Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãàÎðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûíòºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é:Õýð...
Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà                                            2
ÎÐÎÍ ÍÓÒÃÈÉÍ ÇÀÑÀÃËÀËÛÍ ÒªËªÂ      ÁÀÉÄËÛà ÕÝÌÆÈÕ¯É:      Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà               2010 îí
Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãàÀãóóëãà       ÒÀËÀÐÕÀË       ÒÎÂ×ÈËÑÎÍ ¯ÃÈÉÍ ÆÀÃÑ...
Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà CÓÐÂÀËÆ ËÀÂËÀÃÀÀ      ¯íýëãýýíèé àðãà õýðýãñë¿¿ä...
Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãàÒàëàðõàëÇÎÕÈÎÃ×ÈÄ Àëåêñàíäðà Âàéëäå Øèïðà Íàðàíã ...
Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà    ãàçàð•   Ëàóðà Ñîðèÿ, Æåôà äåëü ïðîãðàìî óðáà...
Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà Òîâ÷èëñîí ¿ãèéí æàãñààëòÈ¯Ê                     ...
Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãàªÌÍªÕ ¯Ã  Çàñàãëàëûí ¿íýëãýýã óëñ îðíóóäûã ººð õî...
Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà  Ãàðûí àâëàãûã îð÷óóëñàí ß.Î÷èðñ¿õ, õÿíàí òîõèîë...
Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãàÓäèðòãàë  Îðîí      íóòãèéí       ò¿âøèíä        ...
Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãàáóñàä îðîëöîã÷ òàëä ¿íýëãýýíèé                   ...
ÎðÎðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûíÎðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà         èéí àñàãëà     ...
Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà1 Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí ¿íýëãýý1.1 Îðîí íóòãèéí...
Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãààðä÷èëñàí ¿éë ÿâö, èë òîä           Òºâëºðëèéã   ...
Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà1.2 Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí íèéòëýã              ...
Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãàíóòãèéí èðãýäèéí çºâëºë, öàõèì            1.3 Îðî...
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User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian
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User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian

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Орон нутгийн засаглалын төлөв байдлыг хэмжихүй: Хэрэглэгчийн гарын авлага, УБ, 2010, НҮБХХ-ийн Осло дахь Засаглалын төв, Орчуулсан Я.Очирсүх

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User's Guide to Measuring Local Governance, in Mongolian

  1. 1. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãàÎðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûíòºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é:Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà 1
  2. 2. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà 2
  3. 3. ÎÐÎÍ ÍÓÒÃÈÉÍ ÇÀÑÀÃËÀËÛÍ ÒªËªÂ ÁÀÉÄËÛà ÕÝÌÆÈÕ¯É: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà 2010 îí
  4. 4. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãàÀãóóëãà ÒÀËÀÐÕÀË ÒÎÂ×ÈËÑÎÍ ¯ÃÈÉÍ ÆÀÃÑÀÀËÒ ÓÄÈÐÒÃÀË Á¯ËÝà 1: ÎÐÎÍ ÍÓÒÃÈÉÍ ÇÀÑÀÃËÀËÛÍ ¯ÍÝËÃÝÝ1.1 Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàë ãýæ þó âý?1.2 Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí íèéòëýã òýðã¿¿ëýõ ÷èãëýë1.3 Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûã õýìæèõ¿é1.4 Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûã ¿íýëýõèéí ó÷èð þó âý?1.5 ¯íýëãýý õèéõýä þóí äýýð ãîëëîí àíõààð÷ áîëîõ âý?1.6 ¯íýëãýýíèé íîðìàòèâ ¿íäýñ1.7 Îëîí òàëûí îðîëöîîã õàíãàõ1.8 ßìàð òºðëèéí ¿ç¿¿ëýëò àøèãëàõ âý?1.9 Æåíäåð, ÿäóóðëûí ìýäðýìæòýé ¿ç¿¿ëýëò ñîíãîõ1.10 ßìàð òºðëèéí ìýäýýëýë àøèãëàõ âý?1.11 ¯íýëãýýíèé ä¿í áîäëîãîä ¿ç¿¿ëýõ íºëººëëèéí íºõöºë áàéäëûí õ¿÷èí ç¿éëñ1.12 Äýýä, äîîä øàòàíä òàéëàãíàõ çàð÷ìûã õýâø¿¿ëýõýä ¿íýëãýýíèé ä¿íã àøèãëàõ1.13 Áàéãóóëëàãûí áîäëîãîä òóñãàõ áîëîìæ Á¯ËÝà 2: ÒÝÐï¯Í ØÓÃÀÌÍÀÀÑ ÃÀÐÀÕ ÄÓÓ ÕÎÎËÎɯíýëãýýíèé åðºíõèé á¿òýö, á¿ä¿¿â÷èéã òîäîðõîéëîõÍàðèéí àðãàç¿é, àðãà÷èëàë àøèãëàõÀðãà àðãà÷èëëûã îðîí íóòãèéí íºõöºë áàéäàëä òîõèðóóëàõÎëîí çîðèëòûã õàíãàæ àæèëëàõ¯íýëãýýíèé àæèëä èäýâõèòýé îðîëöîîã õàíãàõÓðàìøóóëàë áà òîãòâîðòîé áàéäàë Òóóøòàé îðîëöîîã õàíãàõ Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàã çàõèðãààíû àæèëòíû ã¿éöýòãýõ ¿¿ðýã Çàñãèéí ãàçðààñ çàñàãëàëûí òºñººëºëä øèëæèõ Èðãýíèé íèéãìèéí èäýâõòíèé ã¿éöýòãýõ ¿¿ðýã Àäèëòãàëûã òóõàéí îðîí íóòãèéí õàìààðàëòàé õîñëóóëàõ Îðîí íóòãèéí çàõèðãààíû áàéãóóëëàãûí òºëººëºã÷èéí ¿¿ðýãÊåéñ ñóäàëãàà 1Êåéñ ñóäàëãàà 2Êåéñ ñóäàëãàà 3Êåéñ ñóäàëãàà 4 4
  5. 5. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà CÓÐÂÀËÆ ËÀÂËÀÃÀÀ ¯íýëãýýíèé àðãà õýðýãñë¿¿ä (¿ðãýëæëýë) Ýõ ñóðâàëæèéí ëàâëàãààã õýðõýí àøèãëàõÍýãäñýí õ¿ñíýãò: “Cóðâàëæ ëàâëàãàà” õýñýãò òóñãàãäñàí àðãà õýðýãñëèéí ãîëøèíæ ÷àíàð1. Õîòûí çàñàãëàëûí èíäåêñ (ͯÁ-ÕÀÑÁ)2. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí áàðîìåòð (Èìïàêò Ýëëàéýíñ)3. Îðîí íóòãèéí õºãæëèéí òºëºº ñàéí çàñàãëàë “ÎÍÕÒÑÇ-ûí èíäåêñ (Àôãàíèñòàí)4. Îðîí íóòãèéí àðä÷èëëûí ¿íýëãýýíèé ãàðûí àâëàãà (Àðä÷èëàë áîëîí ñîíãóóëüä äýìæëýã ¿ç¿¿ëýõ îëîí óëñûí õ¿ðýýëýí)5. Îðîí íóòãèéí àðä÷èëñàí çàñàãëàëûí ¿ç¿¿ëýëò¿¿ä (Òîêâèëëå ñóäàëãààíû òºâ áà ÍÍÕ)6. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí øèíæèëãýýíèé àðãà÷èëñàí çààâàð (ͯÁÕÕ)7. Çàñàãëàëûí èíäåêñ (Èíäîíåçè, Êåìèòðààí ïàòíåðøèï)8. Õîò, òîñãîíû çàõèðãààäûí àæëûí ã¿éöýòãýëèéã õýìæèõ ¿ç¿¿ëýëò – MIDAMOS (Ïàðàãâàé)9. Òºâ Àìåðèê äàõü àðä÷èëàë ñóäëàëûí òºâ: Òºâ Àìåðèê äàõü ýðõ ç¿éí áîëîí áàéãóóëëûí çàñàãëàëûí ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéí ñèñòåì (Ñåíòðî Ýñòóäèîñ ïàðà ýëü Ôóòóðî)10. Desde lo Local – Îðîí íóòãèéí õºãæëèéí òºëºº òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ ñòðàòåãè (Ìåêñèê)11. Åâðîïûí çºâëºëèéí àæ áàéäàë, äýâøëèéí ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéã èðãýäòýé õàìòðàí áîëîâñðóóëàõ çààâàð: Çàñàãëàëûí ìîäóëèéã Òèìèñîàðà (Ðóìûí)-ä àøèãëàñàí òóðøëàãà12. Èðãýäèéí ¿íýëãýýíèé êàðò (Îëîí íèéòòýé õàðèëöàõ òºâ, Ýíýòõýã)13. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí íèéãìèéí àóäèò (Áîñíè áîëîí Ãåðöåãîâèíà)14. Çàñàãëàë, òºðèéí ¿éë÷èëãýý õàíãàìæèéí íèéãìèéí àóäèò (Ïàêèñòàí)15. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí ººðèéí ¿íýëãýý (Áàíãëàäåø)16. Îðîí íóòãèéí õºãæëèéí òºëºº çàñàãëàëûí èíäåêñ - ÎÍÕÒÇ-ûí èíäåêñ (Ôèëèïïèí)17. ÿéöýòãýëä ñóóðèëñàí òýòãýëãèéí ñèñòåìä ìýäýýëýõ ¿íýëãýý (ͯÁÕÕÑ)18. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí ¿ð ä¿íãèéí ìåíåæìåíòèéí ñèñòåì (Ôèëèïïèí)Íîì ç¿é Îðîí íóòãèéí áîäëîãî áîëîâñðóóëàõ àæèëä ¿íýëãýýíèé ä¿íã òóñãàõ Îðîí íóòãèéí õóðëûí òºëººëºã÷èéí ¿¿ðýã 5
  6. 6. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãàÒàëàðõàëÇÎÕÈÎÃ×ÈÄ Àëåêñàíäðà Âàéëäå Øèïðà Íàðàíã Ìàðèå Ëàáåðã Ëóèçà ÌîðåòòîÐÅÄÀÊÒÎÐ Éîõèì Íàõåì, ͯÁÕÕ-èéí Îñëî äàõü Çàñàãëàëûí òºâÒÀËÀÐÕÀË Ýíýõ¿¿ ãàðûí àâëàãûí àíõíû òºñëèéã áîëîâñðóóëàõàä îðîëöñîí ÍåíàäÐàâà áîëîí Àíäðüþ Íèêñîí, ìºí ø¿¿ìæëýã÷ýýð àæèëëàñàí Ïîë âàíÕóô (IDASA [ªÀÀÕ – ªìíºä Àôðèê äàõü Àðä÷èëëûí õ¿ðýýëýí])-ä áèäã¿íýý òàëàðõàæ áóéãàà èëýðõèéëüå. Ìºí ¿íýòýé õóâü íýìýð îðóóëñàí ͯÁ-ûí Àðä÷èëñàí çàñàãëàëá¿ëãèéí àæèëòàí Ëåííè Ìîíòèýëü, ͯÁ-ûí Áàíãêîê äàõü á¿ñ íóòãèéíòºâèéí àæèëòàí Õýíðèê Ôðåäáîðã íàðò òàëàðõàæ áàéíà. Ýöýñò íü ýíýõ¿¿ ãàðûí àâëàãà áèäíèé óóëçàæ ÿðèëöëàãà ñóðâàëæëàãààâñàí õ¿ì¿¿ñèéí õàìòûí á¿òýýë áèëýý. Çàñàãëàëûí àñóóäëûí ã¿í ã¿íçãèéìýäëýã, øèíý ñàíàà çýðãýý ñýòãýë õàðàìã¿é õóâààëöñàí òýäýíäýý ã¿íýýòàëàðõàæ áàéíà.ßðèëöëàãà ºãñºí õ¿ì¿¿ñèéí íýð • Áèøíó Ïóðè, Õºòºëáºðèéí ¿íäýñíèé ìåíåæåð, ͯÁÕÕÑ- Ñàíõ¿¿æèëò áà õºãæëèéí òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ õºòºëáºð (ÑÕÒÑÕ) Íåïàë • Äàíèåëü Êðàâàñóîðå, Ëà óíèâåðñèòàò Íàñèîíàëü äå Êâèëìåñ, Àðãåíòèí • Ýäãàðäî Áèëñêè, Þíàéòýä ñèòèç ýíä ëîêàë ãîâåíìåíòñ • Ôàòìèð Ìóñà, ͯÁÕÕ-èéí Ìàêåäîíè äàõü ñóóðèí òºëººëºã÷èéí ãàçàð • Ãîóëä Ìàðãîò, Àðä÷èëëûí ¿íýëãýý áà øèíæèëãýý, Àðä÷èëàë áîëîí ñîíãóóëüä äýìæëýã ¿ç¿¿ëýõ îëîí óëñûí õ¿ðýýëýí • Èåâà Ëàçàðåâè÷èþòå, ͯÁÕÕ-èéí Áðàçèë äàõü ñóóðèí òºëººëºã÷èéí ãàçàð • Èðìàí Ëàíòè, Èíäîíåçèéí àðä÷èëëûí èíäåêñ, ͯÁÕÕ-èéí Èíäîíåçè äàõü ñóóðèéí òºëººëºã÷èéí ãàçàð • Æàíý Ëîîðè-Âàéò, Õÿìðàëààñ óðüä÷èëàí ñýðãèéëýõ, ñýðãýýí áîñãîõ òîâ÷îî, ͯÁÕÕ, Íüþ Éîðê • Êðåíàð Ëîøè, ͯÁÕÕ-èéí Êîñîâî äàõü ñóóðèí òºëººëºã÷èéí 6
  7. 7. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà ãàçàð• Ëàóðà Ñîðèÿ, Æåôà äåëü ïðîãðàìî óðáàíî• Íèðèíæàêà Ðàìàñèíæàòîâî, Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí áàðîìåòð äàõü ñóäëàà÷-ñóðãàã÷ áàãø• Ïàòðèê Áðåàðä, çàñàãëàëûí ýêñïåðò• Ñóãóìè Òàíàêà, Îðîí íóòãèéí õºãæëèéí ñàëáàð, ͯÁÕÀÑÁ• Òîìèñëàâ Íîâîâèê ͯÁÕÕ-èéí Ñåðáè äàõü ñóóðèí òºëººëºã÷èéí ãàçàð• Òîíè Âåðõýéæåí, Äýëõèéí áàíê• Âåëèáîð Ïîïîâè÷, ͯÁÕÕ-èéí Ñåðáè äàõü ñóóðèí òºëººëºã÷èéí ãàçàð 7
  8. 8. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà Òîâ÷èëñîí ¿ãèéí æàãñààëòÈ¯Ê Èðãýäèéí ¿íýëãýýíèé êàðòÈÍÁ Èðãýíèé íèéãìèéí áàéãóóëëàãàÎÓÕÄ Îëîí óëñûí õºãæëèéí äåïàðòàìåíòͯÁÕÕÀÀÁ ͯÁ-èéí Õ¿íñ, õºäºº àæ àõóéí áàéãóóëëàãàÎÍÕÒÇ Îðîí íóòãèéí õºãæëèéí òºëºº çàñàãëàëÑÇÈ Ñàéí çàñàãëàëûí èíäåêñÎÍÕÒÑÇ Îðîí íóòãèéí õºãæëèéí òºëºº ñàéí çàñàãëàëÀÑįÎÓÕ (IDEA) Àðä÷èëàë áîëîí ñîíãóóëüä äýìæëýã ¿ç¿¿ëýõ îëîí óëñûí õ¿ðýýëýíÎÍÇÁ Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí áàðîìåòðÎÍǯÄÌÑ Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí ¿ð ä¿íãèéí ìåíåæìåíòèéí ñèñòåìÎÍǪ¯ Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí ººðèéí ¿íýëãýýÎÍÇÇÍ Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàã çàõèðãààíû íýãæÒØÁ Òºñâèéí øèëæ¿¿ëãèéí áîëçîëÌÕÇ Ìÿíãàíû õºãæëèéí çîðèëòóóäÒÁÁ Òºðèéí áóñ áàéãóóëëàãà¯Ñà ¯íäýñíèé ñòàòèñòèêèéí ãàçàðÝÇÕÀÕÁ Ýäèéí çàñãèéí õàìòûí àæèëëàãàà, õºãæëèéí áàéãóóëëàãàÕÒÕ Õºãæëèéí òóñëàìæèéí õîðîîÎÇÒ Îñëî äàõü Çàñàãëàëûí òºâÍÍÕ Íýýëòòýé íèéãìèéí õ¿ðýýëýíÃÑÒÑ Ã¿éöýòãýëä ñóóðèëñàí òýòãýëãèéí ñèñòåìÀ¯ÄÃÕ Àæëûí ¿ð ä¿í, ã¿éöýòãýëèéí õýìæèëò (¿ç¿¿ëýëò)Õد պ人ãèéí øóóðõàé ¿íýëãýýÍÕÎÍÇ Íýãäñýí õîò, îðîí íóòãèéí çàõèðãààäÕÇÈ Õîòûí çàñàãëàëûí èíäåêñͯÁ Íýãäñýí ¯íäýñòíèé áàéãóóëëàãàͯÁÕÕÑ Í¯Á-èéí Õºðºí㺠õºãæëèéí ñàíͯÁÕÕ Íýãäñýí ¿íäýñòíèé áàéãóóëëàãûí õºãæëèéí õºòºëáºðͯÁ-ÕÀÑÁ ͯÁ-èéí Õ¿í àìûí ñóóðüøëûí áàéãóóëëàãàÀÍÓ-ÎÓÕÀ ÀÍÓ-ûí Îëîí óëñûí õºãæëèéí àãåíòëàã 8
  9. 9. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãàªÌÍªÕ ¯Ã Çàñàãëàëûí ¿íýëãýýã óëñ îðíóóäûã ººð õîîðîíä íü õàðüöóóëàõ,àíãèëàë, äàðààëàëä îðóóëàõ, óëìààð ¿íýëãýýíèé ä¿íã îëîí óëñûíáàéãóóëëàãà, õàíäèâëàã÷ îðíóóäààñ õºãæèæ áóé îðíóóäàä ¿ç¿¿ëýõçýýë òóñëàìæèéí áîäëîãîä àøèãëàõ çîðèëãîîð èõýâ÷ëýí õèéæ áàéíà.Õàðèí ñ¿¿ëèéí ¿åä ¿íäýñíèé áîëîí îðîí íóòãèéí ò¿âøèíä çàñàãëàëûí¿íýëãýý õèéõ àðãà÷èëàë, áàãö ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéã áîëîâñðóóëæ õýðýãëýõ ñàíàë,ñàíàà÷èëãà îëíîîð ãàðàõ áîëîâ. Çàñàãëàëûí ñóäàëãààíä ãàð÷ áóé ýíýõàíäëàãûí èëðýë íü Íýãäñýí ¿íäýñòíèé áàéãóóëëàãûí Õºãæëèéíõºòºëáºðèéí Îñëî äàõü çàñàãëàëûí òºâººñ 2009-2011 îíä õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõçàñàãëàëòàé õîëáîîòîé ìýäýýëëèéã öóãëóóëæ, ä¿í øèíæèëãýý õèéõ÷àäàâõèéã áýõæ¿¿ëýõ, õºãæëèéí òºëºâëºãººíä òóñãàãäñàí çàñàãëàëûíõîëáîãäîëòîé çîðèëãî, çîðèëòûí õýðýãæèëòýä ñèñòåìòýé ¿íýëãýýã õèéõîðîëöîîíä òóëãóóðëàñàí, çºâëºëäºõ òîãòîëöîîã îëîí óëñûí áîëîí¿íäýñíèé ò¿âøèíä áèé áîëãîõ çîðèëãî á¿õèé “Àðä÷èëñàí çàñàãëàëûí¿íýëãýý õèéõ ÷àäàâõèéã õºãæ¿¿ëýõ ãëîáàë õºòºëáºð” þì. Äýýðõ õºòºëáºð áîëîí ͯÁÕÕ-èéí ñàíõ¿¿æèëòýýð Ìîíãîë Óëñàäõýðýãæèæ áóé “Õ¿íèé ýðõèéã áàòàëãààæóóëàõ, àðä÷èëñàí çàñàãëàëûãõºãæ¿¿ëýõ Ìÿíãàíû õºãæëèéí 9 äýõ çîðèëãûã õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõýä äýìæëýã¿ç¿¿ëýõ-II” øàòíû òºñ뺺ñ èõ, äýýä ñóðãóóëüä óäèðäàõóéí óõààíû÷èãëýëýýð ñóðàëöàã÷äàä çîðèóëàí çàñàãëàëûí îíîë, ïðàêòèê, çàñàãëàëûí¿íýëãýýíèé àðãà ç¿éã ñóäëàõ õè÷ýýëèéí õºòºëáºð, õýðýãëýãäýõ¿¿íáîëîâñðóóëæ, ñóðãàëò ÿâóóëàõààð òºëºâëºñºí þì. Ýíý àæëûí õ¿ðýýíäͯÁÕÕ-èéí Îñëî äàõü Çàñàãëàëûí òºâººñ ýðõëýí ãàðãàñàí “Çàñàãëàëûí¿íýëãýýã òºëºâëºõ¿é”, “Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûãõýìæèõ¿é”, “Òºðèéí çàõèðãààíû ã¿éöýòãýëèéã õýìæèõ¿é”, “Àâëèãûãõýìæèõ¿é” õýìýýõ äºðâºí ãàðûí àâëàãûã ìîíãîë õýëíýý õºðâ¿¿ëýíõýâë¿¿ëæ áàéíà. Ýäãýýð ãàðûí àâëàãûã îëîí óëñûí áîëîí õî¸ð òàëûíõºãæëèéí ò¿íø, õàíäèâëàã÷ áàéãóóëëàãûí àæèëòíóóä òºäèéã¿é¿íäýñíèé áîëîí îðîí íóòãèéí ò¿âøíèé îðîëöîã÷ òàëóóä áîëîõ òºðèéíáîëîí èðãýíèé íèéãìèéí áàéãóóëëàãûí àæèëòàí, çàñàãëàëûí õ¿ðýýãñóäàëäàã õ¿ì¿¿ñò çîðèóëàí áýëòãýæýý. À.Âàéëäå, Ø.Íàðàíã, Ì.Ëàáåðã, Ë. Ìîðåòòî íàðûí çîõèîñîí “Îðîííóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é” õýìýýõ ýíýõ¿¿ ãàðûíàâëàãàä îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òóõàé îíîëûí îéëãîëò, îðîí íóòàãòçàñàãëàëûí ¿íýëãýý õèéõ àðãà, àðãà÷èëàë, øèëäýã òóðøëàãà, áîäèòæèøýý, ýõ ñóðâàëæóóäûí ëàâëàãàà áàãòæýý. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí¿íýëãýýíä äýëõèé äàõèíàà õýðýãëýæ áóé á¿õ àðãà, àðãà÷èëëûã àíõóäàà ýìõòãýí òîéìëîñíîîðîî ýíý íîì ñóðãàëò, ñóäàëãààíû ÷óõàëõýðýãëýãäýõ¿¿í áîëæ áàéíà. 9
  10. 10. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà Ãàðûí àâëàãûã îð÷óóëñàí ß.Î÷èðñ¿õ, õÿíàí òîõèîëäóóëñàí ͯÁÕÕ-èéí Çàñàãëàëûí õºòºëáºðèéí ìýðãýæèëòýí Ò.Áàÿðöýöýã, ñàíõ¿¿æ¿¿ëæá¿õ òàëààð äýìæñýí ͯÁ-ûí Õºãæëèéí õºòºëáºðèéí ñóóðèí òºëººëºã÷õàòàãòàé Äåáîðà Êîìèíè, Çàñàãëàëûí õºòºëáºðèéí ìåíåæåð, õàòàãòàéÖ.Äàâààäóëàì, òºñëèéí ¿íäýñíèé çºâëºõ, õàòàãòàé Õ.Õóëàí, òºñëèéí¿íäýñíèé ìåíåæåð Ö.Öýöýíáèëýã, òºñëèéí çàõèðãàà, ñàíõ¿¿ãèéíàæèëòàí Î.Õàòàíáîëä íàðò òàëàðõàë èëýðõèéëüå. Óäèðäëàãûí àêàäåìèéí çàõèðàë, Òºñëèéí ¿íäýñíèé çàõèðàë àêàäåìè÷, äîêòîð (Sc.D) ïðîôåññîð Ã.×óëóóíáààòàð 10
  11. 11. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãàÓäèðòãàë Îðîí íóòãèéí ò¿âøèíä Ýíý õýñýãò îðîí íóòãèéíçàñàãëàëûí ¿íýëãýý, õÿíàëò çàñàãëàëûí ¿íýëãýýíèé àæëûíøèíæèëãýýíä îëîí òîîíû àðãà ÿâöàä ãàðäàã ñîðèë áýðõøýýë,àðãà÷èëëûã ͯÁÕÕ-èéí ñóóðèí áîëîìæ áîëîëöîîíû òàëààðòºëººëºã÷èéí ãàçðóóä áîëîí çààâàð ºãíº. Çààâðûã ¿íýëãýýíèé¿íäýñíèé îðîëöîã÷, ñîíèðõîã÷ àðãà õýðýãñëèéã ãàðäàí àøèãëàæòàëóóä àøèãëàæ áóé áºãººä áóé õ¿ì¿¿ñèéí ñàíàà îíîî,òýäãýýðèéí õýðýãöýý øààðäëàãûã øèëäýã ñàéí òóðøëàãûã ø¿¿ðäýíõàíãàæ àðãà ç¿éí ÷èãëýë ºãºõ àâ÷, äºðâºí àìüä êåéñ ñóäàëãààíû¿¿äíýýñ ýíýõ¿¿ ãàðûí àâëàãûã æèøýýí äýýð òóëãóóðëàí õ¿ðãýæýý.áýëòãýâ. “Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàë”ãýñýí íýð òîìü¸îíä îðîí íóòãèéí Ãàðûí àâëàãûí õî¸ð äàõü õýñýãò¿âøíèé çàñàãëàëûí õ¿ðýýíèé ‘Ýõ ñóðâàëæèéí ëàâëàãàà’ ãýñýíáóþó áîäëîãî, ¿éë ÿâöûí íýðòýé áºãººä ýíý íü ¿íýëãýýíäòºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ, èðãýä áà ìºðäºæ áóé àðãà õýðýãñýë,áàéãóóëëàãûí ã¿éöýòãýõ ¿¿ðýã, àðãà÷èëëûí ñàí þì. ªíººãèéíòýäãýýðèéí õàðèëöàí õîëáîî, áàéäëààð ýíý ñàëáàðò äýëõèéîðîí íóòãèéí àðä÷èëàë áîëîí íèéòèéí õýìæýýíä àøèãëàãäàæîðîí íóòãèéí çàõèðãààíû àæëûí áàéãàà á¿õ àðãà õýðýãñýë,ã¿éöýòãýëèéí àñóóäëûã õàìðóóëàí àðãà÷èëëûã ýìõòãýí òîéìëîñîíàâ÷ ¿çíý. òèéì ñóðâàëæ áàéõã¿é áàéãàà. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí ‘Ýõ ñóðâàëæèéí ëàâëàãàà’ õýñýãòàñóóäëûã îíîëûí ¿¿äíýýñ óðüä íü á¿òöèéí õóâüä àðãà õýðýãñýë òóñõèéãäñýí áîëîí îäîî ã¿éöýòãýëèéí á¿ðèéí ò¿¿õ, çîðèëãî, õýðýãëýõýäøàòàíä ÿâàà ¿íýëãýýíèé àæëûí àëü õèð òîõèðîìæòîé áîëîõ,òóðøëàãàòàé õîñëóóëàí àâ÷ ¿çñýí. àøèãëàõ òîî áàðèìò, ýõ ñóðâàëæ,¯íýëãýý îëøèð÷, ¿ç¿¿ëýëò òîî àðãà ç¿é, îðîëöîã÷ òàëóóä, ¿ðºñºõèéí õèðýýð ÷óõàì ÿìàð àðãà ä¿íãèéí òàéëàíãèéí õýëáýð,àðãà÷èëëûã õýðõýí àøèãëàõ, æåíäåðèéí áîëîí àæèëã¿éäëèéíòýäãýýðèéí ñóë áîëîîä äàâóó òàë àñóóäëûã òóñãàñàí áàéäàë, äàâóóþó áîëîõ äýýð ñàìãàðäàõ ÿâäàë áà ñóë òàëóóä, õàìðàõ õ¿ðýý,ãàçàð àâàõ áîëñîí. õóãàöàà, ÿìàð õèéñâýðëýë Ãàðûí àâëàãà ¿íäñýíäýý õî¸ð àâñàí, çîõèîã÷èäòîé íü õýðõýíõýñãýýñ á¿ðäýõ áà ýõíèéõ íü îðîí õîëáîî áàðèõ, ìºí òóõàéí àðãàíóòãèéí çàñàãëàë ãýæ ÷óõàì þó õýðýãñýëä õàìààðàõ ººð íýìýëòáîëîõ, îäîî àøèãëàæ áóé õýìæèëò àðãà, çààâàð÷èëãàà áàéãàà ýñýõ¿íýëãýýíèé àðãà õýðýãñëèéí çýðýã äýëãýðýíã¿é ìýäýýëýëîáüåêò áîëîõ îðîí íóòãèéí ºãºãäñºí áàéãàà. Èéíõ¿¿ öýãöýëæçàñàãëàëûí ¿çýë áàðèìòëàë, ýìõòãýñýí ÿâäàë îðîí íóòãèéíòýðã¿¿ëýõ ÷èãëýë, òóëãàìäàæ áóé ò¿âøèíä çàñàã çàõèðãàà áîëîíàñóóäëûã òîäîðõîéëíî. çàñàãëàëûã áýõæ¿¿ëýõ ÷èãëýëèéí 11
  12. 12. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãàáóñàä îðîëöîã÷ òàëä ¿íýëãýýíèé Èíãýõäýý, îðîí íóòãèéíàðãà÷ëàë øèíýýð áîëîâñðóóëàõ, çàñàãëàëûí ìºðäºæ áóé (áîëîíìºðäºæ áàéãàà àðãà àðãà÷èëëûã øèíýýð áîëîâñðóóëàõ) áàãöòóõàéí îðîí íóòãèéí îíöëîã ¿ç¿¿ëýëòýýñ õýðõýí ñîíãîëò õèéõ,íºõöºëä òîõèðóóëàí ººð÷ëºõ ¿íýëãýýíèé áýëòãýë àæèëä þóçýðýã àæèëä òóñëàëöàà ¿ç¿¿ëýõ õèéõ, ã¿éöýòãýëèéã õýðõýí çîõèîíçîðèëãîòîé. áàéãóóëàõ; îðîëöîîã äýýä çýðãýýð Ýíä õýìæèëò, ¿íýëãýýíèé õàíãàõ, ¿íýëãýýíèé ¿éë ÿâöÿìàð íýã øèíý àðãà ç¿é, øèíý íàðèéí íÿãò, øèíæëýõ óõààíûàðãà÷èëàë òóñãàãäààã¿é, øèíý ¿íäýñòýé áàéõ; ãàðñàí ¿ð ä¿íãá¿òýýë ãàðãàõ çîðèëãî òàâèàã¿é þóíä õýðõýí àøèãëàõ; ìºí öààøèäáîëîõûã òýìäýãëýõ íü ç¿éòýé áàéõ. òîãòìîë ¿íýëãýý õèéäýã áîëîõûí òóëä òîäîðõîé àñóóäëûã àâ÷ ¿çíý. Ýíýõ¿¿ ãàðûí àâëàãà áîëͯÁÕÕ-èéí Çàñàãëàëûí Ãàðûí àâëàãûã õýí àøèãëàõ âý?¿íýëãýýíèé õºòºëáºð1-èéí Ýíýõ¿¿ ãàðûí àâëàãûã ãîëëîíõ¿ðýýíä á¿òýýñýí àðä÷èëñàí îðîí íóòãèéí ¿íýëãýýíèé àæèëçàñàãëàëä ¿íýëãýý ºãºõ òàëààð õèéäýã ¿íäýñíèé áîëîí îðîíçààâàð÷èëãàà áóþó çºâëºìæ þì. íóòãèéí ò¿âøíèé îðîëöîã÷,Õºòºëáºð íü àðä÷èëñàí çàñàãëàëä ñîíèðõîã÷ òàë, ìºí õîëáîãäîõ¿íýëãýý ºãºõ, õýìæèëò õèéõ ãýñýí îëîí óëñûí, ¿íäýñíèé áîëîíóëñ îðíóóäûí ¿íäýñíèé ¿¿ñãýë îðîí íóòãèéí ò¿âøíèé ò¿íøñàíàà÷èëãûã äýìæèõ, òóõàéí áàéãóóëëàãà, ýòãýýäèéí õýðýãöýýíäóëñ îðíû èðãýäèéí õýðýãöýýíä çîðèóëàâ.2 Ýíä ÿàì, òàìãûíñóóðèëñàí ÿäóóðëûã áóóðóóëàõ ãàçàð, çàñàã çàõèðãààíû àæèëòàí,áîëîí æåíäåðèéí ìýäðýìæòýé èðãýíèé íèéãìèéí áàéãóóëëàãà,çàñàãëàëûã õýìæèõ àðãà÷èëàë, õýâëýë ìýäýýëëèéíõýí, áàñ õî¸ðõýðýãñýë áîëîâñðóóëàõàä íü òàëûí õºãæëèéí áîëîí îëîíòóñëàëöàà ¿ç¿¿ëäýã áèëýý. òàëûí õàìòûí àæèëëàãààíû áàéãóóëëàãûã îéëãîæ áàéíà.Ãàðûí àâëàãûí çîðèëãî þó âý? Ýíýõ¿¿ ãàðûí àâëàãà òºâëºðëèéãñààðóóëàõ, îðîí íóòãèéíçàñàãëàëûã õýìæèõ àñóóäëààð 2 Ñóäëàà÷ øèíæýý÷äèéí íýãýí òóñãàé á¿ëýãìýäëýã ìýäýýëýë, îëîí óëñûí áèé. Áèäíèé ñóäàëãààíààñ ¿çýõýä, òóõàéíòóðøëàãûã ýìõòãýí òîéìëîæ, íºõöºë áàéäàë, õóâü ìýðãýøñýí áàéäëààñ íü¿íýëãýýíèé îëîí àðãà àðãà÷èëëûã õàìààðàí òýäíèéã ìýðãýøèñýí øèíæýý÷ ýñâýëîéëãîõ, àøèãëàõ ¿íäýñ îëãîõûã àðàé èë¿¿ èäýâõèòýé îðîëöîã÷/ñîíèðõîã÷ òàë ãýæ ¿çýæ áîëíî. Òóõàéëáàë, ÿðèëöëàãà àâàõ,çîðüæ áàéãàà. ýñâýë áàéãàà ìýäýýëëèéã ýìõòãýí öóãëóóëàõ çàäëàí øèíæèëãýý õèéõ çýðãýýð ñóäëàãààíû íàðèéí òåõíèê àðãà ç¿éí ìýäëýã øààðäàõã¿é àæèë õèéíý. Òèéìýýñ, ýíýõ¿¿ ãàðûí àâëàãûã îäîîãèéí õèéæ áóé áîëîí õýòèéí àæèëä àøèãëàõ òàë äýýð õýðõýí ¿íýëæ ä¿ãíýõ ÿâäàë1 http://www.undp.org/oslocentre/flagship/demo- áîë ººðñäèéíõ íü îþóí ìýäýõ àñóóäàë þì.cratic_governance_assessments.html 12
  13. 13. ÎðÎðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûíÎðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà èéí àñàãëà ñàã ãë õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí ¿ ý à ãà à 13 13
  14. 14. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà1 Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí ¿íýëãýý1.1 Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàë ãýæ þó âý? ÷àíàð, ¿ð íºëºº áîëîí ¿ð àøèã, Çàñàãëàë ãýäýã íü áîäëîãûí áîäëîãûí ÷àíàð, øèéäâýð ãàðãàõ÷àíàðòàé øèéäâýð ãàðãàõ, ¿éë àæèëëàãààíû îðîëöîîãõýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ ¿éë ÿâö þì. Ýíý õàíãàñàí, èë òîä, õàðèóöëàãà,áîë çàñàã òºð, óëñûí õýâøèë, òàéëàãíàë õèéãýýä ýðõ ìýäýë,õóâèéí ñåêòîð áîëîí èðãýíèé á¿ðýí ýðõ îðîí íóòàãò õýðõýííèéãýì ãýñýí îðîëöîã÷äûí ººð õýðýãæèæ áàéãààã èëýðõèéëíý.õîîðîíäûí õàðèëöàà, õàðèëöàí¿éë÷ëýë, õýëõýý õîëáîîíû ä¿íä Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàã çàõèðãààáèé áîëîõ áºãººä õýí õýçýý þó, îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí ÷óõàëáàñ õýðõýí õ¿ðòýõèéã òîäîðõîéëîõ á¿ðýëäýõ¿¿í õýñýã ìºí áîëîâ÷,øèéäâýð, õýëýëöýý, ìºí îðîëöîã÷ çàñàãëàëûí ºðãºí õ¿ðýýíèéòàëóóäûí ººð õîîðîíäûí ýðõ îéëãîëòîä íèéòèéí çîðèóëàëòòàéìýäëèéí õóâààðèëàëòûí àñóóäëûã áàðàà ¿éë÷èëãýýã èðãýäýä õ¿ðãýõõàìàðñàí îéëãîëò. Òºð çàñàã, òºðèéí áîëîí òºðèéí áóñíèéãìèéí ÿíç á¿ðèéí õýâøëèéí áàéãóóëàãà, àðãà ìåõàíèçì, ¿é뺺ð õîîðîíäûí õàðèëöàà, àæëûí ÿâöûã á¿õýëä íü õàìðóóëæ àâ÷¿ð ä¿í, ã¿éöýòãýë ÿìàð áàéõ, ¿çíý. Òýðõ¿¿ áàðàà, ¿éë÷èëãýýãýýð¿éë÷èëãýýã õýðõýí õ¿ðãýæ áàéãààã èðãýä ººðñäèéí àøèã ñîíèðõîë,òîäîðõîéëíî. Èéìä, çàñàãëàë õýðýãöýý øààðäëàãàà èëýðõèéëæ,ãýäýã áîë çàñàã òºð ýñâýë “ñàéí ººð õîîðîíäûí ÿëãàà çààãèéãçàñàãëàë” çýðãýýñ õàâüã¿é ºðãºí áàãàñãàæ, ýðõ ¿¿ðãýý õýðýãæ¿¿ëäýãîéëãîëò áîëæ, óëñ òºð íèéãýì áîëîõûã ýíä òýìäýãë¿¿øòýé.ýäèéí çàñãèéí òóõàéëñàí íºõöºëäòºðèéí ¿éë÷èëãýýíèé òºëºâëºëò, Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàë,ìåíåæìåíò, çîõèöóóëàëòûí àðãà òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ ãýñýíõýëáðèéã òîäîðõîéëæ áàéíà ãýæ îéëãîëò, íýð òîìü¸îã ººð ººðõýëæ áîëíî. öàãò ÿíç á¿ðýýð îéëãîæ èðñýí, õàðèëöàí õîëáîîòîé áîëîâ÷ òóñäàà Ñ¿¿ëèéí 10 æèëä ‘îðîí íóòãèéí îéëãîëòóóä áèëýý. Òºâëºðëèéãàðä÷èëñàí çàñàãëàë’ ãýñýí ñààðóóëàõ ãýäýã áîë óëñ òºð, ýðõîéëãîëò îðîí íóòãèéí õºãæèëä ç¿é, áàéãóóëëûí áîëîí òºñâèéíõàíäàõ õàíäëàãûí ñàëøã¿é õýñýã, ¿íäýñíèé õýìæýýíèé ¿éë ÿâö.òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ, îðîí Õàðèí îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàë áîëíóòãèéí çàõèðãààäûí ÷àäàâõèéã òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ ¿éë ÿâöààðáýõæ¿¿ëýõ õàíäèâëàã÷äûí íºõöºëäºõ áºãººä òóõàéëáàë, óðüääýìæëýã, òóñëàëöààíû àæëûí ºìíº ¿íäýñíèé çàñãèéí ãàçðûíñóóðü ¿íäñèéã á¿ðä¿¿ëýõ áîëëîî. õàðèóöàí õýðýãæ¿¿ëæ áàéñàí“Ñàéí çàñàãëàë” õýìýýõ îéëãîëòûã àæèë ¿éë÷èëãýýã îðîí íóòãèéíîðîí íóòãèéí ò¿âøèíä áóóëãàí çàõèðãàà õàðèóöàõ áîëñîí ãì –àâ÷ ¿çâýë çàñàã çàõèðãààíû áîëîí òèéìýýñ òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ,òºðèéí ¿éë÷èëãýýíèé àæëûí òºëººëëèéí áîëîí îðîëöîîíû 14
  15. 15. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãààðä÷èëñàí ¿éë ÿâö, èë òîä Òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëñàíáàéäàë, õàðèóöëàãà õèéãýýä îðîí çàñàãëàë áîë ºðãºñ àâñàí ìýòíóòãèéí “ñàéí” çàñàãëàëûí á¿ñàä àñóóäëûã õóðäàí ò¿ðãýí øèéäýõòîäîðõîéëîã÷ øèíæèéã àãóóëàõ áà øèäýò äîõèóð áèø. Õ¿íèéàãóóëàõã¿é ÷ áàéæ áîëíî. õºãæëèéã ýðõýìëýã÷, òºâëºðñºí áóñ çàñàãëàëä õ¿ðýõ ò¿ëõ¿¿ð Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàë áîëîí áîë áîäëîãî áîëîâñðóóëàõ,òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ ¿éë ÿâö õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ, ã¿éöýòãýëèéí õÿíàëòáàéíãûí õºäºë㺺íòýé óëñ òºð øèíæèëãýýíèé á¿õèé ë øàòàíäíèéãìèéí íºõö뺺ñ õàìààðàí ÿäóó, ÿëàíãóÿà ýìýãòýé÷¿¿ëèéíõºãæèæ ººð÷ëºãäºæ èðñýí. äóó õîîëîé, ñàíàà îíîîã òóñãàõ,Á¿ðýëäýõ¿¿íèé ÿìàð ÿìàð òýäíèé îðîëöîîã õàíãàõ ÿâäàëõýñýã ººð õîîðîíäîî õàðèëöàí ìºí.5¿éë÷èëæ, íºëººëæ áóéã íýýëòòýéñèñòåìèéí àðãà ìýòèéí ñóäàëãàà Õºãæëèéí òºëºº òºâëºðëèéãøèíæèëãýýíèé íýãäìýë àðãà ñààðóóëàõ ÿâäàë áîë àðä÷èëñàíç¿éã àøèãëàí òîãòîîæ áîëîõ þì. çàñàãëàëûí ãîë ò¿ëõ¿¿ð áºãººäÝíý àðãà óëñ òºðèéí õ¿ðýýíèé òýð íü õ¿íèé õºãæèë áà Ìÿíãàíûáóþó îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàë áà õºãæëèéí çîðèëò (ÌÕÇ)-óóäûãòºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ ìºí òýäãýýðò õàíãàõàä ÷óõàë ¿¿ðýã ã¿éöýòãýäýã.õàìààðàõ óëñ òºðèéí áîëîí Õºãæèë, çàñàãëàë õºíãºí øóóðõàéòºðèéí øèíý÷ëýëèéí çýðýã ¿éë áàéæ, òºëººëëèéã ä¿¿ðýíÿâöûí ÿíç á¿ðèéí àñóóäëûí ººð õàíãàõûí òóëä óëñûí õýìæýýíä,õîîðîíäûí õîëáîîã îëæ òîãòîîõ; àéìàã õîò ñóì ä¿¿ðýã, òîñãîíûõºãæëèéí ò¿íø¿¿äèéí àæëûí ãýýä á¿õèé ë ò¿âøèíä õ¿ì¿¿ñóÿëäàà õîëáîîã ñàéæðóóëàõûã áîëîí áàéãóóëëóóä ÷àäàâõèæèæ,òýðã¿¿ëýõ ÷èãëýë áîëãîäîã áàéíà.3 ýðõ ìýäýëòýé áîëñîí áàéâàë ͯÁÕÕ õºãæëèéí òºëºº çîõèíî.6òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëñàí çàñàãëàëõýìýýõ ¿çýë áàðèìòëàëûã àøèãëàíîðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàë áîëîíòºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ õ¿ðýýãòîäîðõîéëîõ öîãö àðãàç¿éãáîëîâñðóóëñàí áèëýý.43 “Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàë áà òºâëºðëèéãñààðóóëàõ ãàðûí àâëàãà: Õºòºëáºðèéí 5 “Õºãæëèéí òºëºº òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ –òóðøëàãà ẠͯÁÕÕ-èéí öàõèì õýëýëö¿¿ëãýýñ Òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ, îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëóðãàí ãàðñàí ñòðàòåãè” Í¯ÁÕÕ, (2008 îíû áà õîò/õºäººãèéí õºãæëèéí òàëààðõ íýãäñýíòºñºë) òóðøëàãà” ýìõòãýë, ͯÁÕÕ, 20044 “Õºãæëèéí òºëºº òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ – 6 “Õºãæëèéí òºëºº òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ –Òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ, îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàë Òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ, îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëáà õîò/õºäººãèéí õºãæëèéí òàëààðõ íýãäñýí áà õîò/õºäººãèéí õºãæëèéí òàëààðõ íýãäñýíòóðøëàãà” ýìõòãýë, ͯÁÕÕ, 2004, òóðøëàãà” ýìõòãýë, ͯÁÕÕ, 2004 15
  16. 16. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà1.2 Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí íèéòëýã Òóñ çºâëºì溺ð çàñàãëàë áàçîðèëò àðä÷èëàë, òºëººëëèéí áîëîí Äýëõèé íèéòèéí ò¿âøèíä îðîëöîîíû àðä÷èëëûí ¿çýë ñàíààãòºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ, îðîí íýãòãýæ, îðîí íóòãèéí ñîíãóóëüòíóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí øèíý÷ëýëèéí áàéãóóëëàãûí á¿ðýí ýðõèéíëàâëàãàà áîëãîí àøèãëàõ íèéòëýã õàðèëöààã çîõèöóóëàõ çàð÷ìûã,òîäîðõîéëîëò õèéõýä ¿íäýñíèé õàðüÿà îðîí íóòãèéí çàõèðãàà òóñçàñãèéí ãàçàð, îëîí óëñûí á¿ðýýð ýðõ ¿¿ðãèéã íü òîäîðõîéëæáàéãóóëëàãûí ñîíèðõîë ºñºí ºãñºí áàéíà. Òóõàéëáàë:íýìýãäñýýð áàéíà. Ýäãýýð íèéòëýã 7 •Òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ ¿éëçàð÷èì, áàéð ñóóðèéã ¿íýëãýý ÿâö íü ÷àäàâõèéã áýõæ¿¿ëýõ,áîëîâñðóóëàõ, õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõýä áàéãóóëëûí øèíýòãýë ãýñýíáàðèìòàëæ àæèëëàíà. õàðèëöàí óÿëäàà á¿õèé õ¿÷èí ÷àðìàéëòûã øààðäàõ áºãººä 2007 îíó 4 ä¿ãýýð ñàðä ͯÁ- îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàã çàõèðãààãÕÀÑÁ-ààñ Òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ áýõæ¿¿ëýõòýé õîëáîãäîõ ó÷èðòàé.áîëîí îðîí íóòãèéí çàõèðãààäûã •Èðãýäèéã õàìðóóëàõ,áýõæ¿¿ëýõ çºâëºìæ áàòàëñàí ÷àäàâõèæóóëàõ çàìààð îðîëöîîãÿâäàë ýíý ÷èãëýëä òîìîîõîí õàíãàõ ÿâäàë îðîí íóòãèéíàëõàì áîëñîí þì. Çààâðûã ò¿âøèíä øèéäâýð ãàðãàõ,áîëîâñðóóëàõàä 1985 îíû Åâðîïûí õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ, ò¿¿íèé ìºðººðÎðîí íóòãèéí ººðºº óäèðäàõ õèéõ àæëûí ñóóðü çàð÷èì áàéâàëòóíõàã áè÷èã8-ýýñ ñàíàà àâñàí çîõèíî.áºãººä “÷èã ¿¿ðýã, áîäëîãî •Îðîí íóòãèéí óäèðäëàãàìåíåæìåíò, øèéäâýð ãàðãàõ ýðõ èðãýíèé íèéãìèéí äîòîðõìýäëèéã õàíãàëòòàé ýõ ¿¿ñâýðèéí ñîíãîã÷äûí ººð ººð á¿ëãèéãõàìò ñîíãîã÷äîä õàìãèéí îéð, õ¿ëýýí çºâøººð÷, îðîí íóòàã,òýäíèéã èë¿¿ òºëººëºõ îðîí òîéðãèéí õºãæèë öýöýãëýëòýäíóòãèéí çàñàã çàõèðãààíä òýäíèé îðîëöîîã õàíãàõûí òºëººøèëæ¿¿ëýí òºâëºðëèéã îíîâ÷òîé õ¿÷èí ÷àðìàéëò ãàðãàõ ¿¿ðýãòýé.ñààðóóëñíààð” òîãòâîðòîé •Á¿õ îðîëöîã÷ òàëûí õóâüä, ìºíõºãæëèéí òàë äýýð àõèö ãàðãàæ ¿íäýñíèé áîëîí á¿ñèéí çàñãèéíáîëîõûã íü õ¿ëýýí çºâøººðñºí ãàçàð, îðîí íóòãèéí çàõèðãàà áàáàéíà. èðãýíèé íèéãìèéí áàéãóóëëàãûí õàìòûí àæèëëàãààíä ¿ë ÿëãàâàðëàõ çàð÷ìûã áàðèìòëàíà. •Îðîí íóòãèéí óäèðäëàãà7 “Òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ, îðîí íóòãèéí áîäëîãî õýðýãæèëòèéí àæëûíàðä÷èëëûí äýëõèé äàõèíû òàéëàí I” Íýãäñýí á¿õèé ë øàòàíä àëü áîëîìæòîéõîò, îðîí íóòãèéí çàõèðãààä (UCLG), 2007 õýëáýðýýð èðãýäèéã îðîëöóóëàí8 Òóíõàã áè÷ãèéã 1985 îíä Åâðîïûí Ǻâëºëáàòëàìæèëñíààñ õîéø 45 óëñ õ¿ëýýí òýäíèé òºëººëëèéã õàíãàíà.çºâøººðñºí. Ýíý áîë îðîí íóòãèéí çàõèðãààíû •Èðãýíèé îðîëöîîã áàòæóóëàíñòàòóñ, ýðõèéí òàëààð îëîí óëñûí ò¿âøèíä õàíãàõ ¿¿äíýýñ îðîí íóòãèéíãàðñàí àíõíû ýðõ ç¿éí àêò ìºí. óäèðäëàãààñ õºðøèéí íºõºðëºë, 16
  17. 17. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãàíóòãèéí èðãýäèéí çºâëºë, öàõèì 1.3 Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûã õýìæèõ¿éàðä÷èëàë, òºñâèéí îðîëöîî, Çàñàãëàëûí äóòàãäàë, ñóë òàëèðãýíèé ñàíàà÷èëãà áîëîí á¿õ ìºí õºãæëèéí ¿ð ä¿íä õýðõýííèéòèéí ñàíàë õóðààëò çýðãýýð íºëººëºõ òóõàé îéëãîëòûãèðãýíèé îðîëöîîíû òóõàéí ã¿íçãèéð¿¿ëýõ òàë äýýð àðãàíºõöºëä òîõèðîõ øèíý õýëáýðèéã õýðýãñëýë, àðãà÷èëëûí òîî íýëýýäýðýëõèéëýí íýâòð¿¿ëáýë çîõèëòîé. ºññºí áàéíà.9 Îðîí íóòãèéí •Òýìäýãëýë, ìýäýýëëèéí ñàí çàñàãëàëûí õóâüä áàéäàë ìºíá¿ðä¿¿ëæ õàäãàëàí çàð÷ìûí õóâüä àäèë. Ýíý òàëààð äýëõèé äàõèíààîëîí íèéòýä íýýëòòýé áàéëãàõ àøèãëàæ áóé 22 àðãà õýðýãñëèéãÿâäàë çºâõºí îðîí íóòãèéí ‘Ýõ ñóðâàëæèéí ëàâëàãàà’ õýñýãòçàõèðãààíû àæëûã ñàéæðóóëàõ òîéìëîí õ¿ðãýëýý. Øàòàëñàí îëîíáóñ ìºí èðãýäèéí ýðõýý á¿ðýí ¿ç¿¿ëýëòòýé ¿íýëãýýíèé íàðèéíä¿¿ðýí õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ, òýãñíýýðýý íèéëìýë àðãà÷èëàë õèéãýýäîðîí íóòãèéí øèéäâýð ãàðãàõàä ä¿ðñëýí áè÷èõ õýëáýðèéí, õÿëáàðèðãýíèé îðîëöîîã çîõèõ ¸ñîîð á¿òýö á¿õèé ¿íýëãýýíèé ýíãèéíõàíãàõ áàòàëãàà áîëîõ þì. äºò àðãà õýðýãñëèéã ÷ áàãòààñàí •Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàã áîëíî.çàõèðãààäûí õàðèóöàõ àæèë,÷èã ¿¿ðýã íýìýãäýõèéí õèðýýð ¯íýëãýý îðîí íóòãèéíòýäãýýðèéã õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ ÷àäàâõèéã çàñàãëàëûí òàëààð òóõàéëñàí,íü áýõæ¿¿ëýõòýé õîñëóóëáàë ìºí çàñàãëàëûí ÷àíàðûí åðºíõèéçîõèëòîé. àñóóäëààð òîî, ìýäýýã ñèñòåì÷ëýõ ÷óõàë àðãà áàéæ áîëîõ þì. Áàñ, Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí ¿íýëãýý íü áàðèìò ò¿øèí áîäëîãîøèíýòãýëèéí îëîí óëñàä õ¿ëýýí áîëîâñðóóëàõ ñóóðü ¿íäñèéã òàâüæ,çºâøººðºãäñºí ýäãýýð íèéòëýã èíãýñíýýðýý øèíýòãýë õèéõçàð÷èì, óäèðäàìæèéã îðîí òàëä îëîí íèéòèéí ñàíàà áîäëûãíóòãèéí ò¿âøèíä çàñàãëàëûí äàé÷ëàí îðîí íóòãèéí çàõèðãàà¿íýëãýý õèéõ àæèëä àøèãëàõ áîëîí èðãýíèé íèéãìèéí äîòîðõèàëèâàà àðãà õýðýãñëèéí òóëàõ ãîë øèíý÷ëýã÷äèéã çîðèãæóóëíà.öýã, ñóóðü ëàâëàãàà áîëãîõ ¸ñòîéþì. Ýíýõ¿¿ ñîðèëûã àìæèëòòàé Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûíäàâàí òóóëàõ áîëîìæ áîëîëöîî þó ¿íýëãýý áîë ¿íäýñíèé õýìæýýíèéáàéãààã äàðààõ á¿ëã¿¿äýä àâ÷ ¿çíý. çàñàãëàëûí ¿íýëãýýíèé º÷¿¿õýí õýñýã, çàäàðãàà òºäèé áóñ áîëîõûã îéëãîæ àâàõ íü ÷óõàë. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí ¿íýëãýý áîäëîãî õèéãýýä òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ, îðîëöîî 9 Christiane Arndt and Charles Oman,“Çàñàãëàëûí ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéí çºâ, áóðóó àøèãëàëò” Õºãæëèéí òºâèéí ñóäàëãàà, Ýäèéí çàñãèéí õàìòûí àæèëëàãàà, õºãæëèéí áàéãóóëëàãà (ÝÇÕÀÕÁ), 2006 17
  18. 18. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãàáà îðîí íóòãèéí õàðèóöëàãà çýðýã òîäîðõîé àñóóäëàà𠺺ð÷ëºëòòóõàéí íóòàã îðîíä õàìààðàõ øèíý÷ëýë õèéõ òºëºâëºãººîíöëîã àñóóäëààð ÷óõàë ìýäýýëýë ãàðãàí õàíäèâëàã÷, ò¿íøºãíº. Àìüäðàëûí áîäèò àñóóäàëä áàéãóóëëàãàä äýìæëýã ¿ç¿¿ëýõèë¿¿ îéð áàéäàã íü îðîí íóòãèéí õ¿ñýëò ãàðãàõ;¿íýëãýýã óëñûí õýìæýýíèéõýýñ • Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëäÿëãàõ íýã ãîë øèíæ. ¯íäýñíèé èðãýíèé íèéãýì áîëîí õóâèéíçàñàãëàë ñèñòåìèéí øèíæòýé õýâøëèéã òàòàí îðîëöóóëàõ;áîäëîãûí àñóóäàëä ò¿ëõ¿¿ • Îðîí íóòãèéí ò¿âøèíäàíõààðäàã áîë îðîí íóòàãò ºäºð çàñàãëàëûí ¿íýëãýý õèéõ ¿íäñýíòóòìûí àñóóäàë øèéäýõ, èðãýäòýé äºðâºí çîðèëãî áàéäàã.õàðüöàõ ýð÷ìèéí õóâüä èë¿¿. Èéìä, îðîí íóòãèéí ¿íýëãýý 1. Òîäðóóëàõ: òóëãàð÷ áóé àñóóäàëõèéõäýý òóõàéí íóòãèéí îðîëöîã÷ áîëîí ò¿¿íèé öàð õ¿ðýýãòàëóóä áîëîí íèéãìèéí òîäîðõîé òîäîðõîéëîõ;á¿ëãèéí îíöëîã õýðýãöýýã 2. Õÿíàëò øèíæèëãýý: ñàíàà÷èëãà,ìýäðýìæòýé òóñãàõ øààðäëàãà áîäëîãî õºòºëáºðèéí àìæèëò,ãàð÷ èðíý. äóòàãäëûã èëð¿¿ëæ ¿íýëýõ çîðèëãîîð öàã õóãàöààíû1.4 Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûã ¿íýëýõèéí òîäîðõîé äàâòàìæòàé õèéãäýõ;ó÷èð þó âý? 3. Ä¿ãíýõ ¿íýëãýý: ñàíàà÷èëãà, Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí áîäëîãî õºòºëáºðèéí¿íýëãýýíèé çîðèëãî áîë ÷óõàë ç¿éë. óðüä÷èëàí òîäîðõîéëæ áàéñàíÇîðèëãî íü ¿íýëãýýíèé õ¿ðýý, çîðèëòîò ¿ç¿¿ëýëò, õ¿ëýýãäýæàøèãëàõ àðãàç¿é, ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéã áàéñàí ¿ð ä¿íäýý õ¿ðñýíòîäîðõîéëíî. Çîðèëãîî á¿äýã ýñýõèéã òîäîðõîéëîõ;òîäîðõîéëñîí ¿íýëãýýíèé àæèë 4. ßðèëöëàãà, õýëýëö¿¿ëýã:õºãæëèéí õýðýãöýý õàíãàõ ¿ð ä¿í õàìòûí çîðèëãî, ÷èãëýëèéããàðãàæ ýñ ÷àäàõ áºãººä öàã áîëîí òîäîðõîéëîõîä íóòãèéííººöèéã ¿ðñýí àæèë áîëíî. èðãýäèéã îðîëöóóëàõ çîðèëòûã ¿íýëãýý äàâõàð àãóóëíà. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí¿íýëãýýã ÿíç á¿ðèéí çîðèëãî ¯¿íòýé õîëáîãäîí ¿íýëãýýíèéøàëòãààíààð õèéæ ã¿éöýòãýäýã. ¿ð ä¿íã àøèãëàõ òàë äýýð ÿí篿íä: á¿ðèéí àðãà áàðèë, õàíäëàãà ãàð÷ • Îðîí íóòãèéí áîäëîãûí èðäýã. Çàðèì òºðëèéí ¿íýëãýý õýðýãæèëòýä òóëãàð÷ áóé èíäåêñæ¿¿ëñýí áàéõ áºãººä ýíý íü áýðõøýýë, ñààä òîòãîðûã îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí õýìæýýñ òîäîðõîéëîõ; áóþó òºðõ áàéäëûã íýãäñýí • ×àäàâõè áýõæ¿¿ëýõ òàëûí õýìæ¿¿ðò îðóóëàí æèãíýæ, ýöýñò îíöëîã õýðýãöýýã òîäîðõîéëæ, íü èíäåêñýýð èëýðõèéëæ òîîöîõûã ýíý òàëûí àæëûí ¿ð ä¿íä õýëíý. Îðîí íóòãèéí îëîí õÿíàëò øèíæèëãýý õèéõ; çàõèðãààäûí àæëûã èíäåêñýýð • Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí èëýðõèéëýýä ººð õîîðîíä íü 18
  19. 19. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãàõàðüöóóëæ áîëíî. Èíäîíåçèä ìóæ ñààðóóëàõ, òºñâèéí òºâëºðëèéãòóñ á¿ðýýð òîîöäîã Çàñàãëàëûí ñààðóóëàõ çýðýã õýä õýäýíèíäåêñ ¿¿íèé íýãýí ñàéí æèøýý àñóóäëûã àâ÷ ¿çíý. Òóõàéëáàë,ìºí (Ýõ ñóðâàëæèéí ëàâëàãàà, òºñâèéí áîëîí çàñàã çàõèðãààíû,81ò.). Çàðèì àðãûí õóâüä ñîíãîëò óëñ òºðèéí òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ,õèéõýä ÿðâèãòàé íºõöºë òóëãàðäàã. ìºí òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ îð÷èíÒóõàéëáàë, õàðüöóóëæ æèøèõ ¿¿, (áàéãóóëàë, îðîëöîã÷, õóóëüîðîí íóòãèéí îíöëîãò òóëãóóðëàõ ä¿ðýì, áîäëîãî ãì) á¿ðäýõ ÿâöàäóó ãýäãèéã øèéäýõ àñóóäàë íýëýýä õýìæèëò õèéäýã ¿ç¿¿ëýëò áàéíà.ÿðâèãòàé. Òºâëºðëèéí ñààðóóëàõ ¿éë ÿâöàä õýìæèë õèéõ ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéã Îðîí íóòãèéí ñîíãóóëüò àëáàí òîäîðõîéëæ áîëîâñðóóëàõàäòóøààëòíû (ÿëàíãóÿà äàõèí íýð ëàâëàãàà áîëîõ ¿íäñýí áàðèìòäýâøñýí íºõöºëä) îëîëò àìæèëòûí áè÷èã áîë “Îðîí íóòãèéíòàëààð áîäèò òàéëàí ìýäýý çàñàãëàë, òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõãàðãàõ, èíãýñíýýðýý õàðèóöëàãà çºâëºìæ” þì.òàéëàãíàëûí òîãòîëöîîã á¿ðä¿¿ëýõþì. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí ¿íýëãýý ‘Ýõ ñóðâàëæèéí ëàâëàãàà’ õýñýãò Îðîí íóòãèéí îëîí äàâõàðãà äóðüäñàí æèøýýí äýýð ÷ òýð, îðîíá¿õèé çàõèðãààã íýãäñýí íýã íóòãèéí ò¿âøíèé çàñàãëàëûí¿ç¿¿ëýëòýýð ¿íýëýõýä íóòàã ¿íäñýí õýìæýýñ, òîäîðõîéëîã÷äûãòóñ á¿ðèéí ºâºðìºö íºõöºë, öîãö õàìðàõ çîðèëò òàâèíà.îíöëîã àñóóäëûã îðõèãäóóëàõ ¯¿íä îðîí íóòãèéí óëñ òºðèéíýðñäýëòýé. Ãýñýí ÷, àäèëòãàë áóþó ñèñòåì (ñîíãóóëü, õ¿íèé ýðõ,çýðýãö¿¿ëýõ ÷àíàðò ÷óõàë ÷óõàë õóóëü äýýäëýõ ¸ñ, èðãýíèéäàâóó òàë áèé. Òóõàéëáàë, ýíý àðãà íèéãýì, ìýäýýëëèéí ýðõ ÷ºëºº);íü îðîí íóòãèéí çàõèðãààäûí äóíä áàéãóóëëûí àñóóäàë (àâëèãà,ºðñºë人í áèé áîëãîæ, õàðèëöàí òºðèéí çàõèðãàà, ñàíõ¿¿ òºñâèéíòóðøëàãà ñîëèëöîæ, íýãíýýñýý ìåíåæìåíò, áàðàà ¿éë÷èëãýýñóðàëöàõ õºø¿¿ðýã áîëäîã äàâóó õóäàëäàí àâàõ ãì); íèéãìèéíòàëòàé þì. áîëîí áóñàä çàíãèëàà àñóóäàë1.5 ¯íýëãýý þóí äýýð ãîëëîí àíõààð÷ (óëñ òºðèéí ïðîöåññ, òºñâèéíáîëîõ âý? àñóóäàë, îðëîãî á¿ðä¿¿ëýõ, òºðèéí Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí ¿éë÷èëãýýã õ¿ðãýõ, æåíäåð,õýìæèëò, ¿íýëãýýíèé õóâüä îðîí áàéãàëü îð÷íû òîãòâîðòîé áàéäàëíóòãèéí çàñàãëàë, òºâëºðëèéã ãì); áèçíåññ/àðèëæààíû îð÷èíñààðóóëàõ ÿâö, îðîí íóòãèéí çýðãèéã õàìðóóëæ ¿çíý.àðä÷èëàë, îðîí íóòãèéí çàõèðãààãýñýí äºðâºí àñóóäàëä àíõààðâàë Îðîí íóòãèéí àðä÷èëàë áóþóçîõèíî. îðîí íóòãèéí ò¿âøíèé àðä÷èëàë ãýäãèéã îíîëûí áàðèìòëàëûí Òºâëºðëèéí ñààðóóëàõ ¿ç¿¿ëýëò¿¿ä õóâüä “õîòûí äàðãà, çºâëºë,íü òºðèéí çàõèðãààíû òºâëºðëèéã õîðîî, òºðèéí ¿éë÷èëãýý ãì 19
  20. 20. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãàîðîí íóòãèéí çàñàã çàõèðãààíû îðëîãî çàðëàãàà õýðõýí çîõèöóóëæáàéãóóëëàãûí õóâüä áîëîí áàéãààãààð òîîöíî.èðãýíèé íèéãìèéí áàéãóóëëàãà, ¯¿íèé àäèë õîòûí çàõèðãààíû¿éë àæèëëàãààíû” ãýñýí õî¸ð àæëûã îëîí íèéòýä ¿éë÷èëãýýóòãààð îéëãîâîë çîõèõ îéëãîëò õýðõýí õ¿ðãýæ áóéãààð òîäîðõîéëæþì.10 Ýíý íü òîãòìîë øóäàðãà áîëîõ þì. ÿéöýòãýëèéã õýìæèõýäñîíãóóëü, áîäëîãî áîëîâñðóóëàõ ¿éë÷èëãýýíèé ä¿í õýìæýý, ÷àíàð,ÿâöàä íºëººëºõ îëîíõè, öººíõ ¿ð àøèã áà ¿ð ä¿íã çîíõèëîíáîëîí ñºðºã õ¿÷íèé á¿ëãèéí àíõààðíà11.” Áîäëîãî, õºòºëáºðýðõèéã õàíãàõ, èðãýíèé áîëîí áîëîâñðóóëàõ, õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ, ýñâýëóëñ òºðèéí ñóóðü ýðõ çýðãýýð õÿíàëò øèíæèëãýý/¿ð ä¿íãèéíòîäîðõîéëîãäîíî. ¿íýëãýý õèéõ áàéãóóëëûí, Îðîí íóòãèéí àðä÷èëëûí ñàíõ¿¿ãèéí õèéãýýä õ¿íèé íººöèéíîðîëöîîíû (áóþó øóóä) áà ÷àäàâõèéã ìºí äàâõàð ¿íýëæòºëººëëèéí àðä÷èëàë ãýñýí áîëîõ þì. Çàðèì òºðëèéí ¿íýëãýýõî¸ð ¿íäñýí õýëáýð áàéäàã. Îðîí àæëûí ¿ð ä¿í, ã¿éöýòãýëèéãíóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí ¿íýëãýýíä èë “ñàëáàð õîîðîíäûí” áóþó ºðãºíòîä, òºëººëºë, õàðèóöëàãà á¿õèé õ¿ðýýíä õàìðóóëæ ¿çäýã áîëçàñàã çàõèðãààã õàíãàõ ¿¿äíýýñ çàðèì íü òóõàéëñàí íýã ñàëáàðààðàëáàí ¸ñíû á¿òöèéí àñóóäëûã àâ÷ ¿çíý (Äýëõèé äàõèíàà ýõíèéèðãýäèéí ñàíàà áîäîëòîé áóþó ºðãºí õ¿ðýýíèé àðãûã ò¿ëõ¿¿õîñëóóëàí àâ÷ ¿çâýë çîõèëòîé. õýðýãëýæ áàéíà). Îðîí íóòãèéí ¯íýëãýýíä ìºðäºæ áóé èõýíõ çàñàãëàëûí àæëûí ¿ð ä¿í,àðãà õýðýãñëýë (‘Ýõ ñóðâàëæèéí ã¿éöýòãýë, ¿éë÷èëãýýíèé ò¿âøèíëàâëàãàà’ õýñãèéã ¿çíý ¿¿) òóðøèí áîëîí õàðüöóóëñàí øèíæèëãýýøàëãàðñàí, ºðãºí äýëãýð àøèãëàæ õèéõ ¿íýëãýýíèé îëîí àðãàáîëîõ àðãàç¿é, àðãà÷èëëààð äóòìàã õýðýãñýë12 áàéíà.áàéíà. Èõýíõ òîõèîëäîëä ýíý íüºðãºí õ¿ðýýíèé ãëîáàë àðä÷èëëûí¿ç¿¿ëýëò¿¿äèéã îðîí íóòãèéí 11 Áðàöåãèðäëü: “Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãò¿âøèíä çàäàëñàí õóâèëáàð òºäèé çàõèðãààíû àæëûí ¿ð ä¿íãèéí õýìæèíáàéãàà þì. øàëãàëòûí îëîí óëñûí òóðøëàãà”, Îðîí íóòãèéí óäèðäëàãà, ò¿¿íèé Òºâëºðëèéã ñààðóóëàõ àñóóäëààðõ îëîíàæëûí ã¿éöýòãýëèéã òºðèéí óëñûí III áàãà õóðàë, Ìàíèë õîò, 2003. Ýäãýýð ñàíàà÷èëãûí çàðèìààñ Ïèòåð¿éë÷èëãýýã èðãýäýä õýðõýí õ¿ðãýæ, Áðàöåãèðäëèéí “Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàã çàõèðãààíû àæëûí ¿ð ä¿íãèéí õýìæèí øàëãàëòûí îëîí óëñûí òóðøëàãà” õýìýýõ ºã¿¿ëýëä òóñãàñàí áóé. 12 Îðîí íóòãèéí ò¿âøèíä Õàðèóöëàãà, èë òîä áàéäàë áà òàéëàãíàëûí èíäåêñèéã10 Àðä÷èëàë áîëîí ñîíãóóëüä äýìæëýã¿ç¿¿ëýõ îëîí óëñûí õ¿ðýýëýí (ÀÑÒ¯ÎÓÕ): òîîöîõ àðãà ç¿é, ͯÁÕÕ-èéí Ìàêåäîíè“Îðîí íóòãèéí ò¿âøíèé àðä÷èëàë – äàõü ñóóðèí òºëººëºã÷èéí ãàçàð, 2009.ÀÑÒ¯ÎÓÕ-èéí Îðîëöîî, òºëººëºë, (http://europeandcis.undp.org/governance/ñºðãºë人íèé ìåíåæìåíò áîëîí çàñàãëàëûí show/E0665B63-F203-1EE9-B2237737A3E-ëàâëàõ ” 2001, 4BC48) 20
  21. 21. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãàØèãòãýý 1. Ôèëèïïèí äýõ Ñàíõ¿¿ãèéí ìåíåæìåíòèéí ñèñòåì Ôèëèïïèí óëñ ¿íäýñíèé õýìæýýíèé Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûíìåíåæìåíòèéí áîëîí Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàã çàõèðãààíû ñàíõ¿¿ãèéíìåíåæìåíòèéí ñèñòåìèéã íýâòð¿¿ëýõèéã çîðüæ áàéíà. Ýõíèéõ íü öàõèìõóóäñàíä ñóóðèëñàí, 107 ¿ç¿¿ëýëò á¿õèé ººðèéí îíîøëîãîîíû àðãà õýðýãñýëáºãººä ñàéí çàñàãëàë, çàñàã çàõèðãàà, íèéòèéí ¿éë÷èëãýýíèé õ¿ðòýýìæ,ýäèéí çàñãèéí õºãæèë, áàéãàëü, îð÷íû ìåíåæìåíòèéí ñàëáàðûã õàìðóóëàíàâ÷ ¿çíý. Ñàíõ¿¿ãèéí ìåíåæìåíòèéí ñèñòåì íü îðëîãî á¿ðä¿¿ëýëòèéí÷àíàð, ¿ð àøãèéã óëàìæëàëò áîëîí óëàìæëàëò áóñ ýõ ¿¿ñâýðýýð çàäàëæ,ìºí çàðäàë õèéãýýä ºðèéí óäèðäëàãûí ÷àíàð, ¿ð àøãèéí 14 ¿ç¿¿ëýëòýýñá¿ðäýæ áàéíà.Øèãòãýý 2. Ìàêåäîíèä àâëèãàòàé òýìöýõ çîðèëãîîð îðîí íóòãèéí ò¿âøèíä õèéæ áóéàæëûí õàðèóöëàãà, èë òîä áàéäëûã øàëãóóðààð õýìæèæ áàéíà.13 Màêåäîíèä îðîí íóòãèéí ººðòºº çàñàãëàõ íýãæèéí ò¿âøíèéõàðèóöëàãà, èë òîä áàéäàë, òàéëàãíàõ ÿâöûã øàëãàõ àðãà÷èëëûã ͯÁÕÕ-èéí äýìæëýãòýéãýýð áîëîâñðóóëñàí áàéíà. Ýíýõ¿¿ àðãà÷èëàë îðîí íóòãèéíçàñàã çàõèðãààäûí ¸ñ ç¿éã¿é áàéäàë, àâëèãàëä ºðòºõ “ýìçýãøèë”-èéã,òýäãýýðèéã ýñýðã¿¿öýõ ÷àíàðûã íü õýìæèõ áàéäëààð ¿íýëäýã áàéíà. Óëñòºðèéí õóâüä ýìçýã õèéãýýä àðãà ç¿éí òàëäàà ÷ ÿðâèãòàé àâëèãûí ¿çýãäýëòîõèîëäëûã õýìæèõ ¿íýëãýýíèé óëàìæëàëò àðãàç¿éòýé õàðüöóóëàõàäÌàêåäîíèéí ýíý àðãà÷èëàë îðîí íóòãèéí çàõèðãààíû àâëèãàòàé òýìöýõìåõàíèçìûí ¿ð íºëººã äàðààõ ãóðâàí ¿íäñýí ÷èã ¿¿ðãýýð íü îíîøèëæáàéãàà þì. ¯¿íä: 1) ñàíõ¿¿ òºñâèéí ìåíåæìåíò, 2) õîò òºëºâëºëò áà 3)áàðàà, ¿éë÷èëãýý õóäàëäàí àâàõ çýðãèéã õàìàð÷ áàéíà. Òèéìýýñ, ãàðñàí¿ð ä¿íãèéí òîî ìýäýý íü “àøèãëàõ áîëîìæ” ñàéòàé, áîäëîãîä èë¿¿õàìààðàõ òóë îðîí íóòãèéí áîäëîãî áîëîâñðóóëàã÷èä òààøààí õ¿ëýýæàâäàã. Àðãà÷èëëûã áîëîâñðóóëàõàä àâëèãàòàé òýìöýõ ýðõ, ¿¿ðýã õ¿ëýýñýíîðîí íóòãèéí îðîëöîã÷ òàëóóä ãîë ¿¿ðýã ã¿éöýòãýñýí. Îðîëöîã÷/ñîíèðõîã÷òàëóóäûã àíõíààñ íü õàìðóóëñàí ÿâäàë ¿íýëãýýíèé àæëûí ÿâö, ¿ð ä¿íãºì÷èëæ õàðèóöàõ ýçýíòýé áîëãîæ, îðîí íóòãèéí áîäëîãî áîëîâñðóóëàëòàäáîäèòîîð òóñãàæ àæèëëàõ íºõöëèéã õàíãàñàí áàéíà. Áîëîâñðóóëàõ øàòàíä ìºí òºðèéí ¿éë÷èëãýýíèé õýðýãëýã÷ áîëîõ èðãýä,èðãýíèé íèéãìèéí áàéãóóëëàãûã îðîëöóóëæ, àâëèãûí òàëààðõ òýäíèé ñàíààáîäîë, òóðøëàãà äýýð ¿íäýñëýí àâëèãûí “õàëóóí öýã”-¿¿äèéã òîäîðõîéëæàâñàí. Èðãýäèéã èéíõ¿¿ áîëîâñðóóëàëòûí ÿâöàä îðîëöóóëñíààð ÿäóó÷óóä,ýìýãòýé÷¿¿ä ìºí íèéãìèéí ýìçýã á¿ëã¿¿äýä õàìààðàë á¿õèé àâëèãûí“õàëóóí öýã”-èéã òîäîðõîéëîõ çàìààð òóñ àðãà õýðýãñëèéã ÿäóóðàë áîëîíæåíäåðèéí ìýäðýìæòýé áîëãîæýý. ¯íýëãýýíä èðãýäèéã îðîëöóóëñíààð, ò¿¿íèé îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàã çàõèðãààáîëîí òýäãýýðèéí òîéðãèéí õîîðîíäûí òàéëàãíàõ ¿ð íºëºº á¿õèé ìåõàíèçìáîëîõ íººö áîëîëöîîã äàé÷èëæ áàéãàà þì.13 Îðîí íóòãèéí ò¿âøèíä Õàðèóöëàãà, èë òîä áàéäàë áà òàéëàãíàëûí èíäåêñèéã òîîöîõ àðãàç¿é, ͯÁÕÕ-èéí Ìàêåäîíè äàõü ñóóðèí òºëººëºã÷èéí ãàçàð, 2009.(http://europeandcis.undp.org/governance/show/E0665B63-F203-1EE9-B2237737A3E4BC48) 21
  22. 22. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà Ýöýñò íü, îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí ¿íýëãýý àëü íýã òîäîðõîé ñàëáàð (ýð¿¿ë ìýíä, áîëîâñðîë, áèçíåñèéí îð÷èí) ýñâýë ñýäýâ (õ¿íèé ýðõ, àâëèãà ãì)-èéã õàìàð÷ áîëíî. Ýäãýýð ¿íýëãýý îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí àñóóäëûã öîãö áàéäëààð õàìàð÷ ÷àäàõã¿é áîëîâ÷ ýíýõ¿¿ ãàðûí àâëàãàä òóñãàñàí àðãà, àðãà÷èëëûã îëîí òîõèîëäîëä àøèãëàæ áîëîõ þì.1.6 ¯íýëãýýíèé íîðìàòèâ ¿íäýñ ñàéí ìýääýã áîëíî.14 ̺í ýöñèéí Çàñàãëàëûí ¿ç¿¿ëýëò áîë õýðýãëýã÷äýä ¿íýëãýý ÷óõàìçàñàãëàëûí àëü íýã ñóóðü öýãò þóã õàðóóëæ, þóã õàðóóëàõã¿éãáàéãàà áîäèò áàéäàë õ¿ññýí ìàãàäëàõ áîëîëöîî îëãîíî.çîðèëòîò áàéäàëòàé çýðýãöýõò¿âøíèéã èëòãýõ õýìæ¿¿ð þì. ͯÁ-ûí Õºãæëèéí õºòºëáºð¯¿íòýé õîëáîãäóóëàí. îäîî þó -èéí çàñàãëàëûí ¿íýëãýýíèéáîëæ áàéãàà, þó áîëîõ ¸ñòîé ãýñýí ñóóðü áîëãîí àâñàí õýì õýìæýýäõî¸ð íºõöºë áàéäëûã ººð õîîðîíä àðä÷èëñàí çàñàãëàëûí çàð÷ìóóäõàðüöóóëàõ ¿¿äíýýñ ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéã (èë òîä áàéäàë, òàéëàãíàõàøèãëàíà. Òèéìýýñ, ¿íýëãýý á¿ð çàð÷èì, îðîëöîî) ìºí ÿäóó÷óóä,þóã ñàéí, þóã ìóóä òîîöîõ òàëààð ýìýãòýé÷¿¿ä áîëîí íèéãìèéíòîäîðõîé õèéñâýðëýë, îéëãîëò áóñàä ýìçýã á¿ëãèéí ýðõ,áóþó õýì õýìæýýíä ¿íäýñëýíý. õýðýãöýý, øààðäëàãà ñîíèðõëûí¯íýëãýýíèé ÿâöàä çàñàãëàëûí àñóóäàë áàãòàæ áàéãàà þì.òîäîðõîé çàð÷èì (òóõàéëáàë, Îðîí íóòãèéí íºõöºë áàéäàëäòýãø ýðõ, èë òîä áàéäàë, òîõèðñîí çàñàãëàëûí ¿íýëãýýõàðèóöëàãàòàé áàéäàë)-ä áóñäààñ ÿäóóñ, ýìýãòýé÷¿¿ä, íèéãìèéíèë¿¿ à÷ õîëáîãäîë ºã÷ áóéã íàðèéí áóñàä ýìçýã á¿ëýãò òóëãàð÷ áóéø¿¿ðäýõýä ýíýõ¿¿ íîðìàòèâ õýì ýäèéí çàñàã, óëñ òºð, íèéãìèéíõýìæýý òîäîðõîé áîëíî. áîëîí ñî¸ëûí ñààä áýðõøýýëèéã ¯íýëãýýíèé áîëîâñðóóëàëòûí òîäðóóëàí òîäîðõîéëîõõàìãèéí ÷óõàë ¿å øàò áîë ¿íýò ìåõàíèçìûã á¿ðä¿¿ëæ ºãíº.ç¿éëñ çàð÷ìóóäûã òîîí ¿ç¿¿ëýëòýýð Ò¿¿í÷ëýí, ÿäóóñ, ýìýãòýé÷¿¿ä áàèëýðõèéëæ, õýìæèãäýõ¿éö íèéãìèéí áóñàä ýìçýã á¿ëãèéíøàëãóóð ¿ç¿¿ëýëò ñàíàë àñóóëãûí äóó õîîëîéã íýãòãýæ èëýðõèéëýõàñóóëò áîëãîí õºðâ¿¿ëýõ ÿâäàë áîëîìæ îëãîäîã ìýäýýëýëìºí (Ä¿ðñëýë 1). öóãëóóëàõ îðîëöîîíû àðãà íü çàñàãëàëûí õ¿ðýýíèé ºìíº “Ñàéí”, ”àðä÷èëñàí” ãýñýí îðõèãäñîí, õýðýãñäýãã¿é àñóóäëûãîéëãîëòûã õýðõýí ä¿ãíýõèéã èëð¿¿ëæ, àíõààðàë õàíäóóëæõýðýãëýã÷äýä îéëãîìæòîé áàéëãàõ áîëíî.çîðèëãîîð çàñàãëàëûí ¿íýëãýýòîäîðõîé èëýðõèéëñýí íîðìàòèâõýì õýìæýýã ñóóðü áîëãîæ àâàõíü ÷óõàë. Èíãýñíýýð ò¿íø, áóñàä 14 Çàñàãëàëûí ¿íýëãýýíä õàíäàõ õàíäèâëàã÷äûí õàíäëàãà, Õºãæëèéíáàéãóóëëàãà áîëîí ñóäëàà÷èä òóñëàëöààíû õîðîî (DAC) Çàñàãëàëûíçàñàãëàëûí ¿íýëãýýíèé ÿíç á¿ðèéí ñ¿ëæýý, ÝÇÕÀÕÁ, 2008 îíû 6 äóãààð ñàðàðãà÷ëàëûí äàâóó áîëîí ñóë òàëûã (ýöýñëýí áîëîâñðóóëñàí òºñºë) 22
  23. 23. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà Ä¿ðñëýë 1. Çàñàãëàëûí çàð÷ìóóäûã áîäèòîîð àøèãëàõ íü Òîäîðõîé Àðä÷èëñàí ¯éë ÿâöûí òàëààðõ øàëãóóð àñóóëòóóä çàñàãëàëûí ¿ç¿¿ëýëò¿¿ä Æèøýý íü, îðîí Àðä÷èëñàí çàð÷ìóóä Æèøýý íü, íóòãèéí çàñàã çàñàãëàëûí Æèøýý íü: òºñâèéã çàõèðãàà òºñ⺺ ä¿ð òºðõõàðèóöëàãàòàé îëîí íèéòýä äýëãýæ îëîí íèéòýýð áàéäàë õýëýëö¿¿ëäýã ýñýõ õýëýëö¿¿ëýõØèãòãýý 3. ¯íýëãýýíèé íîðìàòèâ ¿íäýñ ñóóðü Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí á¿õ òºðëèéí ¿íýëãýý íü ¿ð ä¿íä ÷èãëýñýíçààâàð çºâëºìæèéí ÷àíàðòàé áàéäàã. ªíººãèéí áàéäëààð îðîí íóòãèéí“ñàéí” çàñàãëàëûí íýãäñýí íýã á¿ä¿¿â÷ áàéõã¿é áàéíà. Òèéìýýñ, ¿íýëãýýòóñ á¿ðèéí õóâüä ò¿¿íèéã ÷èãë¿¿ëýõ õýì õýìæýý, çàð÷ìóóäûã áàòëàí òîãòîõíü ýí òýðã¿¿íä õèéõ àæèë ìºí.‘Ýõ ñóðâàëæèéí ëàâëàãàà’ õýñýãò ýìõòãýñýí¿íýëãýýíèé õýä õýäýí àðãà÷èëëûí ¿íäñèéã á¿ðä¿¿ëæ áóé ¿íýò ç¿éëñ,çàð÷ìóóäûã äîð ñèéð¿¿ëëýý.ÀÑÒ¯ÎÓÕ. Îðîí íóòãèéí ò¿âøíèé àðä÷èëàë 1. Һ뺺ëëèéí àðä÷èëàë (òýãø ýðõ, òýãø áàéäàë) 2. Îðîëöîîíû àðä÷èëàë (íýýëòòýé, øóäàðãà, èë òîä áàéäàë, õºíãºí øóóðõàé, õàðèóöëàãà òàéëàãíàë)Îðîí íóòãèéí õºãæëèéí òºëºº ñàéí çàñàãëàë –ÎÍÕÒÑÇ 1. Һ뺺ëºë 2. Îðîëöîî 3. Õàðèóöëàãàòàé áàéäàë 4. Èë òîä áàéäàë 5. ¯ð íºëºº 6. Àþóëã¿é áàéäàë 7. Òýãø áàéäàëÎðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí áàðîìåòð (ÎÍÇÁ) 1. ¯ð íºëºº 2. Èë òîä áàéäàë áà õóóëü äýýäëýõ ¸ñ 3. Õàðèóöëàãàòàé áàéäàë 4. Îðîëöîî áà èðãýäèéã õàìðóóëàõ 5. Òýãø áàéäàëͯÁ-ÕÀÑÁ Õîòûí çàñàãëàëûí èíäåêñ 1. ¯ð íºëºº 2. Òýãø áàéäàë 3. Îðîëöîî 4. Õàðèóöëàãàòàé áàéäàë 23
  24. 24. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà Øèãòãýý 4. Àôãàíèñòàí äàõü Îðîí íóòãèéí õºãæëèéí òºëºº ñàéí çàñàãëàë (ÎÍÕÒÑÇ) àðãà÷èëëûí íîðìàòèâ ¿íäýñ ÎÍÕÒÑÇ àðãà÷èëàë (‘Ýõ ñóðâàëæèéí ëàâëàãàà’, 66ò.) îðîí íóòãèéí ò¿âøèíä çàñàãëàëûí åðºíõèé íºõöºë áàéäëûã òîäîðõîéëæ, òóõàéëáàë ìóæ, ä¿¿ðýã, îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàã çàõèðãàà áîëîí òîñãîäûí çàñàãëàëûí íºõöºë áàéäëûã çîðèëòîò áóþó çàñàãëàëûí øàëãóóð ¿ç¿¿ëýëòòýé õàðüöóóëñàí øèíæèëãýý õèéäýã. ÎÍÕÒÑÇ òàéëàí ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéí ñèñòåìèéã ͯÁ-ÕÀÑÁ Õîòûí çàñàãëàëûí èíäåêñ (ÕÇÈ)-èéã ãîë ñóóðü áîëãîí áîëîâñðóóëæ, Àôãàíèñòàíû ºíººãèéí ¿íäýñíèé áîëîí îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí íºõöºë áàéäàëä òààðóóëàí çîõèõ çîõèöóóëàëò õèéñýí áºãººä ñàéí çàñàãëàëûí äîëîîí çàð÷èì (òºëººëºë, îðîëöîî, õàðèóöëàãàòàé áàéäàë, èë òîä áàéäàë, ¿ð íºëºº, àþóëã¿é áîëîí òýãø áàéäàë)-ààð á¿ëýãëýí õóâààñàí 25 ¿ç¿¿ëýëòýýñ á¿ðäýíý. Àôãàíèñòàíû Îðîí íóòãèéí ñàéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºº õàðààò áóñ çºâëºë äýýð äóðäñàí çàð÷ìóóäûã ººðèéí ñòðàòåãèéí õ¿ðýýíä áàòàëñàí áàéíà. Ýíýõ¿¿ ñòðàòåãèéí åðºíõèé ñàíàà, á¿òýö ÌÕÇ-óóäààñ óðãàí ãàðñàí áèëýý.1.7 Îëîí òàëûí îðîëöîîã õàíãàõ àæëûã óäèðäàí ÷èãë¿¿ëæ, ¯íýëãýý á¿ð îðîëöîã÷ òàëóóäûí ò¿íøëýë áàéãóóëæ, õºãæ¿¿ëýõ,õóâüä áîëîí ¿íýëãýýíèé ¿å øàò àðãà õýìæýýã òºëºâëºæ, ò¿ãýýíá¿ðèéí òóõàéä îðîëöîã÷äûí äýëãýð¿¿ëýõ áîëîí áîäëîãîã¿éöýòãýõ ¿¿ðãèéí õóâüä ººð õýðýãæèëòèéí øàòàíä îíöãî麺ð. Ýäãýýð ¿å øàòûã Øèãòãýý èäýâõèòýé îðîëäîã áèëýý.5-ààñ ¿çíý ¿¿. ¯íýëãýýíèé àðãà Òºâ çàñãèéí ãàçðûí òºëººëºë:áàðèë, ñóðâàëæ, çîðèëãîîñ òºâ çàñãèéí ãàçàð (ººðººð õýëáýë,õàìààð÷ ÿíç á¿ðèéí îðîëöîã÷ îðîí íóòãèéí çàõèðãàà õàðèóöñàíòàëûí ¿å øàò òóñ á¿ðò ã¿éöýòãýõ ÿàì òàìãûí ãàçàð) îðîí íóòãèéí¿¿ðýã, îðîëöîî áàñ ÿíç á¿ð çàõèðãààäûí àæëûí ã¿éöýòãýëèéíáàéíà. ‘Ýõ ñóðâàëæèéí ëàâëàãàà’ ñòàíäàðò òîãòîîæ ìºðä¿¿ëýõ,õýñýãò áàãòààñàí ¿íýëãýýíèé õÿíàëò øèíæèëãýý, òàéëàíàðãà õýðýãñýë òóñ á¿ðýýð ãîëëîí õàðèóöëàãûí ìåõàíèçì á¿ðä¿¿ëýíîðîëöîã÷ òàëûí ã¿éöýòãýõ ¿¿ðãèéã áîäëîãûí ÷àíàðòàé àñóóäàëáàñ òîäîðõîéëñîí áàéãàà. áîëîâñðóóëæ, áàòëàõ çýðãýýð îðîí Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí íóòãèéí ÷àäàâõèéã áýõæ¿¿ëýõýä¿íýëãýýíä äàðààõ ýòãýýä îðîëöîã÷ ÷óõàë ¿¿ðýã ã¿éöýòãýäýã òóëòàë áîëîõ íü ò¿ãýýìýë. ¯¿íä: ¿íýëãýýíèé àæèëä èõ à÷ Îðîí íóòãèéí çàõèðãààíû õîëáîãäîëòîé.òºëººëºë: ¿íýëãýýíèé àæëûí Çàñãèéí ãàçàð îðîí íóòãèéíýõëýë, õýðýãæèëò, ¿ð ä¿íãèéí çàõèðãààäûã õÿíàí øèíæëýõ ÷èãàøèãëàëòûí õóâüä îðîí íóòãèéí ¿¿ðãèéíõýý õ¿ðýýíä ¿íýëãýýíèéóëñ òºð, çàõèðãààíû óäèðäàõ ¿ð ä¿íã àøèãëàõ, áîäëîãîàæèëòíóóä øèéäâýðëýõ ¿¿ðýã õýðýãæèëòèéí ¿å øàòàíä îíöãîéã¿éöýòãýíý. Èõýíõ òîõèîëäîëä èäýâõèòýé áàéæ áîëîõ þì.îðîí íóòãèéí çàõèðãàà ¿íýëãýýíèé 24
  25. 25. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà Íóòãèéí óäèðäëàãûí õîëáîîä: ÷óõàë ¿ç¿¿ëýëò ìºí. Èðãýíèéýíý áîë ¿íäýñíèé ò¿âøèíä äóó íèéãìèéí áàéãóóëëàãà ¿íýëãýýíèéõîîëîéãîî íýãòãýí õ¿ðãýäýã àæèëä, ¿¿íèé äîòîð îðîííóòãèéí çºâëºë õîëáîîäîîñ íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí äóòàãäëûãá¿ðäýõ áà òýäíèé ã¿éöýòãýõ ¿¿ðýã, èëð¿¿ëæ, àíõààðàë õàíäóóëàõçîðèëãûí çàðèìààñ äóðäâàë: ¿¿ðýã ã¿öýòãýõèéí çýðýãöýýîðîí íóòãèéí çàñàã çàõèðãààíû ã¿éöýòãýëèéí øàòàíä ìýäýýëýëòàëààð ¿íäýñíèé ò¿âøíèé öóãëóóëàõ, çàäëàí øèíæëýõáîäëîãîä íºëººëºõ îëîí íèéòèéí àæëûí äàäëàãà òóðøëàãàà àøèãëàíõýëýëö¿¿ëýã çîõèîõ, çºâëºë àæèëëàõ øààðäëàãà áàéäàã. ÈÍÁõîëáîîä, òýäíèé ò¿íøëýëä àæèë ¿íýëãýýíèé ¿éë ÿâöûí á¿õèé¿éë÷èëãýý õ¿ðãýõ, îðîí íóòãèéí ë øàòàíä èäýâõèòýé îðîëöîõçàõèðãààíû áàéãóóëëàãóóäàä áîëîìæòîé.àðä÷èëñàí òàéëàí õàðèóöëàãûíòîãòîëöîî, èë òîä áàéäëûã Íóòãèéí èðãýäýä ò¿øèãëýñýíáýõæ¿¿ëýõ çîðèëãûã õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ áàéãóóëëàãà (ÍÈÒÁ): ýíý áîë èðãýä÷àäàâõèòàé áîëãîõîä äýìæëýã çîõèîí áàéãóóëàëòûí òîäîðõîé¿ç¿¿ëýõ çýðýã þì. Èéì õîëáîî õýëáýðò îðîí íóòãèéí õºãæëèéí¿íýëãýýíèé àæèëä, ÿëàíãóÿà àñóóäëààð íóòãèéí àðä èðãýäèéãò¿íøëýëèéã áèé áîëãîõ, õºãæèë äàé÷ëàí òýäíèé ýðõ àøãèéãáà áîäëîãûí õýðýãæèëòèéã õÿíàõ èëýðõèéëýí õàìãààëàõ “õîòî÷øàòàíä ÷óõàë îðîëöîã÷ òàë áîëîõ íîõîéí” ¿¿ðýã ã¿éöýòãýíý ãýñýí ¿ãþì. þì. Íóòãèéí èðãýäýä ò¿øèãëýñýí áàéãóóëëàãà áàñ íóòãèéí èðãýäèéí Èðãýíèé íèéãìèéí áàéãóóëëàãà: äîòîðõ ýìçýã áîëîí ãàäóóðõàãäñàíîëîí ºí㺠àÿñ á¿õèé õ¿÷èðõýã á¿ëãèéí ñàíàà áîäîë, ýðõ àøãèéãèðãýíèé íèéãìèéí îðøèõóé áîë èëýðõèéëýõ ãýñýí à÷ õîëáîãäîëîðîí íóòãèéí ñàéí çàñàãëàëûí á¿õèé ¿¿ðýã ã¿éöýòãýíý. Øèãòãýý 5. Çàñàãëàëûí ¿íýëãýýíèé àæëûí ¿íäñýí ¿å øàòóóä. Áýëòãýë àæèë: ¯íýëãýýíèé áàãèéã òîäîðõîéëæ, ãýðýýëýõ, àæëûí äýëãýðýíã¿é òºëºâëºãºº áîëîâñðóóëàõ. ¯íýëãýýíèé áàãò õ¿éñ, ÿñ ¿íäýñ, íàñ áîëîí íèéãìèéí ãàðëûí õóâüä àëü áîëîõ ºðãºí òºëººëºëòýé áàéâàë çîõèíî. ¯íýëãýý õèéãäýõ òóõàéí íóòàã îðíîîñ àëü áîëîõ õ¿í àâ÷ àæèëëóóëàõ ÿâäàë îíöãîé ÷óõàë. Äýëãýðýíã¿é òºëºâëºãººíä “¿ð ä¿íã ò¿ãýýí äýëãýð¿¿ëýõ” òóñãàé ¿å øàòûã òóñãàæ ºãíº. Ò¿íøëýë áàéãóóëàõ ¿å øàò: ¯íýëãýýíèé àæèëä îðîëöîæ áàéãàà òºðºë á¿ðèéí îðîëöîã÷/ñîíèðõîã÷ òàëóóäûí õîîðîíä àæëûí óÿëäàà õîëáîîã áèé áîëãîæ, õàíãàíà. ¯íýëãýýíèé áàã àëü áîëîõ òóõàéí îðîí íóòãèéí áàéãóóëëàãà õ¿ì¿¿ñýýð ¿íýëãýýíèé àæëûí “áàòëàí äààëãàõ” çîðèëòûã õàíãàæ àæèëëàíà. Àíõíû òºëºâëºõ óóëçàëòàä èðýýã¿é ÷óõàë îðîëöîã÷ òàëä çîõèõ ìýäýýëèéã õ¿ðã¿¿ëíý.Ýíý øàòàíä ¿íýëãýýíèé çîðèëãûí òóõàéä äàðàà äàðààãèéí øàòàíä àëèâàà ¿ë îéëãîëöîë ãàðãàõã¿éí òóëä õèéãäýõ ãýæ áàéãàà ¿íýëãýýíèé òàëààð àëü áîëîí ºðãºí ñóðòàë÷èëáàë çîõèëòîé. ªðãºí õ¿ðýýíèé òºëººëºë á¿õèé õÿíàëòûí çºâëºëèéã áàéãóóëíà. 25
  26. 26. Îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí òºëºâ áàéäëûã õýìæèõ¿é: Õýðýãëýã÷èéí ãàðûí àâëàãà Õÿíàëòûí çºâëºëèéí ãîë ¿¿ðýã áîë òîãòâîðòîé áàéäëûã õàíãàõ çîðèëãîîð ¿íýëãýýíèé ìºðººð àâàõ àðãà õýìæýýíèé òºëºâëºãººíèé áèåëýëòýä õÿíàëò òàâèõ ÿâäàë ìºí. Áîëîâcðóóëàõ ¿å øàò: ¯íýëãýýíèé õ¿ðýý, ¿íýëýõ àñóóäàë (¿ç¿¿ëýëò ñîíãîõ ãì)-ûã òîìü¸îëîí çàñàãëàëûí òàëààð ìýäýýëýë öóãëóóëàõ àðãà õýðýãñëèéã áîëîâñðóóëíà. Îðîëöîîã ñàéòàð õàíãàæ ÷àäâàë ¿ç¿¿ëýëòèéí ñîíãîëò äýýð íýã á¿ð÷ëýí õýëýëöýæ îðîëöîã÷ òàëóóäûí ººð õîîðîíä îéëãîëöîëä õ¿ð÷, õàìòðàí àæèëëàõ ¿¿ð àìüñãàëûã áèé áîëãîíî. Ýíý íü öààø öààøäûí àæèëä òóñòàé. ¯íýëãýýíèé ¿å øàò: Ìýäýýëýë öóãëóóëàõ ¿å. Ìýäýýëýë öóãëóóëàõ àæèë õàðèóöñàí áàãèéíõàí çààâàð÷èëãà ñàéòàé, îðîí íóòãèéí çàñàãëàëûí ¿íýëãýýíèé íîðìàòèâ ¿íäýñ, õýì õýìæýý, çàð÷èìä èòãýë ¿íýìøèëòýé áàéõ íü ÷óõàë. Òýäíèéã ñîíãîí øàëãàðóóëàõäàà íóòàã îðíîî ìýääýã, íóòãèéí èðãýäèéí á¿ëã¿¿äòýé õýë íýâòðýëöäýã õ¿íèéã ñîíãîâîë çîõèíî. Ä¿í øèíæèëãýýíèé ¿å øàò: Ìýäýýëëèéã çàäëàí øèíæëýõ ¿å. Ýíý íü ìýäýýëëèéã íýãòãýæ, ä¿ãíýëò áîëîâñðóóëàõ õýëáýðýýð ñóäàëãààíû ¿ð ä¿íã òàéëáàðëàõ ¿éë ÿâö þì. Ýíý øàòàíä ñóäàëãààíû ¿ð ä¿íãýýð õýëýëö¿¿ëýã çîõèîíî. Àðãà õýìæýý òºëºâëºõ, ò¿ãýýí äýëãýð¿¿ëýõ ¿å øàò: Îðîëöîã÷ òàëóóäòàé çºâøèëöñºí ¿éë àæèëëàãààíû òºëºâëºãºº áîëîâñðóóëæ, øèíæèëãýýíèé àæëûí ¿ð ä¿íã ò¿ãýýí äýëãýð¿¿ëæ, òºëºâëºñºí àðãà õýìæýýã õýðýãæ¿¿ëæ ýõëýõ. ¯íýëãýýíèé ¿ð ä¿í ãàðàõûã õ¿ëýýæ ñóóõ áèø, ýõíýýñ íü ¿ð ä¿íã õýðõýí ò¿ãýýí äýëãýð¿¿ëýõ òàëààð òîäîðõîé ñòðàòåãè áîëîâñðóóëæ àæèëëàõ õýðýãòýé. Ýíý ñòðàòåãè íü øèíèéã ýðýëõèéëñýí, îëîí õýðýãëýã÷ çýðýã òàíèëöàõ áîëîìæèéã òîäîðõîéëæ ÷óõàë÷èëíà. Èíãýñíýýð, ¿íýëãýýíèé ä¿í îëîí íèéòèéí ñàíàà áîäîëä íºëºº á¿õèé ýòãýýä õèéãýýä îðîí íóòãèéí óëñ òºðèéí íàì, íèéãìèéí á¿ëã¿¿ä, èðãýíèé íèéãìèéí áàéãóóëëàãààð äàìæèí øèéäâýð ãàðãàã÷äûí ñîíîðò õ¿ð÷ íºëººëºõ þì. Áîäëîãî õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ ¿å øàò: ¯éë àæèëëàãààíû òºëºâëºãººã õýðýãæ¿¿ëýõ, áèåëýëòýä õÿíàëò òàâèõ ¿éë ÿâö. Òºëºâëºãººíèé áèåëýëòýä õÿíàëò òàâüæ, ìîíèòîðèíã õèéõ àæèë áîë çàñàãëàëûí ¿íýëãýýã òîãòìîëæóóëàí õýâø¿¿ëýõýä øèéäâýðëýõ õ¿÷èí ç¿éë þì. Èéì ÷ ó÷ðààñ ¿¿íèéã ò¿íøëýë áèé áîëãîõ øàòàíä áàéãóóëñàí õÿíàí øàëãàõ çºâëºëèéí ¿íäñýí ÷èã ¿¿ðýã áîëãîõûã çºâëºìæ áîëãîæ áàéíà. Ýäãýýð ¿å øàòóóäûã Äýëõèéí áîëîâñðóóëàëò, ¿íýëãýý õèéõáàíêíû Èíñòèòóòûí ‘Çàñàãëàëûã áîëîí ¿íýëãýýíèé ¿ð ä¿íã¿íýëýõ ÷àäàâõè áóé áîëãîõ àðãà÷èëñàí ò¿ãýýí äýëãýð¿¿ëýõ øàòàíä òàòàíçºâëºìæ’-ä ¿íäýñëýí áîëîâñðóóëñàí. îðîëöóóëàõ íü ÷óõàë. Óëàìæëàëò ëèäåð/áàéãóóëëàãà: Îðîí íóòãèéí áèçíåñèéíÝäãýýð áàéãóóëëàãà íü íóòãèéí áàéãóóëëàãà: çàõ çýýëä áàðàà,èðãýäèéí äóíä íºëººòýé ó÷ðààñ ¿éë÷èëãýý íèéë¿¿ëýõ, àæëûí áàéð¿íýëãýýíèé ïðîöåññò á¿õ íèéòèéí áèé áîëãîõ çàìààð õóâèéí õýâøèëîðîëöîîã õàíãàõ ¿¿ðýã õ¿ëýýõ ýäèéí çàñãèéí ¿¿ðýã ã¿éöýòãýäýã.÷àäâàðòàé. Òýäãýýðèéã ¿íýëãýýíèé 26

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