A Lake Erie Twofer: Tiny Plastic Particles and Toxic Algae Threaten Lake Waters

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A panel of experts discuss the impact of toxic algae and microbeads on the health and well-being of Lake Erie. …

A panel of experts discuss the impact of toxic algae and microbeads on the health and well-being of Lake Erie.

Presenters:
- Dr. Jeffery Reutter, Director Ohio Sea Grant College Program
- Dr. Sue Watson, Research Scientist, WHERD, Water Science and Technology, Environment Canada
- Andy McClure, Administrator, Collins Park Water Treatment, Toledo, OH
- Dr. Sheri Mason, Professor, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at SUNY Fredonia

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  • 1. A Lake Erie Twofer: Tiny Plastic Particles and Toxic Algae Threaten Lake Waters June 23 2014 Thank you for joining us. We will begin in a moment. Please check your speakers/phone connection. If you experience any problems, please let us know by typing in the chat box. This webinar is brought to you by the Lake Erie Binational Forum, and hosted by the Ohio Environmental Council.
  • 2. Lake Erie Binational Forum Introduction By Teresa Hollingsworth, Lake Erie Binational Forum Co-facilitator From The Upper Thames River Conservation Authority Harmful Cyanobacterial Blooms (CHABs): Facts, Fiction and Fixes: By Dr. Sue Watson, Research Scientist, WHERD, Water Science and Technology, Environment Canada. Lake Erie Harmful Algal Bloom Forecast and Monitoring By Dr. Jeffery Reutter, Director Ohio Sea Grant College Program - F.T. Stone Laboratory, Center for Lake Erie Area Research and the Great Lakes Aquatic Ecosystem Research Consortium Challenges Water Treatment Plants Face To Ensure We Have Safe Drinking Water: By Andy McClure, Administrator, Collins Park Water Treatment, Toledo, OH Great Lakes Plastic Pollution Survey By Dr. Sheri Mason, Professor, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at SUNY Fredonia A Lake Erie Twofer: Tiny Plastic Particles and Toxic Algae Threaten Lake Waters Presentations
  • 3. The Lake Erie Binational Public Forum Nearly Two Decades of Action
  • 4. Who we are… The Forum is a group of interested stakeholders from Canada and the U.S., including farmers, business people, scientists, educators, anglers, boaters, environmentalists, governmental officials, public health workers and others.
  • 5. What the Forum has Achieved… • Playing a significant role in the LAMP process with real involvement and proactive initiatives • Increasing stakeholder participation in the LaMP process • Implementing, facilitating and/or participating in Forum sponsored LAMP related activities at the local level
  • 6. The Lake Erie Binational Public Forum To learn more visit www.lakeerieforum.org Join the Forum Listserv to receive notices about events, news, science and announcements relevant to Lake Erie. To Join Our Listserv E-mail Lake Erie Forum Co-Facilitator Adam Rissien: arissien@theoec.org
  • 7. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Lake Erie HAB Forecasts and Monitoring Dr. Jeffrey M. Reutter Director, Ohio Sea Grant College Program
  • 8. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Jeffrey M. Reutter, Ph.D., Director •1895—F.T. Stone Laboratory •1970—Center for Lake Erie Area Research (CLEAR) •1978—Ohio Sea Grant College Program •1992—Great Lakes Aquatic Ecosystem Research Consortium (GLAERC) •Grad student at Stone Lab in 1971 and never left. Director since 1987. 8
  • 9. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY •Sedimentation •Phosphorus and nutrient loading •Harmful algal blooms •Western, Central, and Eastern Basin Differences •Different problems in different lakes (possibly more difficult than Lake Erie) •Aquatic invasive species •Dead Zone—exacerbated by nutrients •Climate Change—Makes the others worse Lake Erie’s Biggest Problems/Issues
  • 10. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
  • 11. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY OSU’s Island Campus
  • 12. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Image: Ohio Sea Grant Southernmost
  • 13. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Shallowest and Warmest
  • 14. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Photo: Ohio Sea Grant Discuss 3 Basins & Retention Time
  • 15. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY 80:10:10 Rule •80% of water from upper lakes •10% direct precipitation •10% from Lake Erie tributaries •Maumee •Largest tributary to Great Lakes •Drains 4.5 million acres of ag land •3% of flow into Lake Erie
  • 16. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Photo: Ohio Sea Grant Discuss 3 Basins & Retention Time
  • 17. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Superior Michigan Huron Erie Ontario Residential Cropland Pasture Forest Brush/Wetland Major Land Uses in The Great Lakes
  • 18. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Because of Land Use, Lake Erie Gets: •More sediment •More nutrients (fertilizers and sewage) •More pesticides •(The above 3 items are exacerbated by storms, which will be more frequent and severe due to climate change.) •And Lake Erie is still biologically the most productive of the Great Lakes—And always will be!!!
  • 19. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Lake Erie: 2% of the water and 50% of the fish Lake Superior: 50% of the water and 2% of the fish 50:2 Rule (Not exact, but instructive)
  • 20. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Lake Erie: One of the Most Important Lakes in the World •Dead lake image of 60s and 70s. •Poster child for pollution problems in this country. •But, most heavily utilized of any of the Great Lakes. •Shared by 5 states, a province, and 2 countries. •Best example of ecosystem recovery in world.
  • 21. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY June 22, 1969 Lake Erie wasn’t always the Walleye Capital of the World
  • 22. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Blue-green Algae Bloom circa 1971, Lake Erie Photo: Forsythe and Reutter
  • 23. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY What brought about the rebirth (dead lake to Walleye Capital)? •Phosphorus reductions from point sources (29,000 metric tons to 11,000).
  • 24. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Major Sources of Phosphorus •Lawn fertilizer—going down •Sewage treatment plants and CSO’s •Non-point source runoff from urban •Non-point source runoff from agriculture •1970s—2/3 poor sewage treatment •Today—2/3 agricultural runoff
  • 25. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY •Normally limiting nutrient in freshwater systems •P reduction is best strategy ecologically and economically •Reducing both P and N would help Why did we target phosphorus?
  • 26. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Impact of Ecosystem Recovery (rebirth) •Ohio walleye harvest 112,000 in 1976 to over 5 million by mid-80s •34 charter fishing businesses in 1975 to over 1200 by mid-80s and almost 800 today •207 coastal businesses to over 425 today
  • 27. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY • Reference Dose = amount that can be ingested orally by a person, above which a toxic effect may occur, on a milligram per kilogram body weight per day basis. Toxicity of Algal Toxins Relative to Other Toxic Compounds found in Water Dioxin (0.000001 mg/kg-d) Microcystin LR (0.000003 mg/kg-d) Saxitoxin (0.000005 mg/kg-d) PCBs (0.00002 mg/kg-d) Cylindrospermopsin (0.00003 mg/kg-d) Methylmercury (0.0001 mg/kg-d) Anatoxin-A (0.0005 mg/kg-d) DDT (0.0005 mg/kg-d) Selenium (0.005 mg/kg-d) Alachlor (0.01 mg/kg-d) Cyanide (0.02 mg/kg-d) Atrazine (0.04 mg/kg-d) Fluoride (0.06 mg/kg-d) Chlorine (0.1 mg/kg-d) Aluminum (1 mg/kg-d) Ethylene Glycol (2 mg/kg-d) Botulinum toxin A (0.001 mg/kg-d) Toxin Reference Doses
  • 28. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY •1 ppb WHO drinking water limit •20 ppb WHO swimming limit •60 ppb highest level for Lake Erie till 2011 •84 ppb highest level for Grand Lake St. Marys till 2010 •2000+ Grand Lake St. Marys 2010 •1200 Lake Erie Maumee Bay area 2011 Microcystin Concentrations
  • 29. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Impacts of Increased Phosphorus Concentrations •HABs—If P concentrations are high (regardless of the source, Ag, sewage, etc.) and water is warm, we will have a HAB (nitrogen concentration will likely determine which of the 7-10 species bloom) •Nuisance Algae Blooms • Cladophora—Whole lake problem. An attached form. • Winter algal blooms •Dead Zone in Central Basin
  • 30. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
  • 31. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY 11 years of satellite data provide bloom extent Data from MERIS 2002-2011, MODIS 2012 high medium low
  • 32. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Are HABs only a Lake Erie and Ohio Problem? •Serious problem in US and Canada •21 states and Canada in 2012 •Global problem •Chaired Loadings and Concentrations Subcommittee for Ohio P Task Force •Now US Co-Chair of the Objectives and Loadings Task Team of Annex 4 (nutrients) Subcommittee of GLWQA •Weather can determine how we experience a bloom
  • 33. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Photos: Jeff Reutter Microcystis, Stone Lab, 8/10/10
  • 34. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Photo: NOAA Satellite Image October 9, 2011
  • 35. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Microcystis, Stone Lab, 9/20/13
  • 36. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Spring (Mar-June) discharge relationship for seasonal prediction. 2013 bloom was much higher than any of the models would predict (2012 was only slightly higher, note the log scale). observed modeled Stumpf cyano-index for each year with Model result and predictions for 2012 and 2013. 2013 was severely underestimated.
  • 37. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Current Forecast •Based on Heidelberg measurements of Maumee River discharge and P loading 1 March – 30 June •Rick Stumpf’s model (ground truthed by Stone Lab) •Tom Bridgeman’s Maumee Bay nutrient and HAB measurements and Justin Chaffin’s Western and western portion of Central Basin measurements
  • 38. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Possible Reasons for Underestimate •Cool spring temperatures •High P load in July •High load of nitrogen preventing summer nitrogen limitation •So many Microcystis cells on the lake bottom now from previous blooms that it is easier for a bloom to occur.
  • 39. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY What was different in 2013? SRP (m.tons) in July. 2003, 2008, 2013 were high, One possibility, 2003 and 2008 had cold June < 20 degC, not optimal for cyano growth. 2013 had optimal June temp of ~21 degC. 2013 June temp was also “normal” (No difference in July.)
  • 40. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY 2013 prediction for western Lake Erie: similar to 2003, <1/5 of 2011, 2X 2012 low medium high Concentration 2013 may resemble 20032011 for comparison
  • 41. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY 9/14/13
  • 42. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY October 12, 2013 R. Stumpf, NOAA National Center for Coastal Ocean Science
  • 43. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY 2013 • Only blooms in 2011 and 2013 extended well into October. • Toxins appeared in treated drinking water in 2013. • Carroll Treatment Plant shut down—bottled water • Toledo and Erie Co. say can’t guarantee safe drinking water in future • No national or state guidelines on algal toxins—but may be coming • Meris vs. Modis Satellite Limitations • Greater recognition of of their role by agriculture community, but clearly not enough action. • When nutrients leave fields they are pollutants.
  • 44. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Target Loads to Solve Problem •Leading subcommittee of the Ohio Phosphorus Task Force to identify both spring and annual target loads of both total P and DRP (Reutter comment) to prevent or greatly reduce HABs •Target is 40% reduction (Ohio Lake Erie Task Force, 3/14/13)
  • 45. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Expect Rapid Recovery in Lake Erie •Due to rapid flush out rate •Lake Erie = 2.7 years •Western Basin = 20-50 days •Other Great Lakes could be over 100 years
  • 46. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY 2014 Loading Data: thoughts on this summer and fall
  • 47. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY 01-Mar 01-Apr 01-May 01-Jun 01-Jul 01-Aug Cumulativespringdischarge(km 3 ) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Range Mean 2011 2012 2013 2014 01-Mar 01-Apr 01-May 01-Jun 01-Jul 01-Aug Cumulativespringdischarge(km 3 ) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 2011 2003 2008 2010 2009, 2013 MEAN, 2004 2007 2006 2005 2012 2.89 2.66 2.31 Maumee River at Waterville Discharge March 1 - July 31 2014 as of May 1st Data from the USGS, collated by the National Center for Water Quality Research NOTE: The mean and range (minimum to maximum) is for 2000-2013, numbers in the bottom panel indicate current value (red), and the mean for June 30 and July 31 (black)
  • 48. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY 01-Mar 01-Apr 01-May 01-Jun 01-Jul 01-Aug CumulativespringTPload(metrictons) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 2011 2003 2008, 2009 MEAN 2013 2010 2006 2005 2012 01-Mar 01-Apr 01-May 01-Jun 01-Jul 01-Aug CumulativespringTPload(metrictons) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Range Mean 2011 2012 2013 2014 2004, 2007 Maumee River at Waterville Total Phosphorus March 1 - July 31 2014 as of April 25th Data from the National Center for Water Quality Research NOTE: The mean and range (minimum to maximum) is for 2000-2013 numbers in the bottom panel indicate current value (red), and the mean for June 30 and July 31 (black) 1099 1034853
  • 49. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY 01-Mar 01-Apr 01-May 01-Jun 01-Jul 01-Aug CumulativespringDRPload(metrictons) 0 100 200 300 400 500 2011 2003 2008 2010 2009 MEAN 2007 2006 2005 2012 01-Mar 01-Apr 01-May 01-Jun 01-Jul 01-Aug CumulativespringDRPload(metrictons) 0 100 200 300 400 500 Range Mean 2011 2012 2013 2014 2004 2013 Maumee River at Waterville Dissolved Reactive Phosphorus March 1 - July 31 2014 as of April 25th Data from the National Center for Water Quality Research NOTE: The mean and range (minimum to maximum) is for 2000-2013, numbers in the bottom panel indicate current value (red), and the mean for June 30 and July 31 (black) 227 207 216
  • 50. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Climate change is making these problems worse! •Warm water increases oxygen depletion rates •More severe storms will resuspend more sediment and increase erosion and nutrient loading • Critically important point—with no changes in Ag practices, warmer weather and increased frequency of severe storms could increase negative impact of existing practices. •Lake levels—uncertain/probably down •Warm water favors HABs
  • 51. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Nutrient Loading •Majority of loading occurs during storm events •80-90% of loading occurs 10-20% of time •2012 = dry spring and low load—a very good thing!!
  • 52. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY High spring P loads Long water residence time
  • 53. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Increased Frequency of Rainstorms Changes in frequencies of storms in the Midwest, by category of storm size for five decades, 196 1970 through 2001-2010. Labeled changes are for the last decade. Comparisons are to frequenci in 1961-1990. Source: Rocky Mountain Climate Organization and Natural Resources Defense Council.
  • 54. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Stone Lab: Reducing Our Environmental Footprint •Solar thermal on Dining Hall •Solar panels on new pavilion and Lab roof •Low-flow toilets •Low-flow shower heads and faucets •Compact fluorescent light bulbs or LEDs •Attic insulation •4-cycle outboard motors •Improved sewage treatment •Terraces to reduce runoff
  • 55. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Sustainable Energy Production
  • 56. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Solar Pavilion
  • 57. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Solar Thermal on Dining Hall
  • 58. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Stone Lab: Improve facilities and capabilities to address issues •Stone Lab •Research Building •Water quality laboratory •Research Vessels and equipment •Research Coordinator •Education and Outreach Coordinator •Aquatic Visitors Center •REU program
  • 59. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
  • 60. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Workshops •Algal identification •NOAA Science Literacy •Dealing with Cyanobacteria, Algal Toxins and Taste and Odor Compounds •Outdoor Photography •Lake Erie Sport Fishing •Fish-Sampling Techniques
  • 61. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
  • 62. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY
  • 63. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Research Vessels (+Buckeye)
  • 64. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Sea Grant Research Projects • Beneficial reuse of dredged material in manufactured soil blending: Economic/logistical and performance considerations PI: Elizabeth Dayton, Ohio State University • Impacts of climate change on public health in the Great Lakes due to harmful algae blooms PI: Jay Martin, Ohio State University • Should nitrogen be managed in Lake Erie? The potential role of nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteri PI: Darren Bade, Kent State University • Leveraging natural amenities for sustainable development in the Great Lakes region PI: Elena Irwin, The Ohio State University • Source tracking and toxigenicity of Planktothrix in Sandusky Bay PI: George S. Bullerjahn, Bowling Green State University • Mapping drain tile and modeling agricultural contribution to nonpoint source pollution in the western Lake Erie basin PI: Kevin Czajkowski, University of Toledo • The role of nitrogen concentration in regulating cyanobacterial bloom toxicity in a eutrophic lake PI: Justin Chaffin, Ohio State University • Delivery of sediment amendments using far-field ultrasound PI: Linda K. Weavers, Ohio State University • Relative contributions of hypoxia and natural gas drilling to methane emissions from Lake Erie PI: Amy Townsend-Small, University of Cincinnati
  • 65. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Outreach Activities •22,000 visitors to Aquatic Visitors Center •Media Coverage •403 articles from 158 different publications/venues in 2013 about our programs •Stone Lab Workshops •Twine Line Articles •Personal speaking engagements •Over 50 last year
  • 66. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY Stone Lab 1 or 2-Day Workshops • 10 July, NOAA HAB Press Conference, Science Cruise and Webinar • 23 July, USDA Rural Development State Directors from twelve Midwest states • 24 July, Ohio Farm Bureau Group • 24 July, REU Presentations • 14 & 15 August, 2 groups of Michigan farmers • 18-19 August, Science Writers 2-day workshop • 20 & 26 August, Coastal County Commissioners, Mayors, and Decision Makers Day on Lake Erie • 25 August, Ohio Charter Captains • 27 August, Indiana Farming Leaders • 5-7 September, Annual Open House (approx 1,200 visitors)
  • 67. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY For more information: Dr. Jeff Reutter, Director Ohio Sea Grant and Stone Lab Ohio State Univ. 1314 Kinnear Rd. Col, OH 43212 614-292-8949 Reutter.1@osu.edu ohioseagrant.osu.edu Stone Laboratory Ohio State Univ. Box 119 Put-in-Bay, OH 43456 614-247-6500
  • 68. Challenges Water Treatment Plants Face to Ensure We Have Safe Drinking Water Andrew McClure Collins Park Water Treatment Plant City of Toledo June 23, 2014
  • 69. Agenda The Problem Plant and process overview Individual processes and algae Alternatives Challenges
  • 70. The Problem As algal cells die or are oxidized, they lyse. Toxins are released. Toxins are highly soluble in water.
  • 71. Lysis (Greek λύσις, lýsis from lýein "to separate")  refers to the breaking down of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic mechanisms that compromise its integrity. A fluid containing the contents of lysed cells is called a "lysate".  Many species of bacteria are subject to lysis by the enzyme lysozyme, found in animal saliva, egg white, and other secretions.[1] Phage lytic enzymes (lysins) produced during bacteriophage infection are responsible for the ability of these viruses to lyse bacterial cells.[2] Penicillin and related β-lactam antibiotics cause the death of bacteria through enzyme- mediated lysis that occurs after the drug causes the bacterium to form a defective cell wall.[3] If cell wall is completely lost, the bacterium is referred as a protoplast if penicillin was used on gram-positive bacteria, and spheroplast when used on gram- negative bacteria.
  • 72. -Or-
  • 73. Removal Filtration- Filters designed to remove toxin are prohibitively expensive Adsorption- Adsorptive media must be removed Oxidize - Break down toxins into non-toxic forms
  • 74. Once Lysed, the toxins must be removed or destroyed… Ideally the algae cells are removed before they lyse. Treatment similar to taste and odor control
  • 75. Collins Park WTP History  1941 – All treatment at WTP. Alum coagulation and Chlorine oxidation/disinfection  Chloramination, discontinued  1956 – Lime Softening at the WTP  1966 – Powdered Activated Carbon at the LSPS  1979 - Chlorine Dioxide at WTP  Ferrous Coagulation at WTP, discontinued  ~1990 – Sodium Hypochlorite, seasonal, at Intake Crib  ~1999 – KMnO4 , seasonal, at Intake Crib  2009 – On-shore KMnO4, year round, applied at Crib
  • 76. Process and Algae Intake Crib – Oxidation Application of KMnO4 Efficacy is limited. Oxidizes the toxins, but fed in excess will lyse cells, releasing more toxin. Balancing act. KMnO4 application rate is increased only slightly during algae blooms.
  • 77. Process and Algae LSPS – Adsorption  Apply Powdered Activated Carbon  Adsorbs toxin, as well as many other organic compounds.  Carbon is easily removed by downstream treatment process.  Feeding excess carbon has no ill effect on the treatment process; however, it is a very expensive chemical
  • 78. Process and Algae WTP – Coagulation  Most effective on non-lysed cells.  Alum dose has to be increased.  Most cells settle to the bottom of the settling basin.  Dead cells will eventually lyse, releasing toxin.
  • 79. Process and Algae WTP – Sedimentation  During algae blooms the frequency of withdrawal of settled material must be increased.  Limits age of dead cells thereby reducing number of cells lysing while still in basin.  Additional cost associated with increased chemical feed and increased pumpage associated with more frequent settled material removal.
  • 80. Process and Algae Filtration – Rapid Sand  Our filters are not designed for toxin removal.  Filter backwash frequency must be increased.  Sedimentation process does not remove algae cells that are floating.  Algae that floats through the process makes it to the filters, die and lyse.  Results in additional pumping costs.
  • 81. Process and Algae Clearwell Storage  Chlorine oxidizes toxins, reducing them to non- toxic forms.  Increasing chlorine application rate must be done with care  The non-toxic organic compounds formed by oxidation of the toxins result in trihalomethane (THM) precursors  Could result in elevated THM levels
  • 82. Other Treatment Options Alternative oxidizers Dissolved Air Floatation Granular Activated Carbon Membrane Filtration
  • 83. Challenges Monitoring Test is complicated, time-consuming and requires several hours to provide results Pigments can be monitored, but correlations to Microcystin concentrations have not been identified Chlorination to oxidize algal toxins may increase THM formation potential
  • 84. What would help? Rapid accurate test method. Reduce phosphorous load in Lake Erie. Keep new phosphorous out of the lake.
  • 85. Great Lakes Plastic Pollution Survey Dr. Sherri “Sam” Mason SUNY Fredonia Chemistry/Environmental Sciences
  • 86. I just want to say one word to you. Just one word. PLASTICS. - The Graduate, 1967
  • 87.  Modeled after natural polymers  Created to replace the (over)use of natural materials  Moldable, Light-weight, Durable  Synthetic polymers
  • 88. Source: PlasticsEurope, Plastics – The Facts 2013 1967: 25 million tons
  • 89. INDIAN OCEAN NORTH PACIFIC SOUTH PACIFIC SOUTH ATLANTIC NORTH ATLANTIC 5 Subtropical Convergence Zones
  • 90. Lake Huron sample with plastic film from a cigarette pack
  • 91. Photos courtesy of Brendan Bannon
  • 92. Lake Erie sample #14
  • 93. Extrapolate Particles per Square Kilometer (Plastic Abundance)
  • 94. 2012
  • 95. Insert Map of Expedition Route
  • 96. 2012 GREAT LAKES PLASTIC POLLUTION SURVEY 0.355― 0.999mm 1.000― 4.749mm > 4.75mm 0.355― 0.999mm 1.000― 4.749mm > 4.75mm Fragment 247,106.5 123,906.2 11,219.8 21,385.9 28,127.8 3,502.4 Film 3,943.5 1,332.2 4,006.1 95.1 743.4 688.3 Foam 54,340.9 18,208.4 1,810.5 5.3 40.4 12.9 Pellet 430,029.8 5,614.1 420.9 5.3 40.4 12.9 Line 1,328.9 2,571.9 449.0 255.2 1,298.3 2,077.5 count/km2 736,749.6 151,632.9 17,906.3 21,745.4 31,010.4 6,281.3 % of total 81% 17% 2% 37% 52% 11% Abundance of plastic pieces (count/km 2 ) by type and size Great Lakes NASG
  • 97. Sources
  • 98. POSSIBLE SOURCE OF MICROPLASTIC SPHERES
  • 99. POSSIBLE SOURCE OF MICROPLASTIC SPHERES
  • 100. Sources • Consumer Products – Exfoliating Microbeads − Photodegradation of larger plastic items
  • 101. 2013
  • 102. Photo courtesy of Brendan Bannon
  • 103. 0.355― 0.999mm 1.000― 4.749mm > 4.75mm Fragment 3,356,920.6 1,586,137.1 127,199.3 Pellet 920,457.4 78,815.0 4,999.6 Fiber/Line 119,116.3 94,004.7 67,245.2 Film 41,419.4 61,030.4 31,772.5 Foam 72,501.5 136,444.3 18,028.9 count/km2 4,510,415.2 1,956,431.5 249,245.6 % of total 67% 29% 4% Abundance of plastic pieces (count/km2) by type and size • Combined Data – 2012 & 2013
  • 104. Why do we care?
  • 105. Visual courtesy of Chelsea Rochman
  • 106. Visual courtesy of Sierra Club – Delaware Chapter
  • 107.  Wastewater Treatment Plants  Food Web Study  Stream Sampling  Sediment Analysis • Current Projects
  • 108.  Susan Gateley  Hannah Farley  Nick Williamson  Ghadah Aleid  Morgan Smith  Rachel Ricotta  Parker Fink
  • 109. Photo courtesy of Brendan Bannon Questions?