The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic, also known as
the Lithuanian SSR, was a republic of the Soviet Union. It
existed from 1940 to 1990.
Established on 21 July 1940 as a puppet state, during
World War II in the territory of the previously
independent Republic of Lithuania after it had
been occupied by the Soviet army on 16 June 1940, in
conformity with the terms of 23 August 1939 Molotov–
Between 1941 and 1944, the German invasion of
the Soviet Union caused its de facto dissolution.
However, with the retreat of the Germans in 1944–
1945, Soviet hegemony was re-established, and existed
Lithuania was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940 and
remained under Soviet rule for nearly half a century. The
Soviets made drastic reforms in all the Baltic States. These
occupied countries permanently dependent on the Soviet
Union politically and economically, while outwardly giving
the impression that they were helping the country. These
reforms also provided the Soviets with much needed
materials during the Second World War and helped the
spread of their communist ideology to neighboring countries.
For Lithuania, this process was marked by retarded
agricultural production and an extreme concentration on the
growth of heavy industry. Although industrialization is
generally regarded by economists as being good for an
economy, in this case it was done too fast to be able to
support the changes. The raw materials came in from other
Soviet republics and the products were sent to
Russia, meaning that the entire industrial sector was
dependent on Soviet cooperation.
The term was used as the name of a youth
organization for children between 7 and 9 years of
age. Little Octobrists were organized in groups each
representing one school grade level. The group was
divided into subgroups called little stars of 5
children each. Each group of Little Octobrists was
under the leadership of one Young Pioneer from the
Young Pioneer detachment. Every Little Octobrist
wore a ruby-coloured five-pointed star badge with
the portrait of Vladimir Lenin in his childhood. The
symbol of the group was the little red flag.
The Young Pioneer Organization of the Soviet
Union was a mass youth organization of
the USSR for children of age 10–15 in the Soviet
Almost all the children in the Soviet Union
belonged to the organization; it was a natural part of
growing up. In the 3rd grade of school, children
were allowed to join the Young Pioneer
Organization, which was done in batches, as a
solemn ceremony, often in a Pioneers Palace.
Only the best students were allowed into the first
batch, slightly less advanced and well-behaved were
allowed into the second batch, several weeks later.
The most ill-behaved or low-performing students
were given time to 'catch up' and could be allowed
to join only in the 4th grade, a year after the first
batch of their classmates.
The main symbols of Young Pioneers were the red
banner, flag, Young Pioneer's red neck scarf and the
The uniform was one of
identified Pioneers with
each other and the
uniform, included the
red neckerchief and the
organizational and rank
badges on the white
shirt with long or short
pants for boys and long
or short skirts for girls.
The All-Union Leninist Young Communist League usually
known as Komsomol was the youth division of
the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The Komsomol in
its earliest form was established in urban centers in 1918.
The youngest people eligible for Komsomol were fourteen
years old. The older limit of age for ordinary personnel was
twenty-eight, but Komsomol functionaries could be older.
While membership was nominally voluntary, those who didn't join lost
access to officially sponsored holidays and found it very difficult to
pursue higher education. Komsomol had little direct influence on the
Communist Party or the government of the Soviet Union, but it played an
important role as a mechanism for teaching the values of the CPSU to
youngsters. The Komsomol also served as a mobile pool of labor and
political activism, with the ability to relocate to areas of high-priority at
short notice. Active members received privileges and preferences in