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Static Electricity
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Static Electricity

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Static Electricity Static Electricity Presentation Transcript

  • Static Electricity
    • all matter is made of atoms
    • atoms contain smaller particles: protons , neutrons and electrons
    • some of these particles have an electric charge:
    Atomic Structure & Electric Charge
  • orbiting the nucleus negative (-) electron nucleus no charge (0) neutron nucleus positive (+) proton Location Electric Charge Particle
    • If an object has more electrons than protons, it is negatively charged.
    Electric Charge # protons: 8 # electrons: 12 # protons < # electrons therefore, overall charge = negative
    • if an object has more protons than electrons, it is positively charged
    Electric Charge # protons: 8 # electrons: 5 # protons > # electrons therefore, overall charge = positive
    • If an object has an equal number of protons and electrons, the object is neutral
    Electric Charge # protons: 8 # electrons: 8 # protons = # electrons therefore, overall charge = neutral
  • Electric Charge + — Law of attraction: opposite charges attract
  • Electric Charge Law of repulsion: like charges repel + — + —
  • Electric Charge A charged object and a neutral object will attract each other 0 0 + —
    • Electrons can be transferred from one object to another.
    • For example, a neutral or positively charged object will become negatively charged if it gains electrons.
    Electric Charge
    • Similarly, a neutral or negatively charged object will become positively charged if it loses electrons.
    Electric Charge
    • Only electrons (negative charges) are capable of moving from one object to another!
    • Protons ( positive charges) stay in place.
    Electric Charge
    • Different substances have different abilities to hold on to electrons
    • the tendency of a substance to hold on to the electrons is called electron affinity
    Electron Affinity
  • Electron Affinity human skin rabit fur acetate glass human hair nylon wool cat fur silk paper cotton wood amber rubber balloon vinyl polyester ebonite + - tendency to lose electrons tendency to gain electrons
    • Conductivity is the ability of materials to allow electrons to move freely
    • Materials that hold on to their electrons and do not allow them to move easily are called electrical insulators
    • Materials that allow electrons to change positions are called conductors
    Conductors & Insulators
  • Insulators In an insulator, the electrons (-) are bound tightly to the nuclei (+) so they resist movement + — + — + — + — + — + — + —
  • Common Insulators
  • Conductors In a conductor, the electrons are not as tightly bound to the nuclei and can therefore move away from the nuclei + — + — + — + — + — + — + —
  • Common Conductors
    • The electric charge that builds up on the surface of an object is called a static charge
    • The charges are “static” because they remain in one location on the surface of the object until they are given a path to escape
    Static Electricity
  • Static Electricity and Friction
    • All solid materials are charged by the transfer of electrons
    • When two objects rub together, the force of friction can remove electrons from one object and transfer them to the other object
    • As one object loses electrons, the other object gains them
    Static Electricity and Friction
    • New electrons are not being created , they are just being rearranged
    Static Electricity and Friction
  • Static Electricity