Harmful Algal Blooms - OH Clean Water Conference


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"Starting the Harmful Algal Bloom Food Chain: Down on the Farm" - presented at the Ohio Clean Water Conference 2011 by Dr. Julie Weatherington-Rice

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Harmful Algal Blooms - OH Clean Water Conference

  1. 1. Starting the Harmful Algal Bloom Food Chain: Down on the Farm Julie Weatherington-Rice, PhD, Adj. Asst. Prof. OSU Dept. Food, Agricultural, & Biological Engineering Sr. Scientist Bennett & Williams Co-coordinator OFFWG (OAS)Presented on behalf of theOhio Fracture Flow Working Group(Ohio Academy of Science)
  2. 2. 4 Conditions must be Present Cyanobacteria (here from the dawn of time ~ 3.5 billion years) Hard Rains Hot Spring & Summer TemperaturesPhoto by Jeff ReutterOSU Stone Lab Pier Food (Phosphorus &August 11, 2010 Nitrogen Necessary)* * Only Variables We Can Control
  3. 3. Cyanobacteria is Amazing Stuff• Can be used to make bioplastics, ethanol, biodeisel• Photosynthesis 10X more efficient than corn• Makes hydrogen gas 1/7 the cost of splitting water• Responsible for nitrogen fertilizer in rice paddies all over the world• Some varieties up to 60% protein, could be important food source
  4. 4. Cyanobacteria is Amazing Stuff• Antifungal, antialgal, antiviral,anti-HIV activity, antibacterial, antioxidants & co-enzymes• Many applications in medicine including cancer research & treatment• Effective in wastewater bioremediation (that’s what it is doing in our lakes)• R.M.M. Abed et al., Journal of Applied Microbiology 106 (2009) 1-12 “Applications of cyanobacteria in biotechnology” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19191979
  5. 5. How Have Farming PracticesChanged Since the 1980’s to Liberate More DRP?
  6. 6. To help protect y our priv acy , PowerPoint prev ented this external picture from being automatically downloaded. To download and display this picture, click Options in the Message Bar, and then click Enable external content. Recent Changes in Agriculture • Larger farms, larger fields and larger equipment • Larger equipment has multiple functions, potential changes in the timing of fertilizer applications, more broadcast applications • Larger, heavier equipment may be leading to soil compaction • Changes in crop rotation resulting in changes to fertilizer application • Changes in fertilizer formulations Timing, amount & incorporation of fertilizers are key
  7. 7. Recent Changes in Agriculture • Conservation Tillage does not invert the plow layer • Most fertilizer is now surface applied • Animal manure management has gone from solid pack to liquid management • These practices have caused a build-up of phosphorus in the top 2” of the soil profile
  8. 8. Recent Changes in Agriculture • Increased tile drainage systems – decreased tile spacing • Surface drainage ditches in between tile lines • Increased connections between the surface & tile drainage systems (macropores) • Multiple tilesheds per field in NW Ohio, very short TOC for tileshed discharge – tile water comes out with surface water
  9. 9. Recent Changes in Agriculture• Nutrients are stratifying, 2 to 10 times as much in the top 2” of the soil profile• Over one million Ohio soil tests reviewed (8” profile), about 30% over 40 ppm Phosphorus (agronomic recommended level)• Animal manures are being applied at higher levels as waste disposal, up to 150 ppm• Recent research indicates that stratified P over 40 ppm can go mobile during high intensity rain storm events, creating DRP discharges to both surface & tile waters
  10. 10. Reducing DRP & N 1 field/farm at a time • Farmers & farm management are the key, ~90% of DRP in NW Ohio from agriculture • Rural – Urban land use mix will vary over the state in each watershed Map 9/10/10 • Not just a NW Ohio problem any more. 20 state parks & reservoirs were closed all over the state last summer • 2011 cyanobacteria spottings began at Grand Lake St. Marys, Buckeye Lake and Blue Rock State Park, all mid-state locations
  11. 11. Cyanobacteria now in western Lake Erie • Arrived in the western basin July 22/23, 2011 when the water temps rose to ~ 80 degrees F Photos: North Cape Yacht Club & West Sister/Turtle Islands
  12. 12. Farmers, What Can You Do To Help?• Check fields for stratified P in top 2”• Only apply P if you really need it, only to agronomic levels (40 ppm)• Consider change in crop rotation to C-SB- C-SB-W, applying P by injection or as side dressing in the soil with ridge-till corn rotation only
  13. 13. Farmers, What Can You Do To Help? • Consider cover crops to “use up” excess P & reduce surface runoff during winter monthsDave Brandt, Fairfield County, uses either a12-grain mix drilled into wheat stubble or analternating row method of radishes andAustrian winter peas, video athttp://vimeo.com/26785606
  14. 14. Farmers, What Can You Do To Help?• Check tile systems for blowouts & surface water inlets• Check grassed waterways & buffer strips for healthy vegetation, consider forested buffer strip along streams/ditches to increase infiltration & reduce water temperature – remember HABs need warm water to thrive• If P stratification is severe, consider 1 time fall moldboard plow & disk w/ a good cover crop to flip stratification
  15. 15. Farmers, What Can You Do To Help? • Liquid manure system? Consider package WWTP or composting (OARDC, Wooster) • Installing new system? Consider dry/composted system to begin with Outside system - Dairy at OARDC Wooster
  16. 16. Farmers, What Can You Do To Help?• Follow BMPs to the letter for applications• Restore wetlands in fields and at edges of fields (wetlands reserve)• Tile drains? Consider better surface/subsurface water management
  17. 17. Farmers, What Can You Do To Help? • Upgrading surface/subsurface water management • Install wetland/subsurface irrigation systems • Install tile bioreactors • Route all between tile line surface drainage ditches into tile drop boxes in front of tile bioreactors
  18. 18. What is a Bioreactor?Originally promoted by Iowa SoybeanAssoc. for nitrate removal(http://www.iasoybeans.com/environment/programs-initiatives/programs/bioreactors)
  19. 19. Tile Bioreactor Installation Video at http://www.iasoybeans.com/environment/programs- initiatives/programs/bioreactors/demonstration
  20. 20. OSU FABE Team Effort• Led by Larry Brown, USDA ARS & OSU Microbiology team members• Awarded USDA Conservation Innovation Grant to design & test bioreactors in Ohio for Ohio NRCS cost-share• Spring 2010 ARS data show 65-75% DRP coming from tile drains• Iowa design shows 50-70% nitrate reduction, no testing for P• Bench scale research shows iron (foundry sands) pre-treatment also removes DRP & increases nitrate reduction ~100%
  21. 21. OSU FABE Team Effort• Building three Fall 2011 in central Ohio with CIG grant (Waterman Farm, Farm Science Review, one other)• Partnered with Western Lake Erie Association (Lake Erie Waterkeepers) for “Healing Our Waters” mini-grant ($15,000) to install two in Lucas County Fall 2011. • Cooperating with Lucas SWCD • Before & after treatment storm samples collected locally, run in ARS lab in Columbus • Field Day & Workshop planned for Summer 2012 Maumee Bay State Park to share results
  22. 22. 5 Down, ~50,000? to go• Tile Bioreactors WILL work, proven technology in the field for nitrates but P pretreatment new for field application (proven in lab)• NRCS willing to offer Cost-share based on final OSU design but farmers need to see them work• Plans to install demonstration clusters of these all over Ohio; host field days and workshops
  23. 23. Can We Partner with Your Group? • OSU is looking for local Watershed Groups & SWCDs to act as local hosts • Can install one tile bioreactor and monitor for one year for less than $10,000 (actual cost depends on size of tileshed being treated) • Help us get the word out • We will provide full support: • Help write grants • Design & oversee construction • Run water samples in the ARS lab • Help organize and lead workshops and field days
  24. 24. Help Us Help You to Turn Ohio’s Lakes & Streams From This
  25. 25. Back to This Help UsRestore ALLOhio’s Lakes
  26. 26. Contact InformationOSU Tile Bioreactor TeamLarry Brown, FABE brown.59@osu.eduNorm Fausey, USDA ARS fausey.1@osu.eduJulie Weatherington-Rice, OFFWG weatherington-ri.1@osu.eduLake Erie Association/Waterkeeper www.westernlakeerie.org, Sandy Bihn, 419-691-3788, sandylakeerie@aol.comhttp://www.epa.ohio.gov/dsw/lakeerie/ ptaskforce/index.aspx Keeping Ohio’s Water Clean Ohio Fracture Flow Working Group