q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
To the great pioneers in Marine and Offshore Construction who were                                        undeterred by vi...
q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
PrefaceThis third editon has been intensively augmented and revised to include the latestdevelopments in this rapidly expa...
q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
AcknowledgmentsI wish to acknowledge the help of many members of our company, Ben C. Gerwick, Inc.making available informa...
q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
AuthorBen C. Gerwick, Jr. is the author of Construction of Prestressed Concrete, first, second, andthird editions, and the ...
q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
ContentsIntroduction0.1 General .............................................................................................
2.8     Weak Arctic Silts and Clays..........................................................................................
4.3.1  General ..............................................................................................................
6.2.2 Anchors ...............................................................................................................
8.7     Anchoring into Rock or Hardpan.................................................................................   ...
9.4.3           Pneumatic Caissons ..........................................................................................
11.5      Upending of Jacket ................................................................................................
Chapter 14        Other Applications of Marine and Offshore                  Construction Technology14.1      General .......
17.3      Hookup ............................................................................................................
21.5.3 Construction in a Graving Dock or Drydock.............................................                             ...
23.9 Ice Structures..........................................................................................................
1Physical Environmental Aspects ofMarine and Offshore Construction1.1 GeneralThe oceans present a unique set of environmen...
16                                             Construction of Marine and Offshore Structures  Offshore regions extend fro...
Physical Environmental Aspects of Marine and Offshore Construction                        17forces. At the same time, capi...
18                                             Construction of Marine and Offshore Structures   The other extreme is the A...
Physical Environmental Aspects of Marine and Offshore Construction                         19   Oxygen is present in the a...
20                                             Construction of Marine and Offshore Structures   Marine organisms play a ma...
Physical Environmental Aspects of Marine and Offshore Construction                                         21             ...
22                                              Construction of Marine and Offshore Structures   While in regular harbor c...
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[Ben c. gerwick__jr]_construction_of_marine_and_of(book_fi.org)

  1. 1. q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  2. 2. q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  3. 3. q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  4. 4. q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  5. 5. To the great pioneers in Marine and Offshore Construction who were undeterred by violent storms and massive ice.q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  6. 6. q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  7. 7. PrefaceThis third editon has been intensively augmented and revised to include the latestdevelopments in this rapidly expanding field. The intensified search for oil and gas, thecatastrophic flooding of coastal regions and the demands for transportation, bridges, sub-merged tunnels and waterways have led to the continuing innovation of new technologywhich is now available for use on more conventional projects as well as those at the frontiers. This text is intended as a guide and reference for practicing engineers and constructorsfor use in the marine environment. It is also intended as a text for graduate engineeringstudents interested in this highly challenging endeavour.q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  8. 8. q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  9. 9. AcknowledgmentsI wish to acknowledge the help of many members of our company, Ben C. Gerwick, Inc.making available information on the current construction of marine and offshore projects,also the willing responses to my queries from other sources in the industry. I would like to thank my administrative assistant, Michelle Yu, for her word-processingof the manuscript.q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  10. 10. q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  11. 11. AuthorBen C. Gerwick, Jr. is the author of Construction of Prestressed Concrete, first, second, andthird editions, and the first and second editions of Construction of Marine and OffshoreStructures. He was born in Berkeley, California, in 1919. He received his B.S. in civil engineeringfrom the University of California at Berkeley in 1940. He joined the U.S. Navy the sameyear and served until 1946. He was assigned as commanding officer of the USS Scania(AK 40) in 1945. He has worked in marine and offshore construction, or taught about it, for most of thetime since his discharge from the navy. He worked in Marine Construction from 1946 to1967 and from 1967 to 1971 in Offshore Construction, ending as President of Ben C.Gerwick, Inc., and Manager of Offshore Construction for Santa Fe International. From1971 to 1989, he served as Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of California,Berkeley. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy ofConstruction, and an honorary member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, whichawarded him their Outstanding Engineering Lifetime Achievement Award in 2002.He has been named a fellow of the International Association of Structural and BridgeEngineers and has served as president of the International Federation of Prestressing.He was awarded the Berkeley Fellow Medal in 1989.q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  12. 12. q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  13. 13. ContentsIntroduction0.1 General .................................................................................................................................. 10.2 Geography ............................................................................................................................ 30.3 Ecological Environment ..................................................................................................... 40.4 Legal Jurisdiction................................................................................................................. 40.5 Offshore Construction Relationships and Sequences.................................................... 50.6 Typical Marine Structures and Contracts........................................................................ 80.7 Interaction of Design and Construction .......................................................................... 9Chapter 1 Physical Environmental Aspects of Marine and Offshore Construction1.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 151.2 Distances and Depths ....................................................................................................... 151.3 Hydrostatic Pressure and Buoyancy .............................................................................. 161.4 Temperature ....................................................................................................................... 171.5 Seawater and Sea–Air Interface Chemistry .................................................................. 18 1.5.1 Marine Organisms ................................................................................................ 181.6 Currents .............................................................................................................................. 201.7 Waves and Swells .............................................................................................................. 251.8 Winds and Storms ............................................................................................................. 311.9 Tides and Storm Surges.................................................................................................... 341.10 Rain, Snow, Fog, Spray, Atmospheric Icing, and Lightning ...................................... 361.11 Sea Ice and Icebergs .......................................................................................................... 371.12 Seismicity, Seaquakes, and Tsunamis............................................................................. 421.13 Floods .................................................................................................................................. 431.14 Scour .................................................................................................................................... 441.15 Siltation and Bed Loads ................................................................................................... 441.16 Sabotage and Terrorism.................................................................................................... 451.17 Ship Traffic .......................................................................................................................... 451.18 Fire and Smoke .................................................................................................................. 461.19 Accidental Events .............................................................................................................. 461.20 Global Warming................................................................................................................. 47Chapter 2 Geotechnical Aspects: Seafloor and Marine Soils2.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 492.2 Dense Sands ....................................................................................................................... 522.3 Liquefaction of Soils.......................................................................................................... 522.4 Calcareous Sands............................................................................................................... 532.5 Glacial Till and Boulders on Seafloor............................................................................. 532.6 Overconsolidated Silts ..................................................................................................... 542.7 Subsea Permafrost and Clathrates.................................................................................. 55q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  14. 14. 2.8 Weak Arctic Silts and Clays............................................................................................. 552.9 Ice Scour and Pingos......................................................................................................... 562.10 Methane Gas....................................................................................................................... 562.11 Muds and Clays................................................................................................................. 56 2.11.1 Underwater Slopes in Clays ............................................................................. 57 2.11.2 Pile Driving “Set-Up” ........................................................................................ 58 2.11.3 Short-Term Bearing Strength ............................................................................ 58 2.11.4 Dredging .............................................................................................................. 58 2.11.5 Sampling .............................................................................................................. 58 2.11.6 Penetration ........................................................................................................... 59 2.11.7 Consolidation of Clays; Improvement in Strength ....................................... 592.12 Coral and Similar Biogenic Soils; Cemented Soils, Cap Rock ................................. 592.13 Unconsolidated Sands ...................................................................................................... 602.14 Underwater Sand Dunes (“Megadunes”) ..................................................................... 622.15 Bedrock Outcrops.............................................................................................................. 622.16 Cobbles ................................................................................................................................ 632.17 Deep Gravel Deposits ....................................................................................................... 642.18 Seafloor Oozes.................................................................................................................... 642.19 Seafloor Instability and Slumping; Turbidity Currents............................................... 642.20 Scour and Erosion ............................................................................................................. 652.21 Concluding Remarks ........................................................................................................ 66Chapter 3 Ecological and Societal Impacts of Marine Construction3.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 693.2 Oil and Petroleum Products ............................................................................................ 693.3 Toxic Chemicals ................................................................................................................. 703.4 Contaminated Soils ........................................................................................................... 713.5 Construction Wastes.......................................................................................................... 713.6 Turbidity ............................................................................................................................. 713.7 Sediment Transport, Scour, and Erosion ....................................................................... 723.8 Air Pollution....................................................................................................................... 723.9 Marine Life: Mammals and Birds, Fish, and Other Biota .......................................... 733.10 Aquifers............................................................................................................................... 743.11 Noise .................................................................................................................................... 743.12 Highway, Rail, Barge, and Air Traffic ............................................................................ 753.13 Protection of Existing Structures .................................................................................... 753.14 Liquefaction........................................................................................................................ 773.15 Safety of the Public and Third-Party Vessels................................................................ 773.16 Archaeological Concerns ................................................................................................. 78Chapter 4 Materials and Fabrication for Marine Structures4.1 General ................................................................................................................................ 794.2 Steel Structures for the Marine Environment ............................................................... 79 4.2.1 Steel Materials ....................................................................................................... 80 4.2.2 Fabrication and Welding ..................................................................................... 80 4.2.3 Erection of Structural Steel ................................................................................. 85 4.2.4 Coatings and Corrosion Protection of Steel Structures.................................. 88 4.2.5 High Performance Steels ..................................................................................... 914.3 Structural Concrete ........................................................................................................... 91q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  15. 15. 4.3.1 General ................................................................................................................... 91 4.3.2 Concrete Mixes and Properties .......................................................................... 91 4.3.2.1 High Performance Concrete— “Flowing Concrete” ...................... 95 4.3.2.2 Structural Low-Density Concrete...................................................... 96 4.3.2.3 Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC)..................................... 97 4.3.3 Conveyance and Placement of Concrete .......................................................... 97 4.3.4 Curing..................................................................................................................... 98 4.3.5 Steel Reinforcement.............................................................................................. 98 4.3.6 Prestressing Tendons and Accessories............................................................ 102 4.3.7 Embedments........................................................................................................ 105 4.3.8 Coatings for Marine Concrete .......................................................................... 106 4.3.9 Construction Joints............................................................................................. 106 4.3.10 Forming and Support ....................................................................................... 107 4.3.11 Tolerances............................................................................................................ 1084.4 Hybrid Steel–Concrete Structures................................................................................. 108 4.4.1 Hybrid Structures ............................................................................................... 109 4.4.2 Composite Construction.................................................................................... 1094.5 Plastics and Synthetic Materials, Composites ............................................................ 1114.6 Titanium ............................................................................................................................ 1134.7 Rock, Sand, and Asphaltic-Bituminous Materials ..................................................... 114Chapter 5 Marine and Offshore Construction Equipment5.1 General .............................................................................................................................. 1175.2 Basic Motions in a Seaway............................................................................................. 1185.3 Buoyancy, Draft, and Freeboard ................................................................................... 1205.4 Stability.............................................................................................................................. 1215.5 Damage Control............................................................................................................... 1245.6 Barges ................................................................................................................................ 1265.7 Crane Barges .................................................................................................................... 1305.8 Offshore Derrick Barges (Fully Revolving) ................................................................. 1345.9 Semisubmersible Barges................................................................................................. 1375.10 Jack-Up Construction Barges......................................................................................... 1405.11 Launch Barges .................................................................................................................. 1445.12 Catamaran Barges ........................................................................................................... 1465.13 Dredges ............................................................................................................................. 1475.14 Pipe-Laying Barges ......................................................................................................... 1525.15 Supply Boats..................................................................................................................... 1555.16 Anchor-Handling Boats.................................................................................................. 1565.17 Towboats ........................................................................................................................... 1565.18 Drilling Vessels ................................................................................................................ 1575.19 Crew Boats........................................................................................................................ 1585.20 Floating Concrete Plant .................................................................................................. 1585.21 Tower Cranes ................................................................................................................... 1595.22 Specialized Equipment ................................................................................................... 160Chapter 6 Marine Operations6.1 Towing............................................................................................................................... 1616.2 Moorings and Anchors................................................................................................... 169 6.2.1 Mooring Lines ..................................................................................................... 169q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  16. 16. 6.2.2 Anchors ................................................................................................................ 170 6.2.2.1 Drag Anchors ..................................................................................... 170 6.2.2.2 Pile Anchors........................................................................................ 174 6.2.2.3 Propellant Anchors............................................................................ 174 6.2.2.4 Suction Anchors ................................................................................. 175 6.2.2.5 Driven-Plate Anchors........................................................................ 175 6.2.3 Mooring Systems ................................................................................................ 1756.3 Handling Heavy Loads at Sea....................................................................................... 183 6.3.1 General ................................................................................................................. 1836.4 Personnel Transfer at Sea ............................................................................................... 1906.5 Underwater Intervention, Diving, Underwater Work Systems, Remote-Operated Vehicles (ROVs), and Manipulators ............................................ 194 6.5.1 Diving ................................................................................................................... 194 6.5.2 Remote-Operated Vehicles (ROVs).................................................................. 201 6.5.3 Manipulators ....................................................................................................... 2036.6 Underwater Concreting and Grouting ........................................................................ 203 6.6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 203 6.6.2 Underwater Concrete Mixes............................................................................. 204 6.6.3 Placement of Tremie Concrete.......................................................................... 205 6.6.4 Special Admixtures for Concreting Underwater .......................................... 209 6.6.5 Grout-Intruded Aggregate ................................................................................ 212 6.6.6 Pumped Concrete and Mortar ......................................................................... 213 6.6.7 Underbase Grout ................................................................................................ 213 6.6.8 Grout for Transfer of Forces from Piles to Sleeves and Jacket Legs ........................................................................................................... 215 6.6.9 Low-Strength Underwater Concrete ............................................................... 215 6.6.10 Summary............................................................................................................ 2156.7 Offshore Surveying, Navigation, and Seafloor Surveys............................................ 2166.8 Temporary Buoyancy Augmentation........................................................................... 223Chapter 7 Seafloor Modifications and Improvements7.1 General .............................................................................................................................. 2257.2 Controls for Grade and Position................................................................................... 226 7.2.1 Determination of Existing Conditions............................................................. 2267.3 Seafloor Dredging, Obstruction Removal, and Leveling.......................................... 2277.4 Dredging and Removal of Hard Material and Rock ................................................ 2357.5 Placement of Underwater Fills...................................................................................... 2407.6 Consolidation and Strengthening of Weak Soils........................................................ 2457.7 Prevention of Liquefaction............................................................................................. 2487.8 Scour Protection............................................................................................................... 2487.9 Concluding Remarks ...................................................................................................... 252Chapter 8 Installation of Piles in Marine and Offshore Structure8.1 General .............................................................................................................................. 2558.2 Fabrication of Tubular Steel Piles ................................................................................. 2598.3 Transportation of Piling.................................................................................................. 2608.4 Installing Piles.................................................................................................................. 2628.5 Methods of Increasing Penetration............................................................................... 2858.6 Insert Piles ........................................................................................................................ 290q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  17. 17. 8.7 Anchoring into Rock or Hardpan................................................................................. 2918.8 Testing High Capacity Piles........................................................................................... 2928.9 Steel H Piles...................................................................................................................... 2938.10 Enhancing Stiffness and Capacity of Piles .................................................................. 2938.11 Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Piles............................................................................. 2948.12 Handling and Positioning of Piles for Offshore Terminals ...................................... 2968.13 Drilled and Grouted Piles .............................................................................................. 2978.14 Cast-in-Drilled-Hole Piles, Drilled Shafts ................................................................... 3028.15 Other Installation Experience ........................................................................................ 3128.16 Installation in Difficult Soils .......................................................................................... 3128.17 Other Methods of Improving the Capacity of Driven Piles..................................... 3138.18 Slurry Walls, Secant Walls, and Tangent Walls .......................................................... 3158.19 Steel Sheet Piles ............................................................................................................... 3168.20 Vibratory Pile Hammers................................................................................................. 3178.21 Micropiles ......................................................................................................................... 317Chapter 9 Harbor, River, and Estuary Structures9.1 General .............................................................................................................................. 3199.2 Harbor Structures ............................................................................................................ 319 9.2.1 Types..................................................................................................................... 319 9.2.2 Pile-Supported Structures ................................................................................. 319 9.2.2.1 Steel Piles ............................................................................................. 319 9.2.2.2 Concrete Piles ...................................................................................... 320 9.2.2.3 Installation ........................................................................................... 320 9.2.2.4 Batter (Raker) Piles ............................................................................. 322 9.2.2.5 Pile Location ........................................................................................ 323 9.2.2.6 Jetting.................................................................................................... 323 9.2.2.7 Driving Through Obstructions or Very Hard Material ................ 323 9.2.2.8 Staying of Piles.................................................................................... 324 9.2.2.9 Head Connections .............................................................................. 325 9.2.2.10 Concrete Deck ..................................................................................... 326 9.2.2.11 Fender System ..................................................................................... 327 9.2.3 Bulkheads, Quay Walls...................................................................................... 327 9.2.3.1 Description........................................................................................... 327 9.2.3.2 Sheet Pile Bulkheads .......................................................................... 327 9.2.3.3 Caisson Quay Walls............................................................................ 3309.3 River Structures ............................................................................................................... 331 9.3.1 Description .......................................................................................................... 331 9.3.2 Sheet Pile Cellular Structures ........................................................................... 331 9.3.3 “Lift-In” Precast Concrete Shells—“In-the-Wet” Construction .................. 335 9.3.4 Float-In Concrete Structures ............................................................................. 336 9.3.4.1 General ................................................................................................. 336 9.3.4.2 Prefabrication ...................................................................................... 337 9.3.4.3 Launching ............................................................................................ 338 9.3.4.4 Installation ........................................................................................... 339 9.3.4.5 Leveling Pads ...................................................................................... 339 9.3.4.6 Underfill ............................................................................................... 3409.4 Foundations for Overwater Bridge Piers .................................................................... 343 9.4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 343 9.4.2 Open Caissons .................................................................................................... 344q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  18. 18. 9.4.3 Pneumatic Caissons ........................................................................................... 345 9.4.4 Gravity-Base Caissons (Box Caissons) ............................................................ 346 9.4.5 Pile-Supported Box Caissons............................................................................ 357 9.4.6 Large-Diameter Tubular Piles .......................................................................... 360 9.4.6.1 Steel Tubular Piles .............................................................................. 360 9.4.6.2 Prestressed Concrete Tubular Piles.................................................. 367 9.4.7 Connection of Piles to Footing Block (Pile Cap) ........................................... 370 9.4.8 CIDH Drilled Shafts (Piles)............................................................................... 371 9.4.9 Cofferdams........................................................................................................... 371 9.4.9.1 Steel Sheet Pile Cofferdams............................................................... 372 9.4.9.2 Liquefaction During Cofferdam Construction............................... 375 9.4.9.3 Cofferdams on Slope .......................................................................... 376 9.4.9.4 Deep Cofferdams ................................................................................ 376 9.4.9.5 Portable Cofferdams........................................................................... 378 9.4.10 Protective Structures for Bridge Piers............................................................ 378 9.4.11 Belled Piers ........................................................................................................ 3799.5 Submerged Prefabricated Tunnels (Tubes).................................................................. 381 9.5.1 Description .......................................................................................................... 381 9.5.2 Prefabrication of Steel–Concrete Composite Tunnel Segments .................. 382 9.5.3 Prefabrication of All-Concrete Tube Segments.............................................. 383 9.5.4 Preparation of Trench ........................................................................................ 384 9.5.5 Installing the Segments ..................................................................................... 385 9.5.6 Underfill and Backfill......................................................................................... 386 9.5.7 Portal Connections ............................................................................................. 386 9.5.8 Pile-Supported Tunnels ..................................................................................... 386 9.5.9 Submerged Floating Tunnels ............................................................................ 3879.6 Storm Surge Barriers ....................................................................................................... 387 9.6.1 Description .......................................................................................................... 387 9.6.2 Venice Storm Surge Barrier............................................................................... 388 9.6.3 Oosterschelde Storm Surge Barrier ................................................................. 3899.7 Flow-Control Structures ................................................................................................. 397 9.7.1 Description .......................................................................................................... 397 9.7.2 Temperature Control Devices........................................................................... 397Chapter 10 Coastal Structures10.1 General ............................................................................................................................ 39910.2 Ocean Outfalls and Intakes.......................................................................................... 39910.3 Breakwaters .................................................................................................................... 408 10.3.1 General.............................................................................................................. 408 10.3.2 Rubble-Mound Breakwaters ......................................................................... 408 10.3.3 Caisson-Type Breakwaters and Caisson-Retained Islands ...................... 414 10.3.4 Sheet Pile Cellular Breakwaters.................................................................... 41510.4 Offshore Terminals ........................................................................................................ 416Chapter 11 Offshore Platforms: Steel Jackets and Pin Piles11.1 General ............................................................................................................................ 43311.2 Fabrication of Steel Jackets........................................................................................... 43411.3 Load-Out, Tie-Down, and Transport .......................................................................... 43511.4 Removal of Jacket from Transport Barge; Lifting; Launching ............................... 444q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  19. 19. 11.5 Upending of Jacket ........................................................................................................ 45211.6 Installation on the Seafloor .......................................................................................... 45511.7 Pile and Conductor Installation .................................................................................. 45811.8 Deck Installation ............................................................................................................ 46111.9 Examples ......................................................................................................................... 464 11.9.1 Example 1—Hondo ........................................................................................ 464 11.9.2 Example 2—Cognac........................................................................................ 472 11.9.3 Example 3—Cerveza ...................................................................................... 476Chapter 12 Concrete Offshore Platforms: Gravity-Base Structures12.1 General ............................................................................................................................ 47912.2 Stages of Construction .................................................................................................. 483 12.2.1 Stage 1—Construction Basin ........................................................................ 483 12.2.2 Stage 2—Construction of Base Raft ............................................................ 487 12.2.3 Stage 3—Float-Out ......................................................................................... 490 12.2.4 Stage 4—Mooring at Deep-Water Construction Site ............................... 491 12.2.5 Stage 5—Construction at Deep-Water Site ................................................ 492 12.2.6 Stage 6—Shaft Construction ......................................................................... 501 12.2.7 Stage 7—Towing to Deep-Water Mating Site ............................................ 505 12.2.8 Stage 8—Construction of Deck Structure ................................................... 505 12.2.9 Stage 9—Deck Transport ............................................................................... 507 12.2.10 Stage 10—Submergence of Substructure for Deck Mating ..................... 509 12.2.11 Stage 11—Deck Mating ................................................................................. 510 12.2.12 Stage 12—Hookup ......................................................................................... 513 12.2.13 Stage 13—Towing to Installation Site ......................................................... 513 12.2.14 Stage 14—Installation at Site ....................................................................... 514 12.2.15 Stage 15—Installation of Conductors .......................................................... 52412.3 Alternative Concepts for Construction...................................................................... 52512.4 Sub-Base Construction.................................................................................................. 52912.5 Platform Relocation....................................................................................................... 53012.6 Hybrid Concrete-Steel Platforms ................................................................................ 530Chapter 13 Permanently Floating Structures13.1 General ............................................................................................................................ 53313.2 Fabrication of Concrete Floating Structures.............................................................. 53713.3 Concrete Properties of Special Importance to Floating Structures ....................... 54013.4 Construction and Launching ...................................................................................... 54113.5 Floating Concrete Bridges............................................................................................ 54413.6 Floating Tunnels ............................................................................................................ 54413.7 Semi-Submersibles ........................................................................................................ 54513.8 Barges .............................................................................................................................. 54513.9 Floating Airfields........................................................................................................... 54713.10 Structures for Permanently Floating Service ............................................................ 54813.11 Marinas............................................................................................................................ 54913.12 Piers for Berthing Large Ships .................................................................................... 54913.13 Floating Breakwaters .................................................................................................... 54913.14 Mating Afloat ................................................................................................................. 549q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  20. 20. Chapter 14 Other Applications of Marine and Offshore Construction Technology14.1 General ............................................................................................................................ 55314.2 Single-Point Moorings .................................................................................................. 55414.3 Articulated Columns..................................................................................................... 55714.4 Seafloor Templates ........................................................................................................ 56614.5 Underwater Oil Storage Vessels.................................................................................. 57214.6 Cable Arrays, Moored Buoys, and Seafloor Deployment ...................................... 57314.7 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion ........................................................................... 57414.8 Offshore Export and Import Terminals for Cryogenic Gas—LNG and LPG...... 576 14.8.1 General.............................................................................................................. 57614.9 Offshore Wind-Power Foundations............................................................................ 58014.10 Wave-Power Structures ................................................................................................ 58014.11 Tidal Power Stations ..................................................................................................... 58114.12 Barrier Walls ................................................................................................................... 58114.13 Breakwaters .................................................................................................................... 582Chapter 15 Installation of Submarine Pipelines15.1 General ............................................................................................................................ 58315.2 Conventional S-Lay Barge............................................................................................ 58615.3 Bottom-Pull Method...................................................................................................... 60315.4 Reel Barge ....................................................................................................................... 61015.5 Surface Float ................................................................................................................... 61215.6 Controlled Underwater Flotation (Controlled Subsurface Float).......................... 61315.7 Controlled Above-Bottom Pull.................................................................................... 61315.8 J-Tube Method from Platform ..................................................................................... 61515.9 J-Lay from Barge............................................................................................................ 61515.10 S-Curve with Collapsible Floats ................................................................................. 61615.11 Bundled Pipes ................................................................................................................ 61615.12 Directional Drilling (Horizontal Drilling) ................................................................. 61615.13 Laying Under Ice........................................................................................................... 61715.14 Protection of Pipelines: Burial and Covering with Rock ........................................ 61715.15 Support of Pipelines...................................................................................................... 62415.16 Cryogenic Pipelines for LNG and LPG ..................................................................... 625Chapter 16 Plastic and Composite Pipelines and Cables16.1 Submarine Pipelines of Composite Materials and Plastics .................................... 627 16.1.1 High Density Polyethylene Pipelines .......................................................... 627 16.1.2 Fiber-Reinforced Glass Pipes ........................................................................ 629 16.1.3 Composite Flexible Pipelines and Risers .................................................... 63016.2 Cable Laying .................................................................................................................. 631Chapter 17 Topside Installation17.1 General ............................................................................................................................ 63317.2 Module Erection ............................................................................................................ 633q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  21. 21. 17.3 Hookup ........................................................................................................................... 63617.4 Giant Modules and Transfer of Complete Deck ...................................................... 63717.5 Float-Over Deck Structures.......................................................................................... 638 17.5.1 Delivery and Installation ............................................................................... 638 17.5.2 Hi-Deck Method.............................................................................................. 640 17.5.3 French "Smart" System................................................................................... 640 17.5.4 The Wandoo Platform .................................................................................... 641 17.5.5 Other Methods ................................................................................................ 641Chapter 18 Repairs to Marine Structures18.1 General ............................................................................................................................ 64318.2 Principles Governing Repairs...................................................................................... 64418.3 Repairs to Steel Structures ........................................................................................... 64518.4 Repairs to Corroded Steel Members .......................................................................... 64818.5 Repairs to Concrete Structures.................................................................................... 64818.6 Repairs to Foundations................................................................................................. 65318.7 Fire Damage ................................................................................................................... 65518.8 Pipeline Repairs ............................................................................................................. 655Chapter 19 Strengthening Existing Structures19.1 General ............................................................................................................................ 65919.2 Strengthening of Offshore Platforms, Terminals, Members and Assemblies .............................................................................................................. 65919.3 Increasing Capacity of Existing Piles for Axial Loads ............................................ 66019.4 Increasing Lateral Capacity of Piles and Structures in Soil–Structure Interaction ........................................................................................ 66619.5 Penetrations Through Concrete Walls ....................................................................... 66719.6 Seismic Retrofit .............................................................................................................. 669Chapter 20 Removal and Salvage20.1 Removal of Offshore Platforms ................................................................................... 67120.2 Removal of Piled Structures (Terminals, Trestles, Shallow-Water Platforms) ............................................................................................ 67220.3 Removal of Pile-Supported Steel Platforms.............................................................. 67320.4 Removal of Concrete Gravity: Base Offshore Platforms ......................................... 67620.5 New Developments in Salvage Techniques .............................................................. 67920.6 Removal of Harbor Structures .................................................................................... 67920.7 Removal of Coastal Structures .................................................................................... 680Chapter 21 Constructibility21.1 General ............................................................................................................................ 68121.2 Construction Stages for Offshore Structures............................................................. 68221.3 Principles of Constructibility....................................................................................... 68621.4 Facilities and Methods for Fabrication ...................................................................... 68721.5 Launching ....................................................................................................................... 687 21.5.1 Launch Barges ................................................................................................. 687 21.5.2 Lifting for Transport....................................................................................... 688q 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
  22. 22. 21.5.3 Construction in a Graving Dock or Drydock............................................. 688 21.5.4 Construction in a Basin.................................................................................. 688 21.5.5 Launching from a Ways or a Launch Barge............................................... 689 21.5.6 Sand Jacking .................................................................................................... 690 21.5.7 Rolling-In.......................................................................................................... 691 21.5.8 Jacking Down .................................................................................................. 691 21.5.9 Barge Launching by Ballasting..................................................................... 69121.6 Assembly and Jointing Afloat ..................................................................................... 69221.7 Material Selection and Procedures ............................................................................. 69321.8 Construction Procedures .............................................................................................. 69521.9 Access .............................................................................................................................. 70121.10 Tolerances ....................................................................................................................... 70221.11 Survey Control ............................................................................................................... 70321.12 Quality Con