case the office building may be empty for a long time. If the building is not attractive, then companies will chose to work in another better-looking building at the same rent.11/4/2011 400
  • 401.  With the Yellow Hat, however, if the economy holds up and their projections are correct, the company stands to make a great deal of money. If they are lucky, maybe they could sell the building before the next downturn, or rent to talents on long-term leases that will last through any recession.  With Green Hat thinking they consider whether they should change the design to make the building more pleasant. Perhaps they could build prestige offices that people would want to rent in any economic climate. Alternatively, maybe they should invest the money in short term to buy up property at a low cost when a recession comes.  The Blue Hat has been used at the meeting’s chair to move between the different thinking styles. He or she may have needed to keep other members of the team from switching styles, or from criticizing other peoples’ points.11/4/2011 401
  • 402. 6. Thinking Hats Key points: Six Thinking Hats is a good technique for looking at the effect of the decision from a number of different point of view. It allows necessary emotion and scepticism to be brought into what would otherwise be purely rational decisions. It opens up the opportunity for creative Decision making. The technique also helps, for example, persistently pessimistic people to be positive and creative. Plans developed using the ‘6 Thing Hats’ technique will be sounder and more resilient than would otherwise be the case. It may also help you to avoid public relations mistakes, and spot good reasons not to follow a course of action before you have committed to it.11/4/2011 402
  • 403. Cost/Benefit Analysis-Evaluating Quantitatively Whether to Follow a Course of Action How to use tool: You may have been intensely creative in generating solutions to a problem, and rigorous in your selection of the best one available. This solution may still not be worth implementing, as you may invest a lot of time and money in solving a problem that is not worthy of this effort. Cost/Benefit Analysis is a relatively simple and widely used technique for deciding whether to make a change. As its name suggests, to use the technique simply add up the value of the benefits of a course of action, and subtract the costs associated with it. Costs are either one-off, or may be ongoing. Benefits are most often received overtime. We build this effect of time into our analysis by calculating a payback period. This is the time it takes for the benefits of a change to repay its costs. Many companies look for payback over a specified period of time – e.g. three years11/4/2011 403
  • 404. Cost/Benefit Analysis-Evaluating Quantitatively Whether to Follow a Course of Action In its simple form, cost/benefit analysis is carried out using only financial costs and financial benefits. For example, a simple cost/benefit analysis of a road scheme would measure the cost of building the road, and subtract this form the economic benefit of improving transport links. It would not measure either the cost of environment damage or the benefit of quicker and travel to work. A more sophisticated approach to cost/benefit analysis is to try to put a financial value on these intangible costs and benefits. This can be highly subjective –is , for example, a historic water meadow worth $25,000, or is it worth $500,000 because if its environmental importance? What of stress-free travel to work in the morning? These are all questions that people have to answer, and answers that people have to defend. The version of cost/benefit analysis we explain here is necessarily simple. Where large sums of money are involved (for example, in financial market transactions),project evaluation can become an extremely complex and sophisticated art. 11/4/2011 404
  • 405. Example: A sales director is deciding whether to implement a new computer based contact management and sales processing system. His department has only a few computers, and his salespeople are not computer literate. He is aware that computerized sales forces are able to contact more customers and give a higher quality of reliability and service to those customers. They are more able to meet commitments, and can work more efficiently with fulfillment and delivery staff.His financial cost/benefit analysis is shown below : Costs: Benefits: New computer equipment : Tripling of mail shot capacity: estimate: 10 network-ready PCs with supporting $20,000 / year software @ $1,225 each Ability to sustain telesales campaigns: 1 server @ $1,750 estimate: $20,000 / year 3 printers @ $600 each Improved customer service and information: Cabling & Installation @ $2300 estimate: $15,000 / year Sales support software @ $7500 Improved accuracy of customer information: Training costs: estimate: $5,000 / year Computer introduction – 8 people @ $ 200 each more ability to manage sales effort: $ 15,000 / year Keyboard skills – 8 people @ $ 200 each Total Benefit: $90,000/year Sales support system – 12 people @ $350 each Other costs: Lost time: 40 man days @ $ 100 / day payback time: $55,800 / $90,000 = 0.62 of a year = approx. 8 months Lost sales through disruption: estimate: $10,000 Lost sales through inefficiency during first months: estimate: $10,000 Total cost: $55,800 Inevitably the estimates of the benefit given by the new system are quilt subjective. Despite this, the sales Director is very likely to introduce it, given the short payback time. 11/4/2011 405
  • 406. Cost/Benefit Analysis – key points Cost/Benefit Analysis is a powerful, widely used and relatively easy tool for deciding whether to make a change. To use the tool, firstly work out how much the change will cost to make. Then calculate the benefit you will from it. Where costs or benefits are paid or carried over time, work out the time it will take for the benefits to repay the costs. Cost/Benefit Analysis can be carried out using only financial costs and financial benefits. You may , however, decide to include intangible items within the analysis. As you must estimate a value for these, this inevitably brings an element of subjectivity into the process.11/4/2011 406
  • 407. Learning Opportunity The techniques learnt will be applied at the workshops on the ongoing JCH project. Workshop attendance is mandatory!11/4/2011 407
  • 408. Homework Write a report on … “How sound decision-making ability can make a project Manager more effective”11/4/2011 408
  • 409. Project Leadership11/4/2011 409
  • 410. Module AimsAs a project manager YOU are accountable for the success of the project/programme.  To succeed, it is essential you develop an effective leadership style which facilitates successful delivery through team management.  People are not robots or machines that can be manipulated at will, therefore you need to have the right skills to lead and develop your team to prevent project failure. Having knowledge of leadership styles and techniques is essential where managing your team to win is concerned.  Project Failure is one experience you do not want to have in your career. A management Guru once said “projects don’t fail people do”… this statement is very true. 11/4/2011 410
  • 411. Module Benefits In today’s business environment, managers know that the best was to ensure project success is to build a motivated and committed project team. High-performance teams are the result of an exemplary leader who creates the conditions in which in individual team members can contribute their best. In this course, you gain the knowledge to build cohesive, high-performance teams. Through practical workshops, you learn how to transition to a leader who can inspire a diverse team to work together and keep projects on track.11/4/2011 411
  • 412. At the end of this session:• You should gain  The knowledge and techniques to be an effective leader  Know how to build High-Performance Team.  Through the workshops, you will have the opportunity to:-  Develop the leadership skills to build and empower successful projects team  Integrate leadership characteristics into your project management style  Create a cohesive team in a project environment  Monitor and sustain team performance from project conception to completion  Identify and manage conflicts that can impact high performance  It is essential, as a budding project manager, you appreciate the importance of effective leadership and begin to develop your leadership potential from now to guarantee your effectiveness in your workplace  The workshops should be used as an opportunity to practice, get feedback and improve in a safe learning environment11/4/2011 412
  • 413. New pressure on today’s ProjectManagement As project management becomes the preferred/former method for delivering new business initiatives, innovative & creative products and services; the business i.e. CEOs/Director/Clients have great expectations of Project Managers in terms of their ability to deliver superior products to record time, excellent quality and all this within budget! (Cost/Time/Quantity – the triple constraints of projects)11/4/2011 413
  • 414. Leadership, a definition Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organisation in any way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Leadership carry out this process by applying their leadership attribute, such as beliefs, values, ethics, character, knowledge and skills. Although your position as a manager, supervisor, lead, etc. gives you the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives in the organisation. This power does not make you a leader…it simply makes you the boss. Leadership in that it makes the followers want to achieve high goals, rather than simply bossing people around.11/4/2011 414
  • 415. Can we all be leaders? Good leaders are made not born. Some people have a predisposition for leadership based on inherited personality and characteristics however, these ability needs to be developed to reflect the environment they are operating in i.e. release for effectiveness. If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader. Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience. This guide will help you through that process. To inspire your workers into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things you must be, know, and do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continual work and study. Good leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills, they are NOT resting on their laurels. 11/4/2011 415
  • 416. Leadership Theories Bass’ (three basic ways to1989 & 1990) theory of leadership states that there are three basic ways to explain how people become leaders. The first two explain the leadership development for a small number of people. These theories are: some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. This is the Trait Theory. A crisis or important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion, which brings out extraordinary leadership quality in an ordinary person. This is the Great Event Theory. People can choose to become leaders. People can learn leadership skills. This is the Transformational Leadership Theory. It is the most widely accepted theory today and the premise on which this guide is based. 11/4/2011 416
  • 417. The Team’s Viewpoint When a person is deciding if they respect you as a leader, they do not think about your attributes, rather, they observe what you do so that they can know who you really are. They use these observation to tell if you are an honorable and trusted leader or a self serving person who misuses authority to look good and get promoted. Self-serving leaders are not effective because their employees only obey them, not follow them. They succeed in many areas because the present a good image to their seniors at the expense of their workers.11/4/2011 417
  • 418. Good Leadership The basis of good leadership is honorable character and selfless service to your organisation. In your employees’ eyes, your leadership is everything you do that affects the organizations objectives and their well being. Respected leaders concentrated on what they are [be](such as beliefs and character), and what they know (such as implementing, motivating, and provide direction). What makes a person want to follow a leader? People want to be guided by those they respect and who a clear sense of direction. To gain respect, they must be ethical. A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future.11/4/2011 418
  • 419. The Two Most Important Keys to EffectiveLeadership A Hay’s study examined over 75 key components of employee satisfaction. They found that: Trust and confidence in top leadership was the single most reliable predictor of employee’s satisfaction in an organisation. Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key to winning organisational trust and confidence: helping employees understand the company’s overall business strategy. Helping employees understand how they contribute to achieving key business objectives. Sharing information with employees on both how the company is doing and how an employee’s own division is doing – relative to strategic business objectives. So in a nutshell you must be trustworthy and you have to be able to communicate a vision of where the organisation needs to go. The next section, “Principles of Leadership,” ties in closely with this key concept.11/4/2011 419
  • 420. Principles of Leadership To help you be, know, and do(U.S Army, 1973) follow these eleven principles of leadership (later chapters in this guide expand on these and provide tools implementing them): Know yourself and seek self-improvement – In order to know yourself, you have to understand your be, know, and do, attribute. Seeking self-improvement means continually strengthening your attribute. This can be accomplished through self-study, formal classes, and interacting with others. Be technically proficient – As a leader, you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your employees’ tasks. Seek responsibilities and take responsibilities for your actions – Search for ways to guide your organisation to new heights. And when things go wrong (they always do sooner or later), do not blame others. Analyse the solution, take corrective action, and move to the next challenge. Make sound and timely decisions – Use good problem solving, decision making, and planning tools. 11/4/2011 420
  • 421. Principles of Leadership (2) Set the example – Be a good role model for your employees. They must not only hear what they are expected to do, but also see. We must become the change we want to see – Mahatma Gandhi. Know your people and look out for their well-being – know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for your workers. Keep your workers informed – know how to communicate with not only them, but also seniors and other key people. Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers – Help to develop good character traits that will help them carry out their professional responsibilities. Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished – communication is the key to this responsibility Train as a team – Although many so called leaders call their organisation, department, section etc. a team; they are not really teams…they are just a group of people doing their jobs. Use the full capabilities of your organisation – By developing a team spirit, you will be able to employ your organisation, department, section, etc. to its fullest. 11/4/2011 421
  • 422. Factors of Leadership  There are four major factors in leadership: 11/4/2011 422
  • 423. Factors of Leadership - Follower  Different people require different style of leadership.  For example, a new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee.  A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach from one with a high degree of motivation. You must know your people!  The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature, such as needs, emotions, and motivations. You must come to know your employees’ be, know, and do attributes. N.B. be, know, and do is covered in details in subsequent sections 11/4/2011 423
  • 424. Factors of Leadership- Leader You must have an honest understanding of who you are. What you know, and what you can do. Also , note that it is the followers, not the leader who determine if the leader is successful. If they do not trust or lack confidence in their leader, then they will be uninspired. To be successful you have to convince your follower, not yourself or superiors, that you are worthy of being followed.11/4/2011 424
  • 425. Factors of leadership -Communication  You lead through two-way communication. Much of it is nonverbal. For instance, when you “set the example,”that communicates to your people that you would not ask them to perform anything that you would not be willing to do.  What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees. 11/4/2011 425
  • 426. Factors of Leadership - Situation  All are different. What you do in one situation will not always work in another. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for such situation.  For example, you may need to confront an employee for inappropriate behavior, but if the confrontation is too late or early, too harsh or weak, then the result may prove ineffective. 11/4/2011 426
  • 427. Factors of Leadership - conclusion Various forces will affect these factors. Examples of forces are your relationship with your seniors, the skill of your people, the informal leaders within your organisation, and how your company is organised.11/4/2011 427
  • 428. LeadershipAttributes 11/4/2011 428
  • 429. Attributes If you are a leader who can be trusted, then those around you will grow to respect you. To be such a leader, there is a leadership Framework to guide you: “BE KNOW DO”11/4/2011 429
  • 430. BE KNOW DO BE A professional. Example: Be loyal to the organisation, perform selfless service, take personal responsibility. BE a professional who possess good character traits. Example: Honesty, Competence, candour, commitment , integrity, courage, straightforwardness, imagination. KNOW the four factors of leadership-follower, leader, communication, situation. Yourself, Examples: strength and weakness of your character, knowledge, and skills. Human nature, Examples: Human needs, emotions, and how people responses to stress. Your job, Examples: be proficient and be able to train others in their tasks. Your organisation, Examples: where to go for help, its climate and culture, who the unofficial leaders are. DO Provide direction, Example: goals setting, problems solving, decision making, planning. Implementation, Examples: communication, coordinating, supervising, evaluating. Motivate, Examples: develop moral and espirit in the organisation, train, coach, counsel.11/4/2011 430
  • 431. Leadership andthe Environment11/4/2011 431
  • 432. Environment Every organisation has a particular work environment, which dictates to a considerable degree how its leaders respond to problem and opportunities. This is brought about by its heritage of past leaders and its present leaders. Goals, values, concepts Leaders exert influence on the environment via three types of actions: The goals and the performance standards they establish. The values they establish for the organisation . The business and the people concepts they establish. Successful organisations have leaders who set high standards and goals across the entire spectrum, such as strategies, market leadership, plans, meetings and presentations, productivity, quality, and reliability Value reflect the concern the organisation has for its employees, customers, investors, vendors, and surrounding community. These values define the manner in how business will be conducted. Concepts define what products or service the organisation will offer and the methods and processes for conducting business. These goals, values, and concepts make up the organisation’s “personality” or how the organisation is observed by both outsiders and insiders. This personality define the roles, relationships, rewards, and rites that take place.11/4/2011 432
  • 433. Environment - 2 Roles and Relationships Roles are positions that are defined by a set of expectations about behaviour of any job incumbent. Each role has a set of task and responsibilities that may or may not be spelled out. Roles have a powerful effect on behaviour for several reasons, to includes money being paid for the performance of the role, there is prestige attached to a role and a sense of accomplishment or challenge. Relationship are determined by a role’s tasks. While some tasks are performed alone, most are carried out in relationship with others . The tasks will determine role-holder is required to interact with , how often and towards what end. Also, normally the greater the interaction the greater the liking. This in turn leads to more frequent interaction. In human behaviour, it’s had to like someone with whom we have no contact and we tend to seek out those we like. People tend to do what they are rewarded for and friendship is a powerful reward. Many tasks and behavioural traits that are associated with a role are brought about by these relationship . That is , new task and behavioural traits are expected of the present role holder because a strong relationship was developed in the past, either by that role holder or a prior holder.11/4/2011 433
  • 434. Environment - 3 Culture and Climate There are two distinct forces that dictate how to act an organisation: Culture and Climate. Each organisation has its own distinctive culture. It is a combination of the founders, past leadership, crises, events, history and size. This results in rites : the routines, rituals, and the “way we do things.” These rites impact individual behavioural on what it takes to be in good standing (the norm) and directs the appropriate behaviour for each circumstance. The climate is the feel of the organisation, the individuals and shared perceptions and attributes of the organisation’s members. While the culture is the deeply rooted nature of the organisation that is a result of long-held formal and informal systems, rules, traditions, and customs; climate is a short-term phenomenon created by the current leadership. Climate represents the belief about the “feel of the organisation “ by its member. This individual perception of the activities that occur in the organisation.11/4/2011 434
  • 435. Environment - 4 Culture and Climate cont… These activities influence both individual and team motion and satisfaction, such as: How well dose the leader clarify the priorities and goals of the organisation? What is expected of us? What is the system of recognition, rewards, and punishments in the organisation? How competent are the leaders? Are leaders free to make decision? What will happen if I make a mistake?11/4/2011 435
  • 436. Environment - 5 Organisational climate is directly related to the leadership and management style of the leader, based on the values, attributes, skills, and actions, as well as the priority. Compare this to “ ethical climate” the “ feel of the organisation” about the activities that have ethical content or those aspects of the work environment that constitute ethical behaviour. The ethical climate is the feel about whether we do things The bahaviour ( character) of the leader is the most important factor that impacts the climate. On the other hand, culture is a long-term, complex phenomenon . Culture represent the shared expectations and self-image of the organisation. The mature value right ; or the feel of whether we behave the way we ought to behave. That create “tradition” or the “way we do things here” Things are done differently in every organisation. The collective vision and common folklore that define institution are a reflection of culture . Individual leadership cannot easily create or change culture because culture is a part of the organisation. Culture influences the characteristics of the climate by its effect on the action and thought processes of the leader. But , everything you do as a leader will affect the climate of the organisation.11/4/2011 436
  • 437. Leadership Models Leadership models help us to understand what makes leaders act the way they do. The ideals is not to lock yourself in to a behaviour discussed in the model, but to realise that every situation call for a different approach or behaviour to be taken. Two models will be discussed, the Four Framework Approach and the Managerial Grid. Four Framework Approach In the Four Framework Approach, Bolman and Deal (1991) suggest that leaders display leadership behaviour in one of the four types of frameworks: Structural, Human Resource, Political, or Symbolic. This style either be effective or ineffective depending upon the chosen behaviour in certain situations.11/4/2011 437
  • 438. Leadership Models (2) Structural Framework In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a special architect whose leadership style is analysis and design. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a petty tyrant whose leadership style is details. Structural leaders focus on experimentation, and adaptation. Human Resource Framework In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a catalyst and servant whose leadership style is support, advocate, and empowerment . While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a pushover, whose leadership style is abdication and fraud. Human Resource Leaders believe in people and communicate that belief, they are visible and accessible, they empower, increase participation, support, share information, and move decision making down into the organisation.11/4/2011 438
  • 439. Leadership Models (3) Political Framework In an effective leadership situation, the leader is an advocate, whose leadership style is coalition and building. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a hustler, whose leadership style is manipulation. Political leaders clarify what they want and what they can get, they access the distribution of power and interests, they build linkages to other stakeholders, use persuasion first, then use negotiation and coercion only if necessary . Symbolic Framework In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a prophet, whose leadership style is inspiration. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a fanatic or fool, whose leadership style is smoke and mirrors. Symbolic leaders view organisations, as stage or theatre to play certain roles and give impression, these leaders use symbols to capture attention, they try to frame experience by providing plausible interpretations of experience, they discover and communicate a vision.11/4/2011 439
  • 440. Conclusion This model suggests that leaders can be put into one of these four categories and there are times when one approach is appropriate and times when it would not be. Any one of these approaches alone would be inadequate, and not just rely on one or two. For example, during a major organisation change, a structural leadership style may be more effective than a visionary leadership style, while during a period when strong growth is needed, the visionary approach may be better. We also need to understand ourselves as each of us tends to have a preferred approach. We need to be conscious of this at all times and be aware of the limitations of our favouring just one approach.11/4/2011 440
  • 441. Managerial Grid Grid (1985)uses two axis: The Blake and Mouton Managerial “Concern for people “ is plotted using the vertical axis “Concern for task” is along the horizontal axis They both have a range of 0-9. The notion that just two dimensions can describe a managerial behaviour has the attraction of simplicity. These two dimensions can be drawn as graph or grid: Most people fall somewhere near the middle of the two axis. By going to the extremes, that is, people who score on the far end scales, we come up with four types of leaders: Authoritarian (9 on task, 1 on people) Team Leader (9 on task, 9 on people) Country Club ( 1 on task, 9 on people) Impoverished (1 on task, 1 on people)11/4/2011 441
  • 442. Authoritarian Leader ( high task, lowrelationship) People who get this rating are very much task oriented and are hard on their workers (autocratic ). There is little or no allowance for cooperation or collaboration. Heavily task oriented people display these characteristics: they are very strong on schedules, they expect people to do what they are told without question or debate, when something goes wrong they tend to focus on who is to blame rather than concentrate on exactly what is wrong and how to prevent it, they are intolerant of what they see as dissent ( it may just be someone’s creativity), so it is difficult for their subordinates to contribute or develop.11/4/2011 442
  • 443. Team Leader ( high task, high relationship) This type of person leads by positive example and endeavours to foster a team environment in which all team members can reach their highest potential , both as team members and as people. They encourage the team to reach team goals as effectively as possible, while also working tirelessly to strengthen the bonds among the various members. They normally form and some of the most productive teams.11/4/2011 443
  • 444. Country Club Leader (low task,high relationship) This person uses predominantly reward power to maintain discipline and to encourage the team to accomplish its goals. Conversely, they are almost incapable of employing the more punitive coercive and legitimate powers. This inability results from fear that using such powers could jeopardise relationships with the team members.11/4/2011 444
  • 445. (9) The Telephone, an Invention inspiredby Misunderstanding: Bell was inspired to start development of the telephone when he read an account, written in German, describing an invention which he thought had the function of a telephone. After demonstrating his first working telephone Bell learnt that, because of the language barrier, he had misunderstood the report, and the German invention had an entirely different function.11/4/2011 445
  • 446. (10) Spectrography Originates by searching fora Cross-Disciplinary Solution: Bunsen, a chemist, used the colour of a chemical sample in a gas flame for a rough determination of the elements it contained. He described the technique and its shortcomings to Kirchhoff , who, being a physicist, immediately suggested using a prism to display the entire spectrum and thus get detailed quantitative information. This led to the science of spectrography and, following application to measurement of the absorption spectra of the stars, to the modern science of cosmology.11/4/2011 446
  • 447. Learning Opportunity The techniques learnt will be applied at the workshops on the ongoing JCH project. Workshop attendance is mandatory!11/4/2011 447
  • 448. Homework Write a report on... “How Problem-solving techniques can make a Project Manager more effective”11/4/2011 448
  • 449. Decision making11/4/2011 449
  • 450. Module Aims Decision techniques in this section will help you to make the best decisions possible with the information you have available. With these tools you will be able to map out the likely consequences of decisions, work out the importance of individual factors, and choose the best course of action.11/4/2011 450
  • 451. At the end of this session:  You should  Appreciate the importance of having effective decision-making ability in the place  Have the tool and techniques to..  Effectively make decision  Contribute to product innovation & development  A Project Manager’s job description is about “making decisions w.r.t. project activity, people, resources i.e. finance and other project related matters. Accountability / Responsibility requires the art of effective decision-making. The entire project team looks to the PM for direction and decision-making; this ability/skill is non-negotiable for every PM. 11/4/2011 451
  • 452. Decision Making Techniques We will look Decision Making tools in two stages. Firstly we will look at a set of good techniques that help you to select between different options. This part finishes by discussing Decision Trees, which are excellent Decision Making tools. The second set helps you to decide whether a course of action is worth following. These techniques build on the tools covered in the Problem-Solving module; Decision Making follows on from an understanding of the situation. The tools are to assist your intelligence and common sense. These are your most important assets in good Decision Making.11/4/2011 452
  • 453. Paired Comparison Analysis (2A) Follow these steps to use the technique: List the options you will compare. assign a letter to reach option . Set up a table with these options as row and column headings. Block out cells on the table where you will be comparing an option with itself-there will never be a difference in these cells! These will normally be on the diagonal running from the top left to bottom right.11/4/2011 453
  • 454. The Tools we will discuss are:1. Selecting the most important changes to make – pareto Analysis2. Evaluating the relative importance of different options – paired Comparison Analysis3. Selecting between good options – Grid Analysis4. Choosing between options by projecting likely outcomes – Decision Trees5. Weighing the pros and cons of a decision – PMI6. Analysis the pressures for and against change – force Field Analysis7. Looking at a decision from all points of view – Six Thinking Hats8. Seeing whether a change is worth making – Cost/Benefit Analysis11/4/2011 454
  • 455. 1. Pareto Analysis (PA) - Selecting the Most Important Change To Make Pareto analysis is a very simple technique that helps you to choose the most effective changes to make. It uses the Pareto principle – the idea that by doing 20% of work you can generate 80% of the advantage of doing the entire job. Pareto analysis is a formal technique for finding the changes that will give the bigger benefits. It is useful where many possible courses of action are competing for your attention.11/4/2011 455
  • 456. Pareto Analysis (P A) - How to use tool: To start using the tool, write out a list of the changes you could make. If you have a long list, group it into related changes. Then score the items or groups. The scoring method you use depends on the sort of problem you are trying to solve. For example, if you are trying to improve profitability, you would score options on the basis of the profit each group might generate. If you are trying to improve customer satisfaction, you might score on the basis of the number of complaints eliminated by each change. The first change to tackle is the one that has the highest score. This one will give you the biggest benefit if you solve it. The options with the lowest scores will probably not even be worth bothering with – solving these problem s may cost you more than the solutions are worth.11/4/2011 456
  • 457. Example: A manager has taken over a failing service centre. He commissions research to find out why customers service is poor. He gets the following comments back from the customers: Phones are only answered after many rings. Staff seems distracted and under pressure. Engineers do not appear to be well organized . They need second visits to bring extra parts. This means that customers have to take more holiday to be there a second time. They do not know what time they will arrive. This means that customers may have to be in the all day for an engineer to visit. Staff members do not always seems to know what they are doing. Sometimes when staff members arrive, the customer finds that the problem could have been solved over the phone.11/4/2011 457
  • 458. Cont … The manager groups these problem together He then scores each group by the number of complaints, and the list: Lack of staff training : items 5 and 6 : 51 complaints Tool few staff: 1, 2 and 4 : 21 complaints By doing the Pareto analysis above, the manager can better see that the vast majority of problem (69%) can be solved by improving staff skills. Once this done, it may be worth looking at increasing the number of staff members. Alternatively, as staff member become more able to solve problems over the phone, maybe the need for new staff members may decline. It look as if comments on poor organization and preparation may be rare, and could be caused by problems beyond the manager’s control. By carrying out a Pareto Analysis, the manager is able to focus on training as an issue, rather than spreading effort over training, taking on new staff members, and possibly installing a new computer system .11/4/2011 458
  • 459. 2. Paired Comparison Analysis (PCA)- Working Out the Relative Importance of Different options Paired Comparison Analysis helps you to work out the importance of a number of options related to each other. It is particular useful where you do not have objective data to base this on. This makes it easy to choose the most important problem to solve, or select the solution that will give you the greatest advantage. Paired Comparison Analysis helps you to set priorities where there are conflicting demands on your resources.11/4/2011 459
  • 460. PCA – How to use tool: To use the technique, first of all list your options. Then draw up a grid with each option as both a row and a column header. Use this grid to compare each option with each other option, one-by-one. For each comparison, decide which of the two options is most important, and then assign a score to show how much important it is. You can then consolidate these comparisons so that each option is given a percentage importance.11/4/2011 460
  • 461. What is a project? A group of activities to bring about change or create a new product or service Attributes Finite defined life span Defined and measurable benefits11/4/2011 461
  • 462. What is a projects(1) The process of bringing about a new product or service Attributes • One _off delivery • Fixed timescales i.e. start and end • Unique (no 2 projects are exactly same)11/4/2011 462
  • 463. What is a project?(2) Introduction of change One _ off implementation Creation of a new service or product The sum of the parts needed for a total solution11/4/2011 463
  • 464. What is a product?(2) A unique delivery _ No two projects are the same Delivery within a definite timescale i.e. definite start and end Common objective or goal to be accomplished within a time period11/4/2011 464
  • 465. What is a project?(2) Process of bringing change in an environment within a given time. Set of activities with a defined objective and timeframe Set of tasks to achieve a goal 11/4/2011 465
  • 466. How do project come about? A problem (or opportunity)  Inefficient or cumbersome process, financial losses An ideal  Wouldnt it be easier or better if….. Industry requirement or change  Industry solution e.g. the ISA product11/4/2011 466
  • 467. How do projects come about? Statutory requirement Government initiative e.g. New taxation etc Technologising Taking advantage of innovations and technology Automating manual business processes etc Business expansion New branch. Expanding premises or office11/4/2011 467
  • 468. How do projects come about?(2) Process oStep 1 oStep2 oStep3 oRequirement oIdea oRequest oProblem or opportunity11/4/2011 468
  • 469. Examples of projects… Abby National _ ISA IT Systems_ Banking system to support the sale of ISA products _covering all banking components e.g. DD, cash payment etc. Rover Group_Y2K Compliance: To ensure all IT systems compliant with the new millenium11/4/2011 469
  • 470. Examples of projects…. Charles Schwab _ To establish 3 new branches or investment centres in the United Kingdom CCL _ To develop a study management system for a global green field company IBM_ To e_Enable cable and wireless”s business (internet, intranet and extranet applications) 11/4/2011 470
  • 471. 4 Examples of projects youveworked on Project 1… Project 2… Project 3… Project 4… Just name them.11/4/2011 471
  • 472. Looking at projects fromdifferent angles Categories, Types and Environments11/4/2011 472
  • 473. Objectives We are going to look at different ways of carrying projects to ensure we approach the project in a structure way with clear boundaries. This importance to facilitate effective communication, role assignment and reporting form the start of the project to the end.11/4/2011 473
  • 474. Project Types and Categories Internal project _ within an organization •E.g. Rover Group ,Marketing Department External project _clients •E.g. cable and wireless global (IBM responsible for delivery)11/4/2011 474
  • 475. Project Environment_3_tier Industry Technology The project is the core11/4/2011 475
  • 476. Class Exercise Projects you” worked on• List projects (refer to earlier exercise)• Categories into internal or External groupings• Give a 5minute summary of one of one projects using the profile below: Project Name Project Objective Project Deliverable Your contribution and responsibilities11/4/2011 476
  • 477. Managing Projects Now we all have good understanding of projects, lets talk about “managing projects” What is project? What is project management? Who is project manager?11/4/2011 477
  • 478. Managing Projects A complete definition11/4/2011 478
  • 479. What is project Management?  Project Management is the planning, coordination and control of activities and resources to meet a defined objective within a given timescale.  Overseeing in a (controlled manner)the workings involved in delivering an objective ensuring effective and efficient use of resources and time.11/4/2011 479
  • 480. What is Project Management?(2) Overseeing the development of a new product to the final stage of delivery Organization of activities, tasks resources over a scheduled period with a defined deliverable Monitoring the development of a goal from start to end The art of applying an effective methodology or strategy to an activity from inception to completion.11/4/2011 480
  • 481. Project Management is ….  A skill or competence  Comprises techniques, concepts and processes  The equation for successful PM is  Knowledge and Experience Mentoring11/4/2011 481
  • 482. Why is project Managementneeded? Ensure timely delivery Ensure efficiency _ cost, people, equipment Ensure synchronized effort _ not a scattered approach Eliminate noise (project interference and politics) reducing conflict and delays _ always on the central part A specialist skill _people, planning, problem _ solving in ONE11/4/2011 482
  • 483. Why is a Project Managementneeded?Effective control (time, cost, scope, resource,quality)Time ManagementScope definition or scope creep preventionTo achieve goal set with agreed timeframeEnsure correctness or quality of the end_product11/4/2011 483
  • 484. Acquisition of PM skill How? Techniques and concept can be acquired by studying the subject and mastered by experience By knowledge attending courses, reading books on the subject etc. . By experience _ watch, do fall and learn PM Tip: knowledge and experience go hand _in _ hand and cannot be separated11/4/2011 484
  • 485. Checkpoint • 2 definition blocks down, 1 to go What is project? What is project management? Who is a project manager?11/4/2011 485
  • 486. The Chief Aim of this course To ensure you attain the Knowledge + Experience Required to successfully manage project Getting the balance right course and workshops work Experience11/4/2011 486
  • 487. The project Manager Who is responsible?11/4/2011 487
  • 488. Who is a project Manager? The individual accountable for the successful delivery of a project (usually from inception to completion). Simply a clever juggler of time, money, people, requests or requirements to meet an objective etc.11/4/2011 488
  • 489. Who is a project Manager? Other Definitions Agent responsible for managing the process of change Oversees the development of a new product Is fully responsible for a project11/4/2011 489
  • 490. Project Manager _ JobDescription Experience of Defining and scoping a project Planning activities scope or extent Managing resources(both human and non human) Co_ordination Issue, risk and change management.11/4/2011 490
  • 491. Project Manager _JobDescription Experience of Reporting to senior management (and all levels) Excellent communication skills(oral and written) Excellent presentation and documentation skills PM or planning sw user _MS project 2000|2 Methodology _PRINCE2 Note the key words as a clue to areas of focus11/4/2011 491
  • 492. Why are the project Managersneeded? To turn the clients dream into reality Single accountability Leadership _ no matter how highly experienced or technically sophisticated team still needs a leader for coherence and symphony Provide direction to team of experts11/4/2011 492
  • 493. Why are project managersneeded?Single point of contact between client andsenior management and team.Effective use of resource _”in and out”approachWork out project requirement _effort,resources, timescales11/4/2011 493
  • 494. Why are Project Managers needed? Allow the business champions carry on with business as usual Allow idea _ generators to get on with the development of other ideals The executives want to get on with decision _ making and solving business issues not low level management To ensure successful delivery of projects11/4/2011 494
  • 495. How do project Managersoperate?Full understanding of objective(thinking clearly on one’s feetAttention to detailDont blow over emails, read through carefullyand respond straightawayA sense of urgencyProactive communication and problem solving(Nick the problem in the bud)11/4/2011 495
  • 496. How do project managersoperate?With a methodologyA guide from the start to the endFull of factsImpromptu project updates and briefsA people _ personWatching out for the people and not just the projectTight deadlines with limited resources howeverPEOPLE are not machines.11/4/2011 496
  • 497. A PROJECT manager’s personality Excellent leader Negotiator (turns impossibilities into possibilities) Good judgment(premised on SMART information) Fair _listens to both (all)sides Organized (structured and in control)11/4/2011 497
  • 498. A Project Managers personality Team builder (focus on team synergy) Great communication _ spoken written, body language etc People skill _ Tall level I e. client, senior management, peer, team…etc Instils confidence _”can-do and “does _ do” attitude •SMART: specific, Measurable, Accurate, reliable and timely11/4/2011 498
  • 499. The “Organized” project MangerProject file and project bookA categorized record of the projectdocumentation IN ONE PLACEYour note and observations IN ONE PLACEMedium: Manual, Electronic, System or web11/4/2011 499
  • 500. The mindset for deliveryEvery project Manager is expected to think onhis or her feet at all times proactively with aproblem _ solving and tackling attitude.Two tools or technique a PM must master totackle projects of any size or complexity are:Strategy (clear and structured thinking)Breakdown structures11/4/2011 500
  • 501. Thank You11/4/2011 501
  • 502. Why PM The relevance of project Management in 21st Century industry11/4/2011 502
  • 503. Why project Management? Organizations(commercial and charitable) in every industry havenew initiatives, requirements which must be implemented to:Keep Customers satisfied“stay ahead of the game” etc.E.g.Banking are in competitionE _ banking solutionCost Effective call centres (24hrs service)Charities want to improve their serviceTo ensure Donor or Funder confidenceUnforeseen circumstances and natural disastersIn summary ,PM is needed for orchestrated deliveryMeet objectivesDelivery a product or serviceMake or introduce changes11/4/2011 503
  • 504. Every industry requires PM Because it is the preferred method of delivery in the 21st century Why? Accountability One p.mgr Stakeholder involvement Guaranteed Achievement Tried and tested PM techniques and methodologies Effective use of resources Cross department synergy Everyone gets involved Overall company growth Stimulates learning New opportunities11/4/2011 504
  • 505. PM is not a new skillAn age old practicePeople of the past practiced projectmanagement techniquesHistoric AchievementsEgypts pyramidsNoahs art(Religion)Roman bathsGreeks (Olympics)Asian TemplesGreat wall of chaina11/4/2011 505
  • 506. The profession Formalised Standardised Fine-tuned Master or Expert and specialist11/4/2011 506
  • 507. Learning opportunity Give me Examples of PMPs Produce job descriptions for each11/4/2011 507
  • 508. Developed versus Developing WorldAdvancement throughnew technology andInnovationFosters anEnvironment to breedNew ideal andCreativityProactive“Fresh blood” Strong dependence For basic delivery Borrowed ideas Bread_ and _butter Solutions 11/4/2011 508
  • 509. “project conscious” PM Facts …. •Organizations are becoming more project _conscious because they have acknowledged the benefit of well “orchestrated devilery.”competitor Analysis •There has always been a large demand for PM but these days it is becoming more and more prominent. •Employers and Employment Agencies find it very difficult to fill PMP vacancies •The good PMPs continue to charge or demand premium rates as PM skills are premium •You are at the cutting edge of new phenomena!11/4/2011 509
  • 510. Project opportunities Globalisation Tesco is expanding across the globe Natural Disasters Tsunami December 2004 Defence or Homeland security North Korea USA Research Medical cancer11/4/2011 510
  • 511. Learning opportunity Analyse opportunities in project Management Magazine11/4/2011 511
  • 512. The 21st Century is fuelled by ….rapid achievement Creativity, innovation and new concepts must be backed up by effective project management if the esteemed products and services are to be realised11/4/2011 512
  • 513. Working with innovators • The following skill are essential… • Consultancy • Organization • Planning • People • Specialists need to be coordinated effectively to deliver • Delivery • Ability to execute to plan with precision • Project Management Is the art or tool of achievement11/4/2011 513
  • 514. Learning Opportunity What I am going to do to promote innovation in the workplace? Brainstorm11/4/2011 514
  • 515. Project Management versus… Business Administration and General Management11/4/2011 515
  • 516. The Executive Syndrome Many executives fail because of their inability to executive strategy. This is because most MBA and business Degree holders are trained in the “art of strategy” and not the “art delivery” For project success, it is important to realise the two arts go together and cannot be substituted for one another.11/4/2011 516
  • 517. The Unusual Executive In rare cases, you come across the Executive with PM background and this is when project success is guaranteed. Project success is achieved when the Executive understands or realises the following: •The need for all (or key) staff to be trained in PM concept, techniques and methodologies whether directly or indirectly involved in project i.e. PM training is non _ negotiable requirement for staff development •Empower staff to deliver work in projects to leverage marketplace share •Fosters a culture of teamwork through project delivery and leads by example i.e. project management in action thus shaping organizational behavior and crating a culture where personnel delivery by nature •The need for an effective and efficient project office which is well invested in serving as the focal point for project operation across the organization11/4/2011 517
  • 518. The Executives Friend Bill Gate, Richard Branson, Anita Roddick, Alan Sugar, Donald Trump, Oprah Winfrey The Project Manager11/4/2011 518
  • 519. Learning Opportunity Analayse PM or JM print out11/4/2011 519
  • 520. Relevance to you….Opportunity to become a “cutting _edge”professionalEarn premium salariesSet up your own Consultancy •Once you have acquired enough experience“World Development” opportunities •The Developing world •Worldwide11/4/2011 520
  • 521. Premium Salaries Worldwide Project manager, Recovery Date Centre Move Exciting role for individual in challenging environment. Candidate will have experience of hands on project management of successful data centre installation commissioning and movement. Must have technical issues affecting a data centre from security to practical building works, powers, air conditioning ,alarm, networks, telecoms, UPS systems and general operations. Experience of working overseas essential especially within more: Type :contract location :Riyadh country : Saudi Arabia Start : ASAP salary or Rate: 750 or Day posted:03|05|2005 17:29:55 Reference: JS_TT00041411/4/2011 521
  • 522. Premium Salaries Worldwide Project office Support Six month contract to work on one of the most prestigious change programmes within an insurance environment. Working for the programme office team, and interfacing with the business and also a team of consultants(Accenture)this will be a varied and demanding role for an experience project office or programme office manager who has a proven track record in financial services. The successful candidate will have a minimum of 4 years experience in handing full reporting for a programme _budget more: Type: Temporary location: Gatwick, west Sussex Country: England start ASPA salary or rate :350 _400|day posted:06|05|2005 16:57:11 reference : is _AG _POS311/4/2011 522
  • 523. Premium Salaries Worldwide Project Support Office Our client requires a project office support person for a 3 month (renewable)contract in their prestigious Chester office. The role will include preparing forms using MS word, raising purchase requests in oracle financial 11i and maintaining tracking sheets in MS Excel. Liaising with various department will be required so strong communication skills are essential. A good working knowledge of Microsoft office and oracle financial is needed, as us a minimum of 5 years practical experience of more : type :contract location: Chester country: England start ASPA salary or rate: 100| day posted: 06|05|2005 13:41:53 Reference JSHELj02739211/4/2011 523
  • 524. Homework Write a report on the ff: The relevance of project management in the 21st century Max. No. Pages _511/4/2011 524
  • 525. People in project Management It take people to make your payment level tide11/4/2011 525
  • 526. Learning objectives It take people to make the Project wheel turn Project clock tick Join a project or workplace and know who to ask what, their role and responsibilities and how they interconnect11/4/2011 526
  • 527. Who are the people in projectManagement• Class discussion11/4/2011 527
  • 528. The Client The client _ I wont have a job without him |her| them11/4/2011 528
  • 529. Learning Opportunity Ministry of Education, Zimbabwe invited consultants of GCS to create a business cases for introducing PM to the educational curriculum.11/4/2011 529
  • 530. Every industry requires PM  The orchestrator  Chief coordinator  Master planner  People specialists  ……………..etc11/4/2011 530
  • 531. The supplier  It is unlikely I will have all the resources in every project situation  Who plugs the gaps?  Supplier of • Goods and service • Give an example of the above11/4/2011 531
  • 532. Technical Consultant Industry sector or Technical Environment in which the project is being delivered Class Exercise Fill in the gaps11/4/2011 532
  • 533. The Executives Friend Bill Gate, Richard Branson, Anita Roddick, Alan Sugar, Donald Trump, Oprah Winfrey The project Manager11/4/2011 533
  • 534. Global Teams11/4/2011 534
  • 535. Non _Government Organisations What are the consideration? How can they help? Class discussion11/4/2011 535
  • 536. Democratic Leadership Style(2)• Typically the democratic leader: Develops plans to help employees evaluate their own performance Allows employees to establish goals Encourages employees to grow on the job and be promoted Recognises and encourages achievement Like the other styles, the democratic style is not always appropriate. It is most successful when used with highly skilled or experienced employees or when implementing operational changes or resolving individual or group problems.11/4/2011 536
  • 537. Democratic Leadership Style (3) The democratic leadership style is most effective when:  The leader wants to keep employees informed about matters that affect them.  The leader wants employees to share in decision-making and problem solving duties.  The leader wants to provide opportunities for employees to develop a high sense of personal growth and job satisfaction.  There is a large or complex problem that requires lots of input to solve.  Changes must be made or problems solved that affect employees or groups of employees.  You want to encourage team building and participation Democratic leadership should not be used when:  There is not enough time to get everyone’s input  It’s easier and more cost-effective for the manager to make the decision.  The business can’t afford mistakes  The manager feels threatened by this type of leadership  Employee safety is a critical concern 11/4/2011 537
  • 538. Laissez-Faire Leadership Style The laissez-faire leadership style is also known as the hands-off style. It is one in which the manager provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedom as possible. All authority or power is given to the employees and they must determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own. This is an effective style to use when:  Employees are highly skilled, experienced, and educated.  Employees have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own.  Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants are being used  Employees are trustworthy and experienced This style should not be used when:  It makes employees feel insecure at the unavailability of a manager.  The manager cannot provide regular feedback to let employees know how well they are doing.  Managers are unable to thank employees for their good work  The manager doesn’t understand his or her responsibilities and is hoping the employees can cover for him or her.11/4/2011 538
  • 539. Varying Leadership Style While the proper leadership style depends on the situation, there are three other factors that also influence which leadership style to use1. The manager’s personal background. What personality, knowledge, values, ethics, and experiences does the manager have. What does he or she think will work?2. The employees being supervised. Employees are individuals with different personalities and backgrounds. The leadership style managers use will vary depending upon the individual employee and what he or she will respond best to.3. The company. The traditions, values, philosophy and concerns of the company will influence how a manager acts.11/4/2011 539
  • 540. Learning opportunity The next five slides are for in-depth Classroom discussion.11/4/2011 540
  • 541. THE HIGH PERFORMANCE DIFFERENCE Identifying the core characteristics of highly effective teams.  Why team numbers matter  The power of common purpose  Building team performance goals  Driving performance through mutual accountability Applying a customer-driven focus  Exceeding customer expectations  The team: your most important customers11/4/2011 541
  • 542. LEADING TEAMS IN THE REAL WORLD Working with virtual teams  Technology as problem and solution  Developing personal relationships in a virtual environment  Factoring in the impact of time zones and cultural differences Leading self-directed teams  Coaching and mentoring  Creating a measurement framework to help self-directed teams keep on track  When not to use a self-directed team11/4/2011 542
  • 543. MAINTAINING HIGH PERFORMANCE THROUGHOUT THE PROJECT LIFE CYCLE Diagnosing team performance  Applying the Tuckman model: forming, norming storming and performing  Identifying warning signs of non-performing teams Responding to life cycle challenges  Managing the impact of personnel and scope changes and other pressure points  Keeping team energy high from project concept through implementation11/4/2011 543
  • 544. MANAGING FOR AGREEMENT AND HANDLING CONFLICT Leveraging team culture to minimise conflict  Creating a context for risk taking and trust  Communicating key values with actions and words  Encouraging your team to take on responsibility Establishing clear agreements  Minimizing misunderstandings  Overcoming the paradox of groupthink  Pre-empting conflicts  Holding people to their commitments Dealing with inevitable project conflicts  Identifying sources of conflict  Analysing intention and interests  Evaluating courses of action11/4/2011 544
  • 545. TRANSITIONING TO HIGH-PERFORMANCE LEADERSHIP IN YOUR PROJECTS Building your personal vision for high-performing team Matching your leadership strategies to your team realities Managing re-entry into the workplace Setting performance milestones to evaluate your success11/4/2011 545
  • 546. End of learning opportunity11/4/2011 546
  • 547. Leadership in summary The process of great leadership The road to great leadership (Kouzes & Posner, 1987) that is common to successful leaders: Challenge the process- first, find a process that you believe needs to be improved the most Inspire a shared vision- next, share your vision in words that can be understood by your followers. Enable others to act- give them the tools and methods to solve the problem Model the way- when the process gets tough, get your hands dirty. A boss tells others what to do... A leader shows that it can be done. Encourage the heart- share the glory with your followers’ hearts, while keeping the pains within your own.11/4/2011 547
  • 548. Learning opportunity(2)• Classroom discussion“history of leadership research”See handout11/4/2011 548
  • 549. Homework• Good leaders are expected to effectively resolve conflict. Write a report on......How to effectively deal with a conflict as a project leader/manager11/4/2011 549
  • 550. Management styles11/4/2011 550
  • 551. Management styles Since business management is classified as both an art and a science, management styles can be as varied as the people who assume the responsibility for any type of workforce This module covers Management styles in theory. In the workplace you the project manager, should learn/adopt the best way to:-  Motivate your staff  Hire and fire (dismissing employees is sometimes inevitable)  Make decisions and delegate By applying the knowledge gained from this and other modules such as project leadership etc.11/4/2011 551
  • 552. Workplace Scenarios How does your management style affect your employees? Your management style has a huge impact on how the members of your team react to you. Each management style reacts differently to events at work in a habitual patterned way. Some styles react with frustration and hostility when they feel others are trying to control them. Some styles react by withdrawing when they feel co-workers are invading their space. Some styles react by feeling hurt when co-workers avoid them. Which style are you?11/4/2011 552
  • 553. At the end of this session: You should: Understand the nine management styles that develop from nine different personality types. Discover your management style and understand how others perceive you. e.g.  Learn why co-workers are intimidated or annoyed by your behaviour.  Discover what you do that limits your power and stops you from earning respect.  Improve your relationships with your staff.  Identify your style, deepen your self-understanding and stop reacting automatically to events that trigger you. Discover your hidden motivating belief ad the hidden fear that drives your behaviour. When your beliefs remain hidden they limit your ability to choose how you respond to issues at work. As you raise your self-awareness you break free from your hidden restrictive beliefs and move into a place of your choice.11/4/2011 553
  • 554. Nine Management styles1. The perfectionist2. The giver3. The performer4. The romantic5. The observer6. The loyal specific7. The epicure8. The protector9. The mediator It is important to note each style has  Hidden limiting beliefs and hidden fears that motivate each personality type to take action  Specific behaviours they must change to be more effective managers There is no one perfect management style The best/most effective managers are individuals who have the ability to pick and mix styles when dealing with people or to tackling workplace issues.11/4/2011 554
  • 555. Management style One: the Perfectionist Perfectionists are principled, ethical, honest leaders who value hard work and precision. Leaders with this management style strive to do things right and live up to their high ideals. They endeavour to improve themselves and those around them. They hold co-workers to high standards of behaviour and can get frustrated and irritated when people don’t meet their expectations. Team members may see them as critical, hostile, and self-righteous.11/4/2011 555
  • 556. Management Style two: The Giver Givers are warm, positive, engaging, helpful individuals who value emotional connection.They strive to make others happy, meet others needs, and ensure that co-workers feel comfortable at work. They may lose their own agenda or the long-range goals for the group as they try to please individuals in the moment. Leaders with this management style can be perceived as soft, conflict-avoidant people who cant hold their own in an argument.11/4/2011 556
  • 557. Management Style Three: the Performer Performers are busy, task focused, successful multi-taskers who value efficiency. They strive to achieve measurable results and project an image of confidence and competence. Leaders with this management style expect the team to perform well and push others to get things accomplished. They can be perceived as aggressive, insincere, self-involved and self-promoting.11/4/2011 557
  • 558. Management Style Four: The Romantic Romantics are intuitive, introspective, creative and compassionate people who value sincerity and authenticity. They strive to create projects and organizations that are unique, distinguished, different and of high quality. Leaders with this management style are keenly aware of others’ moods. They see their own faults and long to make themselves better. They can be seen as being emotional, removed, aloof, melancholy, or dark.11/4/2011 558
  • 559. Management Style Five: the Observer Observers are logical, analytical thinkers who value knowledge about their industry. They strive to gather and (sometimes) distribute information that their team needs to perform well. Leaders with this management style use ideas and reasoned arguments to influence others. They can get lost in analysis paralysis. They can be perceived as reclusive, emotionally removed, and hesitant to take action.11/4/2011 559
  • 560. Management Style Six: The Loyal Sceptic Loyal sceptics are perceptive, adept planners who value safety and security. They are aware of co-workers’ agendas and motivations. They strive to protect their team against any hostile person, event or organization. Leaders with this management style are strategic and think through future ventures so they are ready for every eventually. They can be perceived as worried, hesitant and paranoid or paradoxically, as hostile and confrontational if they feel threatened.11/4/2011 560
  • 561. Management Style Seven: The Epicure Epicure are upbeat, energetic, positive visionaries who value freedom and autonomy. They strive to create an interesting, engaging work environment where people have fun. Leaders with this management style think quickly and can easily switch between multiple projects. They lead by creating a compelling vision of the future. They can be perceived as shallow, scattered, unrealistic, self-involved dreamers who don’t follow through on commitments.11/4/2011 561
  • 562. Management Style Eight: The Protector Protectors are focused, powerful, passionate managers who value competence, strength, and confidence. They strive to reach clear goals and push through minor problems and distractions to achieve objectives. They are straight shooters who call it as they see it. Leaders with this management style jump to protect weaker co-workers who are being attacked or undermined by others. Protectors can be perceived as hostile, angry, controlling and insensitive.11/4/2011 562
  • 563. Management Style Nine: The Mediator Mediators are calm even handed managers who provide a comfortable environment for their team. They value peace and harmony and strive to be fair, compassionate and understanding. They are empathic listeners who can see situations from multiple points of view. Leaders with this management style act quickly to avoid conflicts, mediate any conflicts that arise. They go out of their way to heal bruised egos. They can be perceived as slow, weak, and unfocused.11/4/2011 563
  • 564. Learning Opportunity Classroom activity: Which management style do you use? Lecturer to assist the group with assessing their personalities against the Nine Management Styles11/4/2011 564
  • 565. Homework Write a report on..... “The application of each of the nine management styles in the developing world; giving your opinion on the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of each style in this context”.11/4/2011 565
  • 566. Team Mobilisation11/4/2011 566
  • 567. Project Delivery and Effective Teams Recruiting the right personalities and skills set to form your team is the first step to project delivery. The second and most important step is mobilising your team to deliver exemplary results. As expected, the project manager is responsible for mobilising the team(s)11/4/2011 567
  • 568. The Cross-functional Team a team pulled together by one or more co-operating organisations to achieve some important, urgent and specific objective such as the:- Planning and launching of a major event Designing and running of a new programme or initiative Developing and market testing of a new product Running of a major campaign to open up a new market sector Design and implementation of improved business processes Planning and execution of a change management and training initiative As Project Manager, you are expected to mobilise the team through effective team building and motivation.11/4/2011 568
  • 569. The changing nature of organisational teams It is now rare to find a team who all know each other, sit in the same work area day by day, work the same hours, work within the one organisation, have a common business culture and enjoy prior history of working together. Today’s teams are a complex alliance of staff members from different organisations, departments, professions, locations, using different technology backgrounds and engaging with varying levels of involvement from core member to part-time member to occasional reviewer. These are very different to the kind of teams many of us are familiar with however, Project managers have to move with the times and develop the skills and techniques required to form an effective team.11/4/2011 569
  • 570. At the end of this session: You should: Understand the importance of continuous team motivation Learn how i.e. the techniques, to keep your team motivated Understand the relationship between team motivation and:- Effective Leadership Effective Team building and Effective Communication11/4/2011 570
  • 571. Mobilisation Dictionary definition Mobilisation n 1: act of marshalling and organising and making ready for use of action; “mobilisation of the country’s economic resources”*syn: mobilisation] 2: act of assembling and putting into readiness for war or other emergency: mobilisation of the troops.11/4/2011 571
  • 572. How does one mobilise the team? Mobilisation is achieved by continuously motivating your team from day-one of joining the workplace right to the end of the project. Project managers are expected to start and finish well with their teams; this is done by carefully managing the different personalities and delegating responsibility with insight. Finishing well is usually the challenge most project managers have because people react differently under pressure throughout the lifecycle manifesting their true personalities in time. Although there is a code of professionalism in place which must be adhered to, human beings can be unpredictable and people issues i.e. conflicts may arise which must be dealt with to ensure your project is a success.11/4/2011 572
  • 573. Project Managers Succeed through their people......they need a variety of specialists to fulfil different aspects of the projects. And must therefore be mindful of the need to: Motivate the team Keep them informed People who share knowledge will increase their knowledge while motivating others. People who only take orders, learn nothing. People who only give orders inspire no one Facilitate positive team dynamics Watch out for conflicts and pitfalls i .e :- Difficult personalities Personality clashes within the team Clans and cliques Sabotaging etc The above is key to ensure the smooth running of your project as people issues have been known to delay project progress and in some cases derail projects. 11/4/2011 573
  • 574. Motivation and Leadership Styles Leadership styles influence level of motivation However, throughout a lifetime, man’s motivation is influenced by:-  Changing ambitions and/or  Leadership style he/she works under or socialises with Command-and-control leadership drains off ambition while worker responsibility increases ambition.11/4/2011 574
  • 575. Leadership Styles True teams develop into a knowledgeable work force which is highly effective for leaders who allow their team to be stronger than themselves. These leaders consider their team as an investment, that is, additional training increases their value. By using the investment concept, many opportunities become available for increasing efficiency . If employees are considered a cost, that is, “training is not cost effective”, opportunity for increasing efficiency is limited. Many leaders limit team learning opportunities because they want undisputed control. They want employees to follow orders and not have an opinion-it is job security for leaders. Control policies make it difficult for talented employees to be recognised. Worker responsibility makes early recognition possible because co- workers are first to recognise talent. This is why companies with true empowerment programs find all the talent.11/4/2011 575
  • 576. Motivation and Team Building Teambuilding can take two primary forms:  developing effective working relationships and  Developing ownership of a common purpose, objectives and strategy These two forms are equally important to mobilise your team a) Gives your team the opportunity to appreciate your standards and ideals which should lead to respect. b) Gives your team members a strong sense of responsibility and importance which should motivate them to invest their best.11/4/2011 576
  • 577. Invest their best11/4/2011 577
  • 578. Team Building and employee motivation The essence of employee motivation is developing effective leadership skills; team building and employee motivation fit together. Successful organisations are not involved in team building as an end unto itself but rather because with effective team building employee motivation increases and organisational results are achieved. Effective team building starts with efforts that are aligned with the organisational strategic plan. Employee motivation increases when employees are working on important issues for the organisation.11/4/2011 578
  • 579. Team building and employee motivation(2) Enjoyment in work increases team building effectiveness. Team building is a tool for improving employee motivation. All teams go through very predictable phases. Knowing and understanding these phases gives leadership the confidence to continue in the team building even when during one of the phases the employee motivation appears to be declining. When leadership understands this is a normal phase they have confidence to continue team building for world class performance. Assessments aimed at understanding yourself and others can speed team building. Understanding is the first step in developing employee motivation. With an understanding of other employees motivation every individual has the opportunity to add to the synergy of the team.11/4/2011 579
  • 580. Team building and employee motivation(3) Empowerment of employees can go a very long way in developing employee motivation. The level of employee empowerment is likely at exactly the level that the management of the organisation actively supports and cultivates. To increase the level of employee motivation the leadership will need to increase the level of employee empowerment in the organisation. Never have we seen the level of employee motivation increase without leadership making efforts to increase the level of employee empowerment first. Only when the leaders, managers and supervisors have a common understanding for employee motivation is it likely that the level of employee motivation will increase.11/4/2011 580
  • 581. Team motivation is Team education A team that shares knowledge will become motivated while expanding their knowledge. Take away the sharing of knowledge, the team will no longer be a team, members will no longer be knowledgeable and constructive motivation will be gone. Effective communication across the team is to keep the motivation levels high. Team communication can be formal or informal Examples of each include weekly team meetings and corridor chats respectively.11/4/2011 581
  • 582. Learning opportunity List and discuss 5 types of formal and informal team communication.11/4/2011 582
  • 583. Leadership Style versus Motivation11/4/2011 583
  • 584. So what motivatesemployees?11/4/2011 584
  • 585. So what motivates employees?  Every employee is motivated by something different, while some appreciate big titles, others prefer money. Still others prefer interesting work and flexibility. Generation offences, gender, culture, life experiences, personal objectives and many other individuals affect personal motivation. Though research reveals some generalisations in the area of motivation and reward, making assumptions about motivation can lead you to he wrong conclusion The lesson here is “get to know your team”11/4/2011 585
  • 586. Learning Opportunity What motivates you in general? One answer per student What factors would motivate you to give your best in the workplace 15mins.11/4/2011 586
  • 587. Statistics from America Eye-opening Facts from Financial Rewards  Just 3% of base salary separates average from outstanding employees in America. (“Management Accounting” November 1995)  81% of American workers report that they will not gain financial benefit for increasing their productivity.  60% of American managers say that they would not be rewarded financially for increasing their performance. There is something wrong with this picture. Though oftentimes, money is not the ultimate incentive for employees, it can cause more headaches than its worth if its not handled appropriately. To be more effective as financial managers, we have to question what we are reading, how, and what is the bigger picture and intent around people performance. Financial rewards are just that, rewards, not rights.11/4/2011 587
  • 588. Objective Reward Management Guidelines  Link rewards to organisational goals  Create reward rules that are clear and easily understood.  Obtain commitment and support for your approach  Monitor the effectiveness of program  Reward the right thing (because you get more of what you reward)  Celebrate the little wins as well as the big wins  Be fair11/4/2011 588
  • 589. True or False Classroom exercise “Recognition is the greatest Motivator” 10 mins11/4/2011 589
  • 590. Easy Ways to Motivate and Reward Employees A simple and genuine “thank you” has more power than most managers realise. Thank people as often as you can so that they can feel appreciated. Recent research revealed that 58% of employees report that they seldom receive a personal “thank you” from their managers for doing a good job, even though they ranked such recognition as their most motivating incentive. Lack of recognition and praise is a leading reason why people leave their jobs today. Be accessible and available for staff  Listen to them  Talk to them  ......This builds trust and open communication Always let your staff know about their performance, organisational performance, and their contribution. Be specific and accurate. Use performance as the basis for recognising, rewarding, and promoting people. Deal with low and marginal so that they improve or leave the organisation.11/4/2011 590
  • 591. Employee Motivation using Team Rewards Team rewards present a great opportunity to help foster team bonding. With the proper application of a reward and recognition program, you can help build a high- performance team, and foster cross-organisational cooperation. But team rewards are not to be treated carelessly: misapplication could lead to unhealthy competition, lack of cooperation, and ultimately severe financial consequences for the organisation. Team motivation and rewards programs should make up part of your overall employee recognition program. You need to consider a mix of team and individual rewards, and balance the mix between awards that encourage both cooperative and competitive behaviours. With a balanced strategy, you can help then prepare a blend of monetary and non monetary rewards that will help you achieve your goals in a cost-effective manner. The desired outcome of recognition programs is to improve performance and improve employee retention.11/4/2011 591
  • 592. Easy Ways to Motivate and Reward Employees Strive to create a work environment that is open, trusting, and fun, encourage new ideas and initiative. Provide information about upcoming products and strategies, how the company makes and loses money, and how each employee fits into the overall plan. Involve employees in decisions, especially those decisions that affect them. Encourage employees to have a sense of ownership in their own work and their work environment. Create a partnership with each employee. Give people a chance to grow and learn new skills; show them how you can help them meet their goals within the context of meeting the organisation’s goals. Celebrate successes of the company, the department, and the individuals within it. Take time for team and morale building meetings and activities.11/4/2011 592
  • 593. Learning Opportunity Classroom activity: what team rewards work best in your opinion/Home country and why?11/4/2011 593
  • 594. Homework Write a report on....  “Your personal approach to team mobilisation i.e. application in the workplace/your home country”  You are expected to demonstrate your understanding of the subject by expressing your opinions and where appropriate adapting/expanding the techniques to fit into your culture.11/4/2011 594
  • 595. Managing Global Projects11/4/2011 595
  • 596. Difference Global Project Management differs from ordinary project management in two ways:- Multiple locations  For the project to be classified as global it must involve different geographies  Remove/virtual team members  The project manager can only be in one place at a time therefore he/she should have the right skills/experience to remotely/virtually manage the global team effectively.11/4/2011 596
  • 597. The Challenge..... The main challenges are:  Ensuring effective communication  Building the virtual-team to ensure/promote effective collaboration  Implementation of the right/appropriate technology to support the above:-  Facilitating seamless communication and accommodate Virtual Project Events such as:-  Team and Project Meetings  Presentations  Training  Etc11/4/2011 597
  • 598. The Commitment Effective global project delivery can be achieved with little or no travelling involvement where team members are concerned however, it is highly unlikely for the Project Manager to be exempt from regular travelling as face to face meetings/contact is inevitable. To work as a Global Project Manager, you must be prepared to travel11/4/2011 598
  • 599. Module Aims/Course Benefits This course is specially tailored towards building and managing teams working across national boundaries. It presents basic principles of building winning teams with a focus on multi-cultural, multi-national teams. In managing global projects, you’ll learn how to systematically approach these complex global management issues as well as how to minimise the risks inherent in doing business in the worldwide marketplace. Reminder: this module covers “Managing global projects” and does not cover Project Management concepts, tools and techniques. Learners are expected to have covered the Standard Certificate PM modules to benefit from this module.11/4/2011 599
  • 600. At the end of this session: You should: Understand the peculiarities of Global Project Management Learn how i.e. the techniques, to effectively manage a globally dispersed team Understand the expectations of a Global Project Manager You’ll develop an understanding of the many unique problems inherent in managing a global project and explore ways to solve them. Distinguish the unique characteristics of a borderless or global project effort. Identify the elements of a global project plan needed to lay the foundation for success in dealing with the challenges inherent in global projects. Incorporate global project environmental factors into your risk management plan Systematically approach and address the unique issues surrounding the management of global projects.11/4/2011 600
  • 601. Managing Global Projects As corporations accelerate their global activities, they are finding that project teams transcend not only functional but geographic boundaries. Global trends are reshaping the competitive dimensions in the world and are driving the need for increased use of borderless, or global, project management. Competition in the global marketplace is becoming dependent on using consistent organizational processes through out the global community.11/4/2011 601
  • 602. Global Trends The management of global projects cuts across organizational and national borders. To be successful, project managers must be prepared to overcome a unique set of obstacles. To effectively and successfully manage global projects, the following considerations are key:- Global project managers and team must possess not only PM process knowledge, skills and techniques but also effective communication skills. While technology greatly facilitates the work of global teams, it also raises many additional issues such as commitment, conflict management and control In addition, attitudes of the project team in each partner organizations take on added importance. Underlying the work of the team are also the cultural orientations of its members. Special challenges arise from differences in cultures, tradition, values, philosophies and languages of the project partners. In conclusion, the successful Global Project Manager must have superb people management skills i.e. deep understanding and appreciations of multi-cultural working, diversity and personalities.11/4/2011 602
  • 603. How does one succeed in GPM? The most successful global projects are those that have a carefully thought through communication strategy tailored to project outcomes, team member relationships and cultural differences. Carefully and effectively managing the global project team: culture, communication and technology. A deep understanding of project culture, organizational culture and national culture.11/4/2011 603
  • 604. Communication, Technology and Culture An Effective Communication Strategy Developing a global communication strategy which is tailored to ensure effectiveness for each location. The strategy should take in account the limitations and preferences in each location and where possible a team compromise should be made. Leveraging Technology Using technology and groupware to facilitate effective communication and document management across international boundaries. Use information and technology effectively for monitoring and controlling project progress, reporting, decision making and taking corrective action. Cultural analysis and sensitivity Cultural issues should be researched prior to project commencement to avoid common mistakes and pitfalls. The project manager is expected to learn about the different cultures to effectively manage the teams in each location and achieve cross-location seamless communication and collaboration. All of the above are required to gaining commitment, reach consensus and resolve conflict thus ensuring project success. 11/4/2011 604
  • 605. Improving your Communications when working on global projects, it is important to consider how we communicate. Communication barriers in a global setting can sometimes be a challenge if one has not researched the locations/countries involved thoroughly. Overcoming language and cultural barriers should be your first focus as this is the route to gelling your cross-locations teams to form one global team.11/4/2011 605
  • 606. Knowledgeable Team Project managers succeed through their people as we learnt from the Team Mobilisation module. To succeed through your team every member must have done extensive research into the cultures of the varied teams/nationalities involved on the project. However, your team should be educated in this respect to ensure they do not experience culture clashes which could impact on the smooth running of your project. They key here is to share lessons learnt. i.e. educate your team  Team Education= Team Motivation Induction to ensure your global terms Are fully informed about the project policies and procedures. Have a good overview of the considerations, challenges, cultural people issues and risks which managing global projects are likely to pose. Etc A thorough induction programme should prepare the team accordingly and ensure common pitfalls are avoided.11/4/2011 606
  • 607. Team Management11/4/2011 607
  • 608. Role Definition In addition to building a knowledgeable team via a thorough induction programme, role definition is crucial to your project success. To prevent duplication of efforts, gaps and wastage (human resource and cost) the GPM should clearly define roles and operating principles for each team Given the complex nature of a multinational and cross functional project team, clarity in every respect is essential you ensure the team works together across the different time zones language and distance to accomplish shared objectives.11/4/2011 608
  • 609. Global Project Teams Each team will have to be built by location and/or specialism and these individual teams work together to form the global team. Employ risk management techniques and re-planning methods such as crashing, fast tracking or renegotiation, to keep a project on course even when circumstances change. The project manager’s aim is to have a high performance multicultural team! Building your team will entail the four phases i.e. 1. Setting team goals 2. Establishing team rules in a global setting 3. Team roles and responsibilities 4. Energizing the team towards project goals In addition to the above, the following should be covered/considered:- key cultural orientations impacting teams Responsibility, accountability, hierarchy and roles in global terms Stages of team development  Creating and sustaining stages  Project team formation and the impact of culture:  Functional team and organizational cultural orientations11/4/2011 609
  • 610. What are the Stages of Group Development?Stages of group development Bruce Tuckman (1995) developed a 4-stage model of group development.1. Forming: the group comes together and gets to initially know one another and form as a group.2. Storming: a chaotic vying for leadership and trialling of group processes.3. Norming: eventually agreement is reached on how the group operates (norming)4. Performing: the group practices its craft and becomes effective in meeting its objectives. Tuckman added a 5th stage 10 years later.5. Adjourning: the process of informing the group, that is letting go off the group structure and moving on.11/4/2011 610
  • 611. The Project Environment Your project is not being delivered in isolation but rather in an environment with its peculiar characteristics which may differ from what you are used to. As global projects are multi-location, you may have to learn the rules and norms of each geography and adapt accordingly to ensure you get the best of your team and ultimately.....to achieve project success. Environmental factors for consideration include:- Cultural factors Social factors English as a second language Time zone issues11/4/2011 611
  • 612. The Project Environment(2) It is crucial that all project managers recognize their team are diverse in race, culture, sexual orientation, gender expression, age, knowledge, and language. Be careful to use language that is inclusive of every race, sixe, age, sexual orientation, religion etc When recruiting make sure that you have included culturally competent individuals of diverse race and ethnicity relevant to your global project.11/4/2011 612
  • 613. The Project Environment(3) In a multinational society such as ours, PMS are likely to encounter clients/suppliers/teams from diverse settings. As PMs we need to develop a cultural insight and a deeper appreciation and respect for the rights of culturally diverse individuals. When cultural beliefs and practices are not appropriately identified, the significance of behaviour may confuse the PM and resulting the delivery of inappropriate management. The goal of PM is to achieve project success and for every team member to participate and contribute equally In a multiethnic society this can be accomplished only if the PM and team understand such things as why female team members from some African countries do not participate actively at team meetings.11/4/2011 613
  • 614. The Project Environment(4) We must keep in mind that culture and ethnicity are strong determinants in an individual’s interpretation or perception of team-work. Religion, ethnicity, and culture interweave into the fabric of each individual’s motivation and work ethics. Unless cultural differences are taken into account we can not get the best out of our multi-cultural teams. Misunderstandings can often lead to significant project delays/issues which could jeopardise your success is a GPM.11/4/2011 614
  • 615. Social Factors When two people speak with one another, there is always more going on than just conveying a message. The language used by the participants is always influenced by a number of social factors which define the relationship between the participants. Consider, for example, a professor making a simple request of a student close a classroom door to shut off the noise from the corridor. There are a number of ways this request can be made:-a) Politely, in a moderate tone “could you please close the door?”b) In a confused manner while shaking his/her head “why aren’t you shutting the door?”c) Shouting and pointing, “SHUT THE DOOR!”11/4/2011 615
  • 616. Social Factors(2) The most appropriate utterance for the situation would be a- by UK/British Standards. In some other cultures, option a would be viewed as the professor being weak thus leading to students disrespecting him/her. The most appropriate would be c- again by UK/British standards. In some other cultures, this would be the expected response as this sort of behaviour/reaction is viewed to be a strong Leaders response. By UK standards, this statement humiliates the student, and provides no effort by the professor to respect him/her. Utterance b is awkward because it implies that the teacher automatically assumes that the student should know better than to leave the door open when there is noise on the hallway. The inappropriateness is a social decision tied to the social factors which shape the relationship between speaker (the professor), and the listener (the student).11/4/2011 616
  • 617. Learning Opportunity Classroom activity: Compare the social etiquette developed world vs. developing world in the following settings.Classroom/learning environment i.e. Lecturer-student relationshipGovernment and Politics: the relationship between the general public and the prime minister/ presidentMarriage/ familyHusband and wifeParents and children What are the similarities and differences?11/4/2011 617
  • 618. Homework Write a report on...... “key factors and considerations for managing global projects” Max number of pages=5•11/4/2011 618

×