Online education final dec. 2013 - thu an duong


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Reflexion on How Online Education have, are and will affect the world, by Thu An Duong (Linkedin:

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Online education final dec. 2013 - thu an duong

  1. 1. How Online Education & MOOCs have, are and will affect the world ! Thu-An DUONG LinkedIn: Thu-An DUONG Paris, Dec. 2013
  2. 2. Executive Summary (1/2) A generation ago, teachers could expect that what they taught would last a lifetime. Nowadays, because of rapid economic and social change, schools have to prepare students for jobs that have not yet been created, for technologies that have not yet been invented and problems that we do not know yet will arise. ! Time has changed and so has education. We live in a fast changing world, producing more of the same knowledge and skills will not suffice to address the challenges of the future. One-to-one tutoring was probably the best solution to continuously follow a student’s progress, to give him feedback and correctives, but how could we apply that to a massive audience? ! It seems like new technology has found some answers to these questions. Smart technology offers the promise of access to health care and education, while shading limitations between industries. !2
  3. 3. Executive Summary (2/2) Through this revolutionized way of teaching and learning were born the Massive Open Online Courses, also known as MOOCs. MOOCs, which first formally entered the learning sphere in 2008, gained prominence in 2012 when Stanford University offered the first in what became a series of its own. MOOCs offer high quality content, online test and quizzes and some may offer a “verified certificate” to the whole world, including to the people who could not access to education. Those online platforms create interactions between students all over the globe. Are economic pressures and new models of education bringing competition to the traditional models? Will technology have the ability to replace what we call university? Considering how important technology has become to our daily lives, it is necessary to underline that online education has given and definitely will give an important amount of changes to the world. !3
  4. 4. Table of Content I. Context and factors II. The beginning and growth of online learning III. How MOOCs will affect the future?
  5. 5. The Internet explosion in 1990s How the World Wide Web was born: 36M of web hosts in 2002 • The 1990s are known to be the era of the development of the Internet. During that time, the Internet stopped being an academic toy and became instead a viable information tool. • By 1990, the number of hosts on the Internet was multiplied by three compared to 1989, and reached 300,000. • In 1993, there were almost 200 websites out. The same year was introduced Mosaic, a cheap and powerful personal computer. By 1994, there were tens of thousands of copies. How the Web Exploded: • In 1995, the government released the assigning of domain names to private companies. The Internet suddenly became a commercial project while it used to be a government one. Number of Internet Hosts • The Internet and World Wide Web have begun to stabilize at the beginning of the 21st century. • Today, the Internet has created a multibilliondollar industry and spawned a worldwide revolution. Sources: !5
  6. 6. How the Internet affected society
 Generation Y Generation Y, Echo Boomers or Millenniums ! • Generation Y kids are know as incredibly sophisticated, technology wise, immune to most traditional marketing and sales pitches. As they not only grew up with it all, they have seen it all and been exposed to it all since early childhood. • Generation Y members are much more racially and ethnically diverse and they are more segmented as an audience aided by the rapid expansion in cable TV channels, radio, the Internet. • Generation Y members, also known as Generation Me, are extremely ambitious. They are confident and open to the world, but also focused on themselves and a sense of entitlement. • Gen Xers and Millennials were the first to grow up with computers in their homes. In a 1999 speech, Microsoft Chairman and CEO Bill Gates encouraged America’s teachers to use technology to serve the needs of the first generation of kids to grow up with the Internet. Born: 1977-1994 Current population: 80 million (in the U.S.) ! The largest cohort since the Baby Boomers. For Generation Y, technology is more than an addiction It’s how they discover, understand and experience the world around them. !6
  7. 7. Generation Y: Illustration !7
  8. 8. How the Internet affected society
 Organisations opened up Smart Mobility changes the way people interact and new technology blurs boudaries • Many industries will be disrupted by the consequences of technology innovation. • The "blur" created by digital technologies will intertwine geographies, economies, industries, products and even private and business lives. Smart mobility: technology-enabled options driving transformation ! Source: Ernst & Young • Increasingly, smart devices have become a part of our lives. In the last quarter of 2010, sales of smartphones outpaced those of PCs for the first time, according to data from IDC. • By 2014, more smart devices could be used to access the internet than traditional computers. The move to an increasingly mobile world will create new players and new opportunities for a variety of industries. • Emerging markets will create plenty of opportunities related to smart technology, and they will not be limited to for-profit enterprises. !8
  9. 9. How the internet affected the individual
 Meaningful learning • Benjamin Samuel Bloom (1913–1999) was an American educational psychologist. His Taxonomy of Learning Domains was created in 1956 in order to promote higher forms of thinking in education, such as analyzing and evaluating, rather than just remembering. • Three domains can be identified: psychomotor (skills), affective (attitude or self) and cognitive (knowledge). • Today, the Internet offers access to knowledge and information people have never been exposed to before, which makes them want to learn more and go further in their thinking skills. Simplified version of Bloom’s taxonomy of learning !9
  10. 10. How the internet affected the individual
 The Social media autobiography Google, Facebook, Twitter are now reshaping the way companies, but also individuals communicate and collaborate. Businesses are able to better understand what their customers and employees need and want, as a group but also as individuals. By 2014, social networks will become the main form of business communication for 20% of employees worldwide. “Intel created “The Museum of Me” that allows me to create and explore a visual archive of my social life” “Pastpost tells me every morning what ! the same day last year”! happened to me on More change can be expected when the generation that has grown up with new technologies and instant information gratification joins the workforce. The importance given to one’s e-reputation increase everyday, for business or personal life. People can be really influenced or can influence easily through social media. !10
  11. 11. Table of Content I. Context and factors II. The beginning and growth of online learning III. How MOOCs will affect the future?
  12. 12. US universities have quickly adopted Internet to create online learning movement Birth of Online Learning: • E-learning refers to the use of electronic media and information and communication technologies in education. It covers all forms of educational technology in learning and teaching. • E-learning includes numerous types of media that deliver text, audio, images, animation, and streaming video. • E-learning can occur in or out of the classroom. It is suited to distance learning and flexible learning. • Because ICT are extremely used by young people and mostly students, e-learning industry is economically significant and is today one of the basic and most global way of learning. • Even if, today, it is normal to make the difference between what is learnt on the Internet and what is learnt in a classroom, online learning was born in universities. • In 1960, the University of Illinois initiated a classroom system based in linked computer terminals where students could access to information on a particular course while listening to the lectures that were recorded via some form of device like television or audio. • Then Stanford University and UCLA started developing the installation of computers and the importance of technology devices in classrooms. • Computer-based learning started expanding outside of the United States of America, and the earliest online courses offered were those that were developed by the British Open University, the New Jersey Institute of Technology and the University of British Columbia. • Over the years, more and more methods and approaches were developed to enhance the whole online learning experience, which resulted to a significant increase in students preferring to chose internet and technology devices as a learning support. !12
  13. 13. 2 categories & 4 types of online learning
 1st category: Instructional technologies 1st category of online learning technologies is instructional technologies, which includes articles, books, photographs. Video Tutorial • A tutorial is a method of transferring knowledge and may be used as a part of a learning process. More interactive and specific than a book or a lecture, a tutorial seeks to teach by example and supply the information to complete a certain task. • Video format illustrates better the example the tutorial aims to show to the viewers. Official websites • Websites that belong to a legally official business or institution such as the i n f o r m a t i o n i n d u s t r y, u n i v e r s i t i e s , governments. • The fact that these websites are official make them more reliable. Information given on this kind of website are more trustworthy than informal websites. !13
  14. 14. 2 categories & 4 types of online learning
 2nd category: Virtual Interaction Technologies 2nd category: virtual interaction technologies such as blogging, video conferencing, sharing with social media. Informal Educational websites • Are considered informal educational websites forums or personal blogs. • Those gather people who share the same interests, encourage them to interact about specific topics. • Information given on these websites are not reliable because they come from individuals not officially certified. Social Media • Social media refers to interaction among people in which they create, share, exchange information and ideas in virtual communities and networks. • Facebook has over 500 million users, while Twitter has over 200 million. • Gamification of Education go through social webistes. !14
  15. 15. Growth of Online Learning through Social Media Online learning • The Social Media explosion led to a new opportunity for online learning. • Social networking has increased the rate and quality of collaboration for students. They are better able to communicate meeting times or share information quickly, which can increase productivity and help them learn how to work well in groups. • Being able to create and maintain connections to many people in many industries is an integral part of developing a career or building a business. • By spending so much time working with new technologies, students develop more familiarity with computers. With the increased focus on technology in education and business, this will help students build skills. • But it is necessary to underline that many students rely on the accessibility of information provided on social media, which reduce focus on learning and retaining information. • The more time students spend on social media, the less time they spend socializing in person. !15
  16. 16. Table of Content I. Context and factors II. The beginning and growth of online learning III. How MOOCs will affect the future?
  17. 17. Massive Open Online Courses - MOOCs What are MOOCs ? • Through this revolutionized way of teaching and learning were born the Massive Online Open Courses, also known as MOOCs. MOOCS, which first formally entered the learning sphere in 2008, gained prominence in 2012 when Stanford University offered the first in what became a series of its own. The concept’s name plainly conveys its definition. The MOOC is “massive” because it is designed to enroll tens of thousands of learners; it’s “open,” because, anyone with an Internet connection can enroll in the free course; it’s “online” because much if not all of the interaction takes place online in threaded web discussion groups with cohorts of learners, or via online videos of professors giving lectures and finally, MOOCs are “courses“ because they have concrete start and end dates, student assessments, inline tests and quizzes and proctored « Many find higher education increasingly out of reach »" ! exams. Some may offer a verified certificate of completion or college credit. The leading MOOC providers include Coursera, Udacity, edX and the Khan Academy. Daphne Koller, founder of Coursera !17
  18. 18. MOOCs
 Definition & concepts Credentials: Many MOOCs offer college credit or certificates of completion, which help to legitimize and formalize the learning. At leading MOOC provider Coursera, 14 percent of courses offer verified certficates, for which registration costs between $30 and $100 depending on the course’s length and content. “The more educated people are, the less problems exist. There is a real opportunity to take the kind of education that is available to the privileged few and turn it into a basic human right” Daphe Koller, ! co-founder of Coursera !18
  19. 19. Coursera: one of the most successful MOOC • Coursera offers high quality content to the world, including to the people who could not access to it. This way, students can now watch class online at their own pace, but not only students from a specific university, but students from all over the country, all over the world. ! ! ! ! ! Coursera works with universities to • ! make some of their courses available ! online. • 13 new institutions have joined its ! ranks, bringing the education startup’s ! total number of partners offering ! courses on its platform into the triple Coursera this ! digits: 107. Furthermore,the 5 million month also surpassed ! student mark and now offers more than • Coursera is a for-profit educational technology company offering MOOCs founded by computer science professors Andrew Ng and Daphne Koller from Stanford University. 500 courses as well. !19
  20. 20. Ill us t ra tio n !20
  21. 21. MOOCs
 A burden or a blessing? MOOCs: positive points • Enables one teacher to teach for hundreds thousands of students; then more students can have access to several kinds of teaching. • Encourages sense of diversity and globalization • Gives access to information and quality content that some could not get before. • In the future, it might be a social solution: in developing countries, giving a technical support to access to MOOCs to a classroom could open up doors of opportunities. MOOCs: some flaws in the system • How many students complete courses? • Completion rates can approach 40%, although most MOOCs have completion rates of less than 13% • Lack of human and face to face contact: How can a computer recognize irony, or elegance with someone’s written style? • Too revolutionary to replace a traditional classroom, for now. ! !21
  22. 22. Conclusion (1/2)
 Necessity to accompany the undeniable change • The generations to come will be even more sophisticated and skilled technology wise, and will have to face more challenges in terms of innovation. • Institutional barriers present challenges to moving forward in a constructive way with emerging technologies. We are starting to move away from lecturing, specially large lecture classes. The value the institutions provide need to refocus on their purpose, now that quality content won’t be an issue anymore. • The idea of a global university is a compelling one. It seems like global access to content, at least for people with broadband access, it is going to be possible within ten years. The question you have to ask ourselves is what will be called an university in 10 years? !22
  23. 23. Conclusion (2/2)
 Necessity to accompany the undeniable change • This is an opportunity to globalize what traditional universities used to focus on but also to rethink at a pretty fundamental level what do university do, their role in society, how they are structured. For example, they want to make sure that their students get an accreditation mecanism for all the courses where they get the content. They might become the institution which role is to verify and approve the whole learning process acquired on MOOCs or leave all the teaching to the universities considered as the top ones. Also, maybe universities will become interactive spaces where students and professors can debate and talk about what they’ve learned online. • There are different and various possibilities to explore, but before defining the future definition of university, its necessary to define exactly what are MOOCs for and what place they should take in the educational system. !23
  24. 24. Sources • Interview Daphne Koller • • • • • • • • • • !24