1.Ovulation disorder Ovulation- monthly release of an egg PREMATURE OVARIAN FAILURE- the woman’s ovaries stop working before she is 40 yr. old. POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME(PCOS)-having high level of androgen.This is also called Stein- Leventhal Syndrome
HYPERPROLACTINEMIA-if prolactin levels are high and the woman is not pregnant or breastfeeding it may affect ovulation. POOR EGG QUALITY-eggs that are damaged or develop genetic abnormalities.2.PROBLEMS IN THE UTERUS OR FALLOPIAN TUBES DUE TO :SURGERY SUBMUCOSAL FIBROIDS-benign or non cancerous tumors found in the muscular wall of the uterus.
ENDOMETRIOSIS-cells that are normally found within the lining of the uterus start growing elsewhere in the body
3.PREVIOUS STERILIZATION TREATMENT 4.MEDICATIONS-some drugs can affect fertility of a woman. these include: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDs) CHEMOTHEREPY 5.RADIOTHERAPY 6.ILLEGAL DRUGS
SEMEN-refers to the milky fluid that a man’s penisreleases during orgasm. It consists of fluid andsperm.
SEMEN PROBLEMS1. No sperm2. Low sperm mobility(motility)-the sperm can not “swim” as well as it should.3. Abnormal Sperm-if the sperm morphology (structure) and motility (movement) are wrong it is less likely to reach the egg and fertilize it. Abnormal sperm may be due: a.testicular infection b.testicular cancer c.testicular surgery d.Overheating the testicles4.Ejaculation disorders
5.Varicocele-this is the varicose vein in the scrotum that may cause sperm to over heat.
7.Genetic abnormality- a man should have X and Y chromosome. If he has 2 X chromosomes and 1 Y chromosomes it is called Klinefelter’s Syndrome.8.Mumps- can inflammation to the testicles that may affect sperm production.9.Hypospadias-the urethral opening is at the underside of the penis instead of its tip.
10.Cystic Fibrosis - chronic disease that affects organs such us liver lungs pancreas and intestines.11. Undescended testicle- one or both testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum during the fetal development.
11. Some Diseases Anemia Cushing Syndrome Diabetes Thyroid diseases 12.Medication Sulfasalazine- given to patient with rheumatoid arthritis Anabolic steroids-taken by body builders and athletes Chemotherapy 13.Illegal Drugs