Materials and methods slides lecture 4


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Materials and methods slides lecture 4

  1. 1. Materials and Teaching Techniques Materials & Methods for TESOL Leigh Lawrence July 21, 2012
  2. 2. Teaching English Language Skills Goal of general English courses: To improve students’ skills in all four components of the language (speaking, reading, writing, listening)
  3. 3. Teaching GrammarOne of the most difficult areas of language to teachYour understanding of grammar will help in addressing challenges and errors made by ELLsto enable students to carry out the grammar point that you are teaching for communicative purposes
  4. 4. Teaching Grammar Teaching Tips/Grammar:Students need overt, explicit instructionNo need to master all rules of grammar--only the rules relevant to the taskMake it fun!!!Facilitate understanding by teaching the grammar points in the target language.Limit the time you devote to grammar explanations to 10 minutesPresent grammar points in written and oral ways to address the needs of students with different learning styles.
  5. 5. Teaching Listening Listeningthe ability to process, understand, interpret, andevaluate spoken language in a variety of situations (World Class Instructional Design and Assessment Consortium Resource Guide, 2007)
  6. 6. Teaching ListeningLanguage learners use listening as it serves as the foundation for language development, comprehension, and identification of relevant/non-relevant informationListening comprehension needs to be an interactive process (TPR)Keep in mind that complete recall of all information is unrealistic in designing listening activities
  7. 7. Teaching Listening Stages of Listening:Pre-listening: state the purpose of listeningListening task: the actual listening for obtaining information or gist and then doing something with itPost-listening: allows students to evaluate success in carrying out the task to integrate listening with other language skills
  8. 8. Teaching Listening Activities offering practice in Listening skills development:Listening to a teacher give instructionsListening to someone give a planned speechListening to someone in an unplanned monologue (i.e. going on and on about something)Listening by taking part in a conversation
  9. 9. Listening Strategiestechniques that help your students to comprehend and recall information. Strategies are categorized by how your students process the information Top-down strategiesListener based strategies where the student uses backgroundknowledge of a topic Bottom-up strategiesText-based where the student relies on the language in a text toderive meaning
  10. 10. Teaching Listening Examples of listening language instruction:Listening and repeatingListening/Answering Question Task listening
  11. 11. Teaching Speaking Speakingoral communication used in variety of situations for a variety ofpurposes and audiences (WIDA, 2007)
  12. 12. Teaching SpeakingELL’s speaking needs are related to social conversation,instructional conversation, and work-related conversationSpeaking requires ESL students to know how to producespecific points of language such as grammar, pronunciation, orvocabulary.Teaching speaking is challenging
  13. 13. Teaching SpeakingTeach speaking around “functional uses”Prep students before the speaking activityDrills, answering verbal cues, interactive conversation, role-plays, oral presentations, discussions, debates
  14. 14. Teaching Reading ReadingThe ability to process, understand, interpret, and evaluate written language, symbols, and text with understanding and fluency (WIDA, 2007)
  15. 15. Teaching ReadingWe read for a variety of purposes:Main ideaLearn informationGeneral comprehensionFor enjoymentGoal: gain fluency in silent reading with a high level ofcomprehension
  16. 16. Teaching Reading SuggestionsPre-readingDo not overloadUse relevant materialBe cognizant of reading levelsAllow dictionariesRead in pairs
  17. 17. Teaching Writing Writing written communication used in a variety offorms for a variety of purposes and audiences (WIDA, 2007)
  18. 18. Teaching WritingWriting requires skills specific to the process of writingMost language learners do no unconsciously gain those skills; they need instruction in themLearning to write takes timeMeaningful learning and intrinsic motivation
  19. 19. Teaching Techniques Synonymous terms to describe techniques include task, activity, procedure, practice, exercise, strategyTask-a specialized form of a techniqueActivity-anything learners do in the language classroom i.e., role-plays, drills, games, songsProcedure-moment to moment techniques, practices, and behaviors that operate in teaching a languagePractice/Exercise/Strategies—aka “techniques”Techniques—various activities that either teachers or students perform in the classroom
  20. 20. Selecting Teaching Techniques“Get to know your students”Pay attention to non-verbal behaviorSelect according to appropriate proficiency levelTeach according to your situation
  21. 21. Categories of Teaching TechniquesManipulativeTechniques are controlled by the teacherCommunicativeTechniques encouraging open-ended and/or unpredictableresponses by students Both can be used at all proficiency levels
  22. 22. Teaching TechniquesLanguage Drills/RepetitionsTotal Physical ResponseGamesSongsModels and Change-outs