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caribbean history

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  • 1. Periods of Caribbean History  The Encounter: the Age of Discovery  The Settling Down: Colonization  Emancipation: Engaging in Freedom  Globalization: the Changing Encounter
  • 2. Theme in Caribbean History  Migration  Genocide/Oppression  Resistance/Resilience
  • 3. The Settling Down: Colonization  This was the 17th , 18th and 19th century.  Other Western Europeans challenged the authority of the Spaniards in the 'New World'  This brought a number of conflicts: looting;plunder; raids and attacks from privateers,pirates and buccaneers  An emphasis was made on colonization: by the French, British and the Dutch.  Colonization meant that each Caribbean territory was ruled or governed by Western European Country
  • 4. The Settling Down: Colonization  The significance of Historical Events and Processes: − European settlement and colonization − Slavery − The Sugar Revolutions (around 1640) − The Development of the Plantation and Economy and Society
  • 5. The Settling Down: Colonization  Some significant historical events were: − Various rebellions, maroon wars − The Haitian Revolutions − The Abolitions of the Slave Trade (1807 in the British Colonies) − Emancipation (1834 in British Colonies)
  • 6. The Settling Down: Colonization  The Treatyof Tordesillas, 1494- divided the 'new world' between the Spanish and Portuguese.  This blocked other Europeans from the wealth of some islands.  Then the ruling colonizers could not supply the region with the goods that was needed.  The trading agreement Asiento allowed: the Portuguese, the Dutch and the British to trade.
  • 7. The Settling Down: Colonization  The treaties were too weak to allow the Spanish to continue the dominance because: − The Britain and Netherlands disregarded the treaties because they were ex-Roman Catholics and it was the Pope who assign authority to the treaties. − France was Roman Catholic, but was in conflict with the Vatican about the leadership in the France Church. − The wealth of the Indies made it impossible for the Spanish to keep other countries out. Wealth was too attractive for one Country to have it all
  • 8. The Settling Down: Colonization  The British, Dutch and French who came to the Caribbean to pillage, steal and smuggle defying the treaties were, therefore, inte rlo pe rs- they were there illegally.  They were successful at there quest because the empire of the Spaniards was too huge and unwieldly for the Spanish to police, govern and supply effectively.  The Europeans then started to migrate to the Indies in large masses of people. They laid claim to the settlement where these immigrants settled.
  • 9. The Interlopers  The first that came was: − 'Poor white' − Criminals − Farmers − Victims(of war, poverty and hardships in Europe)  They were contracted as indentured servants  Indentured servants were to: − Plant tobacco − Other crops  The claims were not enough because of the constant raids from other Europeans  War broke out both in Europe and in the Caribbean.
  • 10. The Result of the Wars The treaty arrangement often involved handing over territory to victorious European powers. Colonization
  • 11. Discussion  Identify countries of the Caribbean that were colonies of France, Britain, Spain and Dutch European countries.  Are there any countries in the Caribbean that are still colonies of any of the above?  Discuss using indentified territories how colonization influence the country's culture and society.
  • 12. The Settling Down: Colonization cont'd  Migration: African Slavery − The Indenture Servants were reluctant and unable to work. It was too hard for them − Indentureship became very expensive − There was a swift change from tobacco cultivation to Sugar  This was called the sugar revolution-1640. − This created a enormous and mammoth vacuum for labour that was cheap and efficient. − This change affect life then and is still having a significant impact on society and culture even today.
  • 13. The Migration: African Slavery  Reason for African slavery: − Slaves even though they are expensive to buy they eventually were far more economical − Indentured servants could not cope with the bulk of work − Little maintainance − They were regarded as inferior to other races − They were made for the climate. − They were physically built for hard work.
  • 14. The Migration: African Slavery  Slaves came primarily from West Africa: − The gold coast − The guinea coast − Benin
  • 15. To the 'New World'  The connection between sugar and slaves are seen clearly in the Atlantic TriangularTradesystem around two 'commodities' .  Ships left British 'slaving' ports of Bristol, London and Liverpool laden with manufactured goods of gun, cloth and utensils and made for the West African Coasts.  There they traded these goods for captured slaves. They then made their way across the Atlantic to the Caribbean and North American-this leg being known as the Middle Passage-  Where the human Cargo was traded for raw sugar,rum and molasses in the Caribbean and cotton and tobacco in North America.
  • 16. To the 'New World'  The ships then made their final leg to Britain carrying these product to be refined, feeding the industrialization.  It was noted that over 20 million African slaves were captured and forced into the journey of the Middle Passage  It is posited that this was the official genesis of globalization- through the slave trades.
  • 17. Genocide and Oppression:Slavery  More advance European weaponry gave European slaver master superiority thus they dominated the slaves.  The Africans were treated harshly,overworked, beaten, tortured, and killed at the whim of European.
  • 18. Genocide and Oppression:Slavery  African were regarded as chattel, that is, as property, not Human, and once born into slavery could not escape.  Christianizing the slaves was apart of this process.
  • 19. Influence of slavery  It most be noted that slavery has a social, cultural and economic impact on the Caribbean both now and then.  THEN refers to the 17th , 18th and the early 19th century.  NOWrefers to the contemporary life in the Caribbean.
  • 20. Influence of slavery  Economic- THEN  The plantation system- slave labour  This was the economic life- agricultural system.  Plantation was a business  Plantations monopolize the flat fertile coast, where roads settlements and ports were established.  Economic- NOW  Sugar still dominate- Guyana, Barbados, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Cuba,Santo Domingo and Belize.  Slavery was not abolished in some Spanish colonies until the 19th century- labour was by freed slaves or indentured servants.
  • 21. Influence of Slavery  Social- THEN  Demographic changes:  From white dominating Caribs and Arawaks  To White dominating a large enslaved population  Social life became stratified according to class and colour.  Social- NOW  African dominated  Whites in the minority- top of the social strata.  Ethnic group at the top through social mobility  Majority of people living in poverty are African and East Indians.
  • 22. Influence of slavery  Cultural-THEN  Cultural life, that is, the dress, the religion, food, language, music developed as a syncretic mix of European, Indigenous and African Traditions  Cultural- NOW  African traditions are at the helm. Examples:  African dress and fashion.  Revival of the Orisha and other Afro-centric religions.  Rastafarianism as an African- based philosophy in opposition to eurocentric values
  • 23. Response to Slavery: Resistance and Resilience  You should note that they were few rebellions that were successful during Slavery.  However, they showed resilience and resistance.  “African slaves resisted their predicament, even when they appeared to be happy and contented. Their forms of resistance could be describe as passive, active, and a combination of both known as maroonage.”
  • 24. Response to Slavery: Resistance and Resilience  There were three ways that the slaves resisted on the plantation:  Non-Violent  Violent Resistance  Maroonage
  • 25. Non- Violent Resistance  Refusal to work  Evasion of work  Malingering  Deliberately losing tools and implements  Misunderstanding instructions  Composing songs that mimicked the whites life style  suicide
  • 26. Violent Resistance  Individual or group acts against white persons.  In Jamaica there were numerous rebellions between 1673 to Emancipation in 1834.  The revolution in Haiti mushroomed into war between France and the slaves in 1791, the slaves being victorious.  Read up on the Haitian revolution and its impact on the society of slaves then.
  • 27. Maroonage  Slaves ran away far from European society  They would wage wars in the form of attacks, raids and inspiring rebellion on Estates.  In Jamaica maroon settlement were successful in defending runaway slaves from being recaptured.  They lived in inaccessible territories such as the Blue Mountain and the Cockpit countries.
  • 28. Resilience  Maroon communities maintained African Culture as a way of life;  The slaves maintain life as usual: − By establishing families; − Support network of friends; − Organize subsistent provision grounds; − Sold some of their produce; − Engage in forms of recreation for enjoyment.
  • 29. Society and Culture Today  Caribbean people continue to resist oppression through music and song- reggae and similar movements in Jamaica music originated among the poor and the oppressed and so too did the steelband and Calypso in Trinidad.  Resilience and resistance are shown through our propensity to adapt.  European traditions may dominate, for example, Christian faith, but they have been syncretized by other traditions, example Rastafarianism.
  • 30. The End Any questions?
  • 31. Emancipation: “Engaging” FreedomEmancipation: “Engaging” Freedom History, Culture and Society.History, Culture and Society.
  • 32. What happened?What happened?  The British parliament abolished slavery in 1834, to take effect 1840.  The Apprenticeship System- designed to facilitate the transition from a slave society to one of a free man.  This was more to facilitate the planters more than the slaves themselves.
  • 33. Caribbean ResponseCaribbean Response  Barbados and Antigua abolished slavery without the apprenticeship system.  This created difficulties:  Constant tension between whites and blacks  The rights of the newly freed were with held because there were no representation in the early emancipation.  Sugar price competition: from India, South Africa,Australia(all apart of the British Empire) and Cuba and Belize.
  • 34. What Resulted?What Resulted?  The response of the ex-slaves varied across the Caribbean.  Barbados and Antigua ex-slaves had no choice but to continue working on the Estates for wages  Wages were extremely low thus the Majority of Africans lived in abject poverty.
  • 35. What Resulted?What Resulted?  In larger territories such as Jamaica, Trinidad and Guyana, the ex-slaves could move away and set up their own small provision grounds and maintained a resilience, self-sustaining living.  The planter class in these countries faced labour shortage.  The turn was to Indentured Servants.
  • 36. IndentureshipIndentureship  Free labour was sourced from Africa, India and china.  They were to work for 5 to 7 years for small wages.  They were promise a free passage back home or a piece of land.  They were treated harshly and inhumanely.
  • 37. IndentureshipIndentureship  Most of the labour came from India.  Between 1838 and 1917 half a million were sent to Guyana to work on sugar estates.  Approximately 145000 migrated to Trinidad  38000 to Jamaica; 2500 to Grenada and smaller numbers to St Vincent and St Lucia.  Thousands of Chinese came to Trinidad, Jamaica and Guyana.
  • 38. Intra- Caribbean and MetropolitanIntra- Caribbean and Metropolitan MigrationMigration  Over-population occurred due to the depression in the economics of the plantation system.  There were several mass migration.  Thousands of Jamaican went to Cuba as Labourers on newly established plantations.  Many Barbadians, Jamaicans and others went to Panama in the 1900s to build the Panama Canal
  • 39. Intra- Caribbean and MetropolitanIntra- Caribbean and Metropolitan MigrationMigration  The Caribbean benefited immensely from remittances.  Many of the people did not return.  The largest migration was to the 'Mother country' Britain.  This happened in the aftermath of World War II (1939 – 1945).  The migration facilitated the rebuilding of the country.
  • 40. IIntra- Caribbean and Metropolitanntra- Caribbean and Metropolitan MigrationMigration  In the 1960 and 1970s Britain and France established stringent qualifications of entry.  The economic condition were not getting better thus in the same period they turned to Canada and the United States of America.  These countries followed the trend of the British and France government.
  • 41. OppressionOppression  Indentured servants faced harsh living  They were given crowded barracks, meagre wages, long hours of heavy manual labour.  Incurred many debts.  East Indian Indentureship ended in 1917 because of the harsh treatment of Indians living abroad.  There was constant strain between the Africans and the East Indians and the Planter Class.
  • 42. Resistance and ResilienceResistance and Resilience  The African invested in Alternatives and made attempts at economic diversification.  There was a great highlight of extreme resourcefulness and entrepreneurial skills.  The development of a dynamic and independent peasantry.
  • 43. Resistance and ResilienceResistance and Resilience  The settled in Free Villages and bought out bankrupt or abandoned sugar estates.  Some simple squatted on vacant land.  They cultivated traditional food and cash crops, and banana, coconut, rice, and arrowroot.  They also accept seasonal labour on the estates.
  • 44. Other ThingsOther Things  The East Indians introduced Rice:  Produced cocoa and ground provisions.  The Chinese moved into local commerce, shops, laundries and restaurants.
  • 45. Conclusion  The period of Emancipation: Engaging FreedomEmancipation: Engaging Freedom saw increasing culture pluralism in the Caribbean.  The aftermath of slavery and Indentureship also saw the different groups brought by the Europeans making a bid to settle down and resist the negative influences Europeans domination.  The economy became diversified as Caribbean people became more resilient.  Freedom also meant emancipation from oppressive economic policies and political freedom.  This era saw Caribbean people struggling for economic survival, for the establishment of Trade Unions and their own political parties.
  • 46. ActivityActivity Complete the activity in 10 minutes the exchange with your neighbour. The answers will be supplied on the next slide.
  • 47. AnswersAnswers 1) F 2) H 3) B 4) C 5) D 6) J 7) A 8) I 9) G 10)E
  • 48. Globalization: The ChangingGlobalization: The Changing EncounterEncounter The trend and occurrence of migration, oppression resistance and resilience continues in the 21st century.
  • 49. GlobalizationGlobalization  Connotes the following: − Deepended interconnection and relationship between all countries of the World. − Cheap and efficient transport. − Increase accessibility to the mass media. − Increase in Information and Communications technology (ICT).
  • 50. Globalization: Caribbean styleGlobalization: Caribbean style  Drug trade has levied sanctions from the United States of America − The Shiprider Agreement gives the United States armed forces the right to enter our sovereign sea and air space to pursue and arrest suspected drug traffickers.  There is increase deportation of Caribbean nationals.  Globalization enables metropolitan countries to intervene in the movements of Caribbean people I and out of the region.
  • 51. OppressionOppression  The impetus of Globalization came from the industrialized world.  The tenets of globalization is in their interest to eliminate trade barriers, to be able to move capital quickly and locate their operations anywhere they wish.  They are help in all this by the innovations of the ICT.  Multinational Companies (MNCs) headquarters in industrialized countries- dominated the world economy.  Globalization made their presence hegemonic.
  • 52. OppressionOppression  Caribbean countries like most developing countries are caught in the bind.  Were were use to trading agricultural produce with Britain and France. Things changed with Globalization- preferential treatment was anti globalization policies.  Preferential treatment was now thrown through the door by the European Union (EU).
  • 53. OppressionOppression  To cope with the monolith, Caribbean countries have had to align themselves with various regional, sub-regional and bilateral integration Schemes, such as: − OESC − CARICOM − MERCOSUR − ACS − FTAA
  • 54. OppressionOppression  In a globalized world the industrialized countries benefit the most.  The activities of MNCs and the regulations of organizations such as the EU and the World Trade Organization (WTO) acts as a neo- colonialist regimes.  Most Caribbean countries are independent but economic ties are more binding. Tis is similar to the plantation society and their slave masters.
  • 55. Resistance and ResilienceResistance and Resilience  Globalization is both a threat and an opportunity for Caribbean states and has generated a range of responses.  Caribbean countries have resisted by siding with the countries of the global south (developing) countries.  Cultural erasure has been combated by avid efforts of Cultural retentions and cultural renewal.  One cultural response is Rastafarianism- it looks at capitalism as 'Babylon' and stress peace.
  • 56. QuestionsQuestions  What part do we play in the signing of the Kayota protocol?  What other treaties or arrangements that Caribbean countries have ratified that are resistant to the ills of globalization?
  • 57. Readings  Chapter four-Tracing history in the Caribbean society and culture. Pages 93- 124. In Cape Caribbean Studies: An Interdisciplinary Approach  Chapter three- History, Society and Culture. Pages 52-87.Caribbean studies self study.

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