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Biotic and Abiotic Factors

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    Biotic and Abiotic Factors Biotic and Abiotic Factors Presentation Transcript

    • Biotic and Abiotic Influences on ecosystems
    • Limiting Factors
      • What determines the size of a population and where a particular species can live?
      • Ideal biotic and abiotic conditions allow species to flourish.
      • Other conditions may lead to a species’ decline or even extinction .
      • A limiting factor is any factor that places an upper limit on the size of a population .
      • Limiting factors may be biotic , such as the availability of food, or abiotic , such as access to water.
      Limiting Factors
      • Human influences often act as limiting factors .
      • Abiotic factors, such as temperature , light and soil , can influence a species’ ability to survive.
      Limiting Factors
      • Every species is able to survive within a range of each of these factors. This range is called the species’ tolerance range .
      Abiotic Factors Near the upper and lower limits of the tolerance range, individuals experience stress . This stress will reduce their health and rate of growth and reproduction .
    • Abiotic Factors
      • Within a species’ tolerance range is an optimal range in which the species is best adapted .
      • The largest and healthiest populations of a species will occur when conditions are within the optimal range .
      Abiotic Factors
      • Some species have wide tolerance ranges, while others have much narrower ranges.
      Abiotic Factors Each species has a tolerance range for every abiotic factor .
      • Species with broad tolerance ranges will tend to be widely distributed and may easily invade other ecosystems.
      • The distribution of most terrestrial plant species is largely limited by a combination of temperature , precipitation and light .
      Abiotic Factors
      • The key abiotic factors in aquatic ecosystems are salt concentration as well as the availability of sunlight , oxygen and nutrients
      • While abiotic factors determine where a particular species is able to live , biotic factors often determine the species’ success .
      Biotic Factors
      • Many key biotic factors involve interactions between individuals .
      • Individuals are often in competition with members of their own species and with other species .
      • They compete for limited resources , such as food, light, space and mates
      • However, interactions between individuals are not limited to competition …
      • Predation occurs when an individual (the predator) kills and eats another individual (the prey ).
      • Mutualism occurs when two organisms interact, with both benefiting .
      • eg. lichen are formed by a mutualistic relationship between algae and fungi
      Biotic Factors
    •  
      • Commensalism occurs when one organism benefits and the other neither benefits nor is harmed .
      • As a population’s size increases, the demand for resources such as food, water, shelter and space also increases.
      Carrying Capacity
      • Eventually, there will not be enough resources for each individual .
      • Furthermore, as individuals become more crowded , they become more susceptible to predators and diseases .
      Carrying Capacity
      • Eventually, this will result in the population reaching the upper sustainable limit that the ecosystem can support - called the carrying capacity .
      Carrying Capacity
      • Carrying capacity = the maximum population size of a particular species that a given ecosystem can sustain
      Carrying Capacity
      • The carrying capacity can be altered through natural or human activity when resources are removed from or added to the ecosystem.
      • eg. the loss or introduction of a species can change the carrying capacity of the ecosystem for the other species
      Carrying Capacity