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Biotic and Abiotic Factors
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Biotic and Abiotic Factors

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Biotic and Abiotic Factors Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Biotic and Abiotic Influences on ecosystems
  • 2. Limiting Factors
    • What determines the size of a population and where a particular species can live?
  • 3.
    • Ideal biotic and abiotic conditions allow species to flourish.
  • 4.
    • Other conditions may lead to a species’ decline or even extinction .
  • 5.
    • A limiting factor is any factor that places an upper limit on the size of a population .
    • Limiting factors may be biotic , such as the availability of food, or abiotic , such as access to water.
    Limiting Factors
  • 6.
    • Human influences often act as limiting factors .
  • 7.
    • Abiotic factors, such as temperature , light and soil , can influence a species’ ability to survive.
    Limiting Factors
  • 8.
    • Every species is able to survive within a range of each of these factors. This range is called the species’ tolerance range .
    Abiotic Factors Near the upper and lower limits of the tolerance range, individuals experience stress . This stress will reduce their health and rate of growth and reproduction .
  • 9. Abiotic Factors
  • 10.
    • Within a species’ tolerance range is an optimal range in which the species is best adapted .
    • The largest and healthiest populations of a species will occur when conditions are within the optimal range .
    Abiotic Factors
  • 11.
    • Some species have wide tolerance ranges, while others have much narrower ranges.
    Abiotic Factors Each species has a tolerance range for every abiotic factor .
  • 12.
    • Species with broad tolerance ranges will tend to be widely distributed and may easily invade other ecosystems.
  • 13.
    • The distribution of most terrestrial plant species is largely limited by a combination of temperature , precipitation and light .
    Abiotic Factors
  • 14.
    • The key abiotic factors in aquatic ecosystems are salt concentration as well as the availability of sunlight , oxygen and nutrients
  • 15.
    • While abiotic factors determine where a particular species is able to live , biotic factors often determine the species’ success .
    Biotic Factors
  • 16.
    • Many key biotic factors involve interactions between individuals .
  • 17.
    • Individuals are often in competition with members of their own species and with other species .
    • They compete for limited resources , such as food, light, space and mates
  • 18.
    • However, interactions between individuals are not limited to competition …
  • 19.
    • Predation occurs when an individual (the predator) kills and eats another individual (the prey ).
  • 20.
    • Mutualism occurs when two organisms interact, with both benefiting .
    • eg. lichen are formed by a mutualistic relationship between algae and fungi
    Biotic Factors
  • 21.  
  • 22.
    • Commensalism occurs when one organism benefits and the other neither benefits nor is harmed .
  • 23.
    • As a population’s size increases, the demand for resources such as food, water, shelter and space also increases.
    Carrying Capacity
  • 24.
    • Eventually, there will not be enough resources for each individual .
    • Furthermore, as individuals become more crowded , they become more susceptible to predators and diseases .
    Carrying Capacity
  • 25.
    • Eventually, this will result in the population reaching the upper sustainable limit that the ecosystem can support - called the carrying capacity .
    Carrying Capacity
  • 26.
    • Carrying capacity = the maximum population size of a particular species that a given ecosystem can sustain
    Carrying Capacity
  • 27.
    • The carrying capacity can be altered through natural or human activity when resources are removed from or added to the ecosystem.
    • eg. the loss or introduction of a species can change the carrying capacity of the ecosystem for the other species
    Carrying Capacity