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# True-False and Matching Type Test Items

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A presentation which covers the limitations and strengths of TRUE-FALSE and MATCHING TYPE TESTS. This will help Educ students especially on the Prof Ed subjects. This also includes TIPS for constructiing test items.

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### True-False and Matching Type Test Items

1. 1. True-False Test True-false questions are typically used to measure the ability to identify whether statements of fact are correct. The questions are usually a declarative statement that the student must judge as true or false.
2. 2. Uses of True-False Items Measuring the ability to identify the correctness of the following: 1. Statements of facts 2. Definition of terms 3. Statement of principles 1
3. 3. Example: Directions: Read each of the following statements. If the statement is true, underline the word True. If the statement is false, underline the word False. True False 1. The green coloring of material of the plant leaf is called chlorophyll. True False 2. Petal and sepal are two synonymous words. True False 3. Photosynthesis is the process by which leaves make a plant’s food.
4. 4. Uses of True-False Items Measuring the ability to distinguish fact from opinion. 2
5. 5. Example: Directions: Read the following statements. If the statement is true, underline the word True. If the statement is false, underline the word False. If it is opinion, then underline the word Opinion. True False Opinion 1. Mars is a planet. True False Opinion 2. The Mars has its own sun. True False Opinion 3. There are intelligent life forms on planets orbiting some distant stars.
6. 6. Uses of True-False Items Measuring the understanding if the opinion statements attributed to an individual or group are new to the students. This involves the interpretation and weighing of new knowledge of an individual or group and applying them in new situations. This also measures the student’s ability to recognize the cause-and-effect relationship. 3
7. 7. Example: Direction: In each of the following statements, both parts of the statements are true. You are to decide whether the second part explains why the first part is true. If it does, circle Y. If it does not, circle N. Y N 1. Leaves are essential because they shade the tree trunk. Y N 2. Whales are mammals because they are large. Y N 3. Some plants do not need sunlight because they get their food from other plants.
8. 8. Uses of True-False Items Measuring some simple aspects of logic. This is usually illustrated and developed in science tests. 4
9. 9. Example: Directions: Read each of the following statements. If the statement is true, underline the letter T; if the statement is false, underline the letter F. Also, if the converse of the statement is true, underline the CT; if the converse of the statement is false, underline the CF. T F CT CF 1. All trees are living things. T F CT CF 2. All parasites are helpful. T F CT CF 3. Spiders create honey.
10. 10. Strengths of True-False Items 1. Can cover a lot of content in a short time (about two questions per minute of testing time) 2. The question is useful when there are only two possible alternatives. 3. Less demand is placed on reading ability than in multiple-choice questions. 4. Can measure complex outcomes when used with interpretative exercises. 5. Scoring is easy and reliable.
11. 11. Advantages of True-False Items True-false items are efficient. This kind of exam can be taken only in a short period of time, no wasting of time. More illusory than real – ease of construction. Such items are often so obvious that everyone gets them correct. In short, it is easy to construct poor true-false questions. However, constructing good true-false questions require much skill. Wide sampling of course material can be obtained. This, too, is more apparent than real. It would be easy for the students to conclude the areas that can be covered.
12. 12. Limitations Difficult to write questions beyond the knowledge level that are free from ambiguity. The problem falls on in the type of learning outcomes that can be measured. The only exceptions to this seem to be distinguishing between fact and opinion and identifying cause-and-effect relationships. Some learning can be measured using other strategies like multiple choice tests. 1
13. 13. Limitations False statements provide no evidence that the student knows the correct answer. Some students are certain that a particular statement is either true or false, but the criticism is that students are certain yet still don’t know the correct response or answer is. 2
14. 14. Example: Direction: Write TRUE if the statement is true and FALSE if the statement is false. FALSE 1. Leonardo da Vinci is the inventor of light bulb. *Students knew that Leonardo da Vinci was an artist and not a prominent scientist, but do they know that the inventor of light bulb was Thomas Edison?
15. 15. Limitations Scores are more influenced by guessing than with any other question type. 3
16. 16. Limitations Cannot discriminate between students of varying ability as well as other questions. Teachers can’t say whether their teaching strategy or strategies are effective because no evaluation is formed. 4
17. 17. Limitations Requires that the answer to the question is absolutely true or false. Some true-false items require writing only true or false. No modification is necessary, which makes evaluation less accurate. 5
18. 18. Tips for Constructing True-False Questions
19. 19. Construct statements that are definitely true or definitely false, without additional qualifications. This will avoid students from being confused because of wrong usage of words.
20. 20. Example of POOR statement: 1. The vice-president of the Philippines is elected to that province only. True or False? 2. The vice-president of the Philippines is elected nationwide. True or False?
21. 21. Use relatively short statements. The shorter the statements are, the better the understanding will be done.
22. 22. Example of POOR statement: 1. Aristotle thought that a falling object's acceleration and speed depended on its mass. While Galileo disagreed and said that all objects fall with the same acceleration regardless of their weight/mass. True or False? -poor 2. Aristotle’s view of science differs from Galileo’s. True or False? -better
23. 23. Eliminate extraneous material. Keep true and false statements approximately the same length. Some statements have tendencies to be longer to be absolutely true and false. Include an equal number of true and false questions.
24. 24. Test only one idea in each question. Cause-and-effect relationships are the exceptions when they are being measured.
25. 25. Have students circle T or F for each question rather than write the letter which can lead to debate. Do not arrange answers in a pattern. This will give the students a hint about the answers without reading the statements. Example: 1.TTFFTTFF 2.TFTFTF
26. 26. Avoid taking statements directly from text. As much as possible, revise the statement. Always state the question positively. Students tend to overlook negative words such as no and not. Example: 1. None of the parts in the research paper is unnecessary. (T) - Poor 2. All of the parts in the research paper were necessary. (T) - Better
27. 27. Overall Example BAD EXAMPLES: 1. Camping is fun for the whole family. True False •Why is it BAD? This item is an opinion question and not a measure of student learning. 2. It never rains in Southern California. True False •Why is it BAD? The use of the determiner, never, suggests that the item is false as we can find exceptions to most rules. 3. Abraham Lincoln was born in a log cabin in Springfield, Missouri. True False •Why is it BAD? This item contains more than one concept. It could confuse learners as one part might be true while another might be false.
28. 28. GOOD EXAMPLES: 1. In the equation, E=mc2, when m increases E also increases. True False •Why is it GOOD? All the commandments are followed. A bonus is that it requires some higher order thinking. 2. Abraham Lincoln was born in a log cabin. True False •Why is it GOOD? It only has one idea in the item.
29. 29. Matching Type Test Matching questions consist of a column of key words presented on the left side of the page and a column of options placed on the right side of the page. Students are required to match the options associated with a given key word(s).
30. 30. Keywords: 1. Premises – the items in column for which a match is sought. 2. Responses – the items in the column from which the selection is made.
31. 31. Directions: On the line to the left of each Philippines space event in Column A, writhe the letter of the heroes in Column B who achieved that honor. Each name in Column B may be used once, more than once, or not at all. Column A Column B B. 1. Philippines’ national hero. A. Gabriela Silang A 2. Philippines’ Joan of Arc. B. Jose P. Rizal
32. 32. Uses of Matching Type Test The ability to identify the relationship between two things and sufficient number of homogenous premises and responses can be obtained, a matching exercise seems most appropriate. It is compact and efficient method of measuring such simple knowledge outcomes. Some teachers considered the relationships important, in a variety fields, such as the following:
33. 33. Example
34. 34. Strengths and Advantages of this Design: 1. Efficient. This is compact that is why it is very time-friendly. Also, this is easy to construct. 2. Short reading and response time, allowing more content to be included in a given set of matching questions. More sets of questions can be made for students because it is very easy to read and most of the questions are easy to understand that will make students to match answers quickly.
35. 35. 3. Highly reliable exam scores. Unlike essay or subjective type of questions, scores are very specific and not rated based on the points- of-views and opinions. This is highly factual. 4. Well-suited to measure associations between facts. 5. Reduces the effects of guessing. Unlike true- false questions, there is no possibility in this design of having a high percentage of guessing because there are many possible answers to choose from.
36. 36. Limitations of this Design: •Difficult to measure learning objectives requiring more than simple recall of information. •Difficult to construct due to the problem of selecting a common set of key words and options. •If options cannot be used more than once, the questions are not mutually exclusive; therefore, getting one answer incorrect automatically means a second question is incorrect.
37. 37. Tips for Constructing Matching Type Tests
38. 38. Suggestions for Constructing Matching- type Test 1. Provide more possible options than questions. The more the possible responses are, the more possibility the student will pass the test. Making five premises with only three responses to choose from will make students confused. Sometimes, unequal number of premises and responses is fine to avoid redundancy but teachers should instruct students carefully.
39. 39. 2. Use longer phrases as questions and shorter phrases as options. Longer premises are really helpful because it explains the statement while shorter premises make the answer in an objective mode. 3. Keep questions and options short and homogeneous. This is the most violated tip. Homogeneity is a matter of degree and what is homogeneous to one group may be heterogeneous to another.
40. 40. 4. Number each question and use alphabetical letters for the options or logical. This will contribute to the ease of the students.
41. 41. 5. Make all questions and all options the same type. (e.g., a list of events to be matched with a list of dates).
42. 42. Tha