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Materials and methods slides lecture 4
Materials and methods slides lecture 4
Materials and methods slides lecture 4
Materials and methods slides lecture 4
Materials and methods slides lecture 4
Materials and methods slides lecture 4
Materials and methods slides lecture 4
Materials and methods slides lecture 4
Materials and methods slides lecture 4
Materials and methods slides lecture 4
Materials and methods slides lecture 4
Materials and methods slides lecture 4
Materials and methods slides lecture 4
Materials and methods slides lecture 4
Materials and methods slides lecture 4
Materials and methods slides lecture 4
Materials and methods slides lecture 4
Materials and methods slides lecture 4
Materials and methods slides lecture 4
Materials and methods slides lecture 4
Materials and methods slides lecture 4
Materials and methods slides lecture 4
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Materials and methods slides lecture 4

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  • 1. Materials and Teaching Techniques Materials & Methods for TESOL Leigh Lawrence July 21, 2012
  • 2. Teaching English Language Skills Goal of general English courses: To improve students’ skills in all four components of the language (speaking, reading, writing, listening)
  • 3. Teaching GrammarOne of the most difficult areas of language to teachYour understanding of grammar will help in addressing challenges and errors made by ELLsto enable students to carry out the grammar point that you are teaching for communicative purposes
  • 4. Teaching Grammar Teaching Tips/Grammar:Students need overt, explicit instructionNo need to master all rules of grammar--only the rules relevant to the taskMake it fun!!!Facilitate understanding by teaching the grammar points in the target language.Limit the time you devote to grammar explanations to 10 minutesPresent grammar points in written and oral ways to address the needs of students with different learning styles.
  • 5. Teaching Listening Listeningthe ability to process, understand, interpret, andevaluate spoken language in a variety of situations (World Class Instructional Design and Assessment Consortium Resource Guide, 2007)
  • 6. Teaching ListeningLanguage learners use listening as it serves as the foundation for language development, comprehension, and identification of relevant/non-relevant informationListening comprehension needs to be an interactive process (TPR)Keep in mind that complete recall of all information is unrealistic in designing listening activities
  • 7. Teaching Listening Stages of Listening:Pre-listening: state the purpose of listeningListening task: the actual listening for obtaining information or gist and then doing something with itPost-listening: allows students to evaluate success in carrying out the task to integrate listening with other language skills
  • 8. Teaching Listening Activities offering practice in Listening skills development:Listening to a teacher give instructionsListening to someone give a planned speechListening to someone in an unplanned monologue (i.e. going on and on about something)Listening by taking part in a conversation
  • 9. Listening Strategiestechniques that help your students to comprehend and recall information. Strategies are categorized by how your students process the information Top-down strategiesListener based strategies where the student uses backgroundknowledge of a topic Bottom-up strategiesText-based where the student relies on the language in a text toderive meaning
  • 10. Teaching Listening Examples of listening language instruction:Listening and repeatingListening/Answering Question Task listening
  • 11. Teaching Speaking Speakingoral communication used in variety of situations for a variety ofpurposes and audiences (WIDA, 2007)
  • 12. Teaching SpeakingELL’s speaking needs are related to social conversation,instructional conversation, and work-related conversationSpeaking requires ESL students to know how to producespecific points of language such as grammar, pronunciation, orvocabulary.Teaching speaking is challenging
  • 13. Teaching SpeakingTeach speaking around “functional uses”Prep students before the speaking activityDrills, answering verbal cues, interactive conversation, role-plays, oral presentations, discussions, debates
  • 14. Teaching Reading ReadingThe ability to process, understand, interpret, and evaluate written language, symbols, and text with understanding and fluency (WIDA, 2007)
  • 15. Teaching ReadingWe read for a variety of purposes:Main ideaLearn informationGeneral comprehensionFor enjoymentGoal: gain fluency in silent reading with a high level ofcomprehension
  • 16. Teaching Reading SuggestionsPre-readingDo not overloadUse relevant materialBe cognizant of reading levelsAllow dictionariesRead in pairs
  • 17. Teaching Writing Writing written communication used in a variety offorms for a variety of purposes and audiences (WIDA, 2007)
  • 18. Teaching WritingWriting requires skills specific to the process of writingMost language learners do no unconsciously gain those skills; they need instruction in themLearning to write takes timeMeaningful learning and intrinsic motivation
  • 19. Teaching Techniques Synonymous terms to describe techniques include task, activity, procedure, practice, exercise, strategyTask-a specialized form of a techniqueActivity-anything learners do in the language classroom i.e., role-plays, drills, games, songsProcedure-moment to moment techniques, practices, and behaviors that operate in teaching a languagePractice/Exercise/Strategies—aka “techniques”Techniques—various activities that either teachers or students perform in the classroom
  • 20. Selecting Teaching Techniques“Get to know your students”Pay attention to non-verbal behaviorSelect according to appropriate proficiency levelTeach according to your situation
  • 21. Categories of Teaching TechniquesManipulativeTechniques are controlled by the teacherCommunicativeTechniques encouraging open-ended and/or unpredictableresponses by students Both can be used at all proficiency levels
  • 22. Teaching TechniquesLanguage Drills/RepetitionsTotal Physical ResponseGamesSongsModels and Change-outs

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