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The Periodic Table
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The Periodic Table

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The Periodic Table The Periodic Table Presentation Transcript

  • The Periodic Table of Elements
  • The Periodic Table
    • The horizontal rows of the periodic table are called periods
    • The vertical columns are called families (or groups )
    • Elements in the same family have similar physical and chemical properties
  • Periodic Table
  • Metals
    • Metals are on the left and in the centre of the periodic table
    • Metals have the following physical properties:
        • conduct heat and electricity
        • ductile and malleable
        • shiny
        • solid at room temperature (except mercury)
  • Metals
    • Metals have the following chemical properties:
        • can easily corrode/oxidize
        • react with acid to release hydrogen gas
  • Metals
  • Non-Metals
    • Non-metals are on the right side of the periodic table
    • Non-metals have the following physical properties:
        • poor conductors of heat and electricity
        • usually solid or gas at room temperature (only Bromine is a liquid at room temperature)
  • Non-Metals
    • Non-metals have a wide range of chemical properties and reactivities
    • have a tendency to gain electrons in a chemical reaction
  • Non-Metals
  • Metalloids
    • Metals are separated from non-metals by a staircase of elements called metalloids
    • Metalloids are elements with properties intermediate between metals and non-metals
    silicon tellurium
  • Metalloids
    • Physical properties:
      • solid at room temperature
      • can be shiny or dull
      • brittle (not ductile)
      • may conduct electricity, poor conductor of heat
    • Chemical properties:
      • vary
    silicon tellurium
  • Metalloids
  • Chemical Families Chemical Family = Groups of elements that have similar physical and chemical properties
  • Chemical Families
    • Alkali Metals (Group 1)
    • Reactivity:
      • reacts easily with water and air
      • reacts easily with halogens
    • Physical Properties:
      • Shiny, silvery
      • Only found in nature as compounds
      • Compounds are white solids soluble in water
  • Chemical Families
    • Alkaline Earth Metals (Group 2)
    • Reactivity:
      • less reactive than group 1 metals
    • Physical Properties:
      • shiny, silvery
      • forms compounds that are often insoluble in water
  • Chemical Families
    • Halogens (Group 17 )
    • Reactivity:
      • reacts easily with alkali metals
    • Physical Properties:
      • poisonous
      • exists naturally as compounds
  • Chemical Families
    • Noble Gases (Group 18)
    • Reactivity:
      • inert, stable, unreactive
      • can be excited by electricity to produce colours, but are chemically unchanged
    • Physical Properties
      • colourless, odourless
      • gases at room temperature
      • does not form compounds
  •  
  • Chemical Families
    • All atoms of elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons
    • For example, all elements in group 1 have one valence electron
    • Elements will react so that they have the same number of electrons as an atom of the closest noble gas.
    Noble Gases
    • For example, neon is the closest noble gas in the periodic table to sodium , magnesium and aluminum
    Noble Gases
  • Periodic Table reactivity increases
  • reactivity increases Periodic Table