State Of Ohio Vernal Pools M. Micacchion

775 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Lifestyle
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
775
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

State Of Ohio Vernal Pools M. Micacchion

  1. 1. State of Ohio’s Vernal Pools Mick Micacchion Ohio EPA Wetland Ecology Group
  2. 2. Vernal Pools <ul><li>Forested and shrub depressions in a forested landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Isolated hydrology – primarily surface and ground water </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal hydrology – ephemeral – at least late winter (Feb/March) to early summer (June/July) </li></ul><ul><li>Free of predatory fish </li></ul><ul><li>Provide important amphibian breeding habitat </li></ul>
  3. 3. Amphibian Habitat Needs <ul><li>Seasonal hydrology - March-June </li></ul><ul><li>Fish-free – bass, sunfish, pike, bullheads </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf litter/ woody debris </li></ul><ul><li>Microtopographic features </li></ul><ul><li>Woodlands – especially important within 200m radius </li></ul><ul><li>Other breeding pools nearby </li></ul>
  4. 4. Amphibian Monitoring Sites
  5. 5. Amphibian Species Sensitivity <ul><li>Salamanders: </li></ul><ul><li>Smallmouth 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Streamside 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Unisexual hybrids 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern newt 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Spotted 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Marbled 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Tiger 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Four-toed 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Blue-spotted 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Frogs and Toads: </li></ul><ul><li>Green frog 1 </li></ul><ul><li>American bullfrog 2 </li></ul><ul><li>American toad 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Northern spring peeper 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Fowler’s toad 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Western chorus frog 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Northern leopard frog 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Cope’s & Gray treefrogs 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Mountain chorus frog 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Northern cricket frog 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Wood frog 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Pickerel frog 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern spadefoot 10 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Spotted Salamanders and Wood Frogs <ul><li>Two species that are excellent indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Only found in relatively intact systems </li></ul><ul><li>Require large percentage of forest in surroundings </li></ul>
  7. 7. Amphibian Index of Biotic Integrity Metrics <ul><li>Amphibian Quality Assessment Index (AQAI) </li></ul><ul><li>Number of species of pond breeding salamanders </li></ul><ul><li>Relative abundance of sensitive species </li></ul><ul><li>Relative abundance of tolerant species </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of spotted salamanders or wood frogs </li></ul><ul><li>10pts.each (0, 3, 7, 10), 50 pts. total </li></ul>
  8. 8. Urban Vernal Pools – Central Ohio <ul><li>Randomly selected 200 urban wetlands – NWI and OWI (out of 649) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tree or shrub dominated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolated depressions - SW and GW fed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inundation through amphibian breeding season </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No predatory fish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitored 14 wetlands (vernal pools) for amphibians 14/200 = only 7% of central Ohio wetlands provided amphibian community breeding habitat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 – Poor quality – 3/200 = 1.5% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 – Fair quality – 9/200 = 4.5% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 – Good quality – 2/200 = 1% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0 – Excellent quality </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Urban Vernal Pool
  10. 10. Mitigation Bank Study <ul><li>Monitored 33 subareas at 12 wetland mitigation banks </li></ul><ul><li>Total = 999.2 acres (404.4 hectares) </li></ul><ul><li>Amphibian data collected with deployment of 1040 funnel traps (24,960 trap hours) </li></ul>
  11. 12. Species Composition of Wetland Mitigation Banks <ul><li>Abundant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Green frog. Rana clamitans 38% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toads, Bufo sp . 22% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leopard frog, R. pipiens 19% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bullfrog, R. catesbeiana 12% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spring peeper, Pseudacris crucifer 5% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Absent or extremely rare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Ambystomatid salamander species <1% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red-spotted newt, Notophthalmus viridescens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood frog, R. sylvatica </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Poor Fair Good Excellent
  13. 14. <ul><li>Landscape placement - narrow or no buffers and intensive surrounding land uses </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of predatory fish – stream hydrology </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent vs. seasonal hydrology </li></ul><ul><li>Steep slopes and lack of vegetation – vegetation present is emergent class </li></ul><ul><li>Large sizes minimizing edge habitats </li></ul>Limitations of Wetland Mitigation Projects to Amphibian Usage
  14. 18. Limitations on Amphibian Communities with Urban Vernal Pools <ul><li>Intensive surrounding land uses </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of buffers </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation from other patches of habitat </li></ul>
  15. 19. Urban Vernal Pools– Why they are development targets <ul><li>Often are present as wetlands in landscapes that are otherwise dominated by uplands </li></ul><ul><li>Generally small </li></ul><ul><li>Often are dry much of the year and may not be recognized as wetlands at those times </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounding development has lowered their quality </li></ul><ul><li>Last impediment to complete development </li></ul>
  16. 20. State of Vernal Pool Habitat in Ohio <ul><li>A habitat that is disappearing at alarming rates </li></ul><ul><li>Many species that rely on this habitat are becoming rare </li></ul><ul><li>Those habitats that are remaining need to be protected </li></ul><ul><li>Development of additional habitat is critically needed to help reverse the trend </li></ul>
  17. 21. Thank You!!!

×