Pacific Resistance in Lithuania


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OWTF Comenius 2012-2014

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Pacific Resistance in Lithuania

  1. 1. Our Way to Freedom 2012-2014
  2. 2. Historians have divided postwar Lithuanian resistance into three periods,chronologically related to changes in Soviet leadership: that of Stalin (1944–1953),of Khrushchev (1954–1964) and of Brezhnev (1964–1982).
  3. 3. The first period was characterized by stark guerrilla resistance, primarily that of the“ Forest Brothers.”In 1945 an estimated 30,000 armed men lived in small units in the woods, attacking andharassing Soviet interior ministry forces, functionaries, and Lithuanian collaborators.
  4. 4. The main guerrilla units operated through 1948; by 1949 however they adoptedtactics more suitable to small conspiratorial groups and continued resistance untildestroyed sometime around 1952.
  5. 5. By the second period of postwar resistance (1954–1964), Lithuania had already lostone sixth of its population due to deportations, war and resistance.This period was characterized by a change in public attitudes: open resistance andopposition turned into an attitude of exploiting, reforming and adjusting the system.
  6. 6. The Catholic Church possesses immense moral authority for its contributions toLithuanian history and culture and its consequent links with the very identity of thenation.The Catholic Church played a leading role in resisting the Soviets.From the start the Soviets tried to neutralize the Church’ s power. A governmentproposal to sever the Church’ s ties with the Vatican was vigorously resisted by theclergy. Despite intimidation and seductive offers, not a single priest could be foundto support the initiative.
  7. 7. The government responded to the Church’ s noncompliance with deportations anddestruction of the Church hierarchy.By 1947 only one elderly bishop, Kazimieras Paltarokas of Panevežys, was left inLithuania; others had been deported or killed
  8. 8. In 1978, a radical organization with the explicit goal of Lithuanian independencewas formed — The Lithuanian Freedom League (LFL). Founded by AntanasTerleckas, the LFL was one of the first groups to raise publicly the issue of thesecret protocols of the Molotov - Ribbentrop Pact.
  9. 9. Romas Kalanta was a Lithuanian high school student known for his publicself-immolation protesting Soviet regime in Lithuania. Kalantas deathprovoked the largest post-war riots in Lithuania and inspired similar self-immolations. Kalanta became a symbol of the Lithuanian resistance through out the 1970sand 1980s.
  10. 10. The term “ dissident” means a human who does not recognize the official ideology.
  11. 11. In 1970’ s dissidents started acting openly. They worked under the influence of theFinal Helsinki Act . Raised problems •Human rights irregularities •Lithuanian occupation
  12. 12. Primary work of dissidents was writing statements to representatives of Sovietgovernment and international organizations.
  13. 13. In 1976 November was established the group of Helsinki to watch how SSRSupholds the Helsinki meeting final Act.
  14. 14.  The union of Lithuanian catholic The union of young Lithuanian