Free Software: Challenges and opportunities for the next decades, Roberto di cosmo
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Free software is pervasive, and is being used in some form in practically all software developments. We now face the challenge, and have the opportunity, of creating and using tools that will allow us ...

Free software is pervasive, and is being used in some form in practically all software developments. We now face the challenge, and have the opportunity, of creating and using tools that will allow us to accompany the growth of Free Software over the next years.

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Free Software: Challenges and opportunities for the next decades, Roberto di cosmo Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Free/Open Source Software: some challenges and opportunities for the next 10 years Roberto Di Cosmo IRILL Director www.dicosmo.org - www.irill.org Universit´ Paris Diderot - IRILL - INRIA e France November 14th, 2013 OW2Con Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 1 / 28
  • 2. Short Bio 15 years of Free and Open Source Software 1998 Pi`ge dans le Cyberespace e 1999 DemoLinux 2004 EDOS 2007 Free Software Thematic Group http://www. systematic-paris-region. org/fr/logiciel-libre 100 members (SMEs, Labs) 30 projects ( 150Me) 2008 Mancoosi project www.mancoosi.org 2010 IRILL www.irill.org Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 2 / 28
  • 3. Outline 1 Free Software basic facts 2 Free Software challenges and opportunities 3 Free Software Licensing Complexity 4 Free Software Technical Complexity 5 Coccinelle 6 IRILL Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 3 / 28
  • 4. Outline 1 Free Software basic facts 2 Free Software challenges and opportunities 3 Free Software Licensing Complexity 4 Free Software Technical Complexity 5 Coccinelle 6 IRILL Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 4 / 28
  • 5. Reminder: FOSS free (as in free beer, or gratuit) software which has not to be payed (today) free (as in free speech, or libre) software granting 4 freedoms to its users:1 0 1 2 3 freedom to use the software freedom to study the source code of the software and to adapt it to user needs freedom to distribute software copies freedom to distribute modified software copies two points of view: the freedom one as outlined above (“free software”), the technical one pivoting around source code availability (“open source”) 1 there are of course also obligations, which vary according to the license: GPL, BSD, Mozilla, MIT/X, AGPL, . . . Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 5 / 28
  • 6. Free software is everywhere Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 6 / 28
  • 7. Some numbers that say it all IT Market FOSS in France: 2.5 billions euros in 2012 (PAC) RedHat: 1 billion dollars in 2012 Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 7 / 28
  • 8. Some numbers that say it all IT Market FOSS in France: 2.5 billions euros in 2012 (PAC) RedHat: 1 billion dollars in 2012 OS Market There Are Now 1.3 Million Android Device Activations Per Day Eric Schmidt, September 2012 Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 7 / 28
  • 9. Some numbers that say it all IT Market FOSS in France: 2.5 billions euros in 2012 (PAC) RedHat: 1 billion dollars in 2012 OS Market There Are Now 1.3 Million Android Device Activations Per Day Eric Schmidt, September 2012 Number of FOSS projects 2,091,753 FOSS projects Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Antepedia, May 2013 Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 7 / 28
  • 10. Some numbers that say it all IT Market FOSS in France: 2.5 billions euros in 2012 (PAC) RedHat: 1 billion dollars in 2012 OS Market There Are Now 1.3 Million Android Device Activations Per Day Eric Schmidt, September 2012 Number of FOSS projects 2,091,753 FOSS projects Antepedia, May 2013 Across all layers Linux, Apache, OpenStack, Hadoop, Postrgres, Alfresco, Zimbra, LibreOffice, Talend, ... Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 7 / 28
  • 11. Some numbers that say it all IT Market FOSS in France: 2.5 billions euros in 2012 (PAC) RedHat: 1 billion dollars in 2012 OS Market There Are Now 1.3 Million Android Device Activations Per Day Eric Schmidt, September 2012 Number of FOSS projects 2,091,753 FOSS projects Antepedia, May 2013 Across all layers Linux, Apache, OpenStack, Hadoop, Postrgres, Alfresco, Zimbra, LibreOffice, Talend, ... FOSS is or will be part of your software project: get ready! Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 7 / 28
  • 12. Outline 1 Free Software basic facts 2 Free Software challenges and opportunities 3 Free Software Licensing Complexity 4 Free Software Technical Complexity 5 Coccinelle 6 IRILL Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 8 / 28
  • 13. Challenges and opportunities FOSS is radically changing the way software is conceived, developed, maintained, deployed, tested, proven, marketed and sold. Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 9 / 28
  • 14. Challenges and opportunities FOSS is radically changing the way software is conceived, developed, maintained, deployed, tested, proven, marketed and sold. This is a tidal change with disruptive power: challenges build transparent software (re)using a multitude of components available with their source code Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 9 / 28
  • 15. Challenges and opportunities FOSS is radically changing the way software is conceived, developed, maintained, deployed, tested, proven, marketed and sold. This is a tidal change with disruptive power: challenges build transparent software (re)using a multitude of components available with their source code opportunities huge new market opening up for new tools and expertise Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 9 / 28
  • 16. Challenges and opportunities FOSS is radically changing the way software is conceived, developed, maintained, deployed, tested, proven, marketed and sold. This is a tidal change with disruptive power: challenges build transparent software (re)using a multitude of components available with their source code opportunities huge new market opening up for new tools and expertise Let’s see a few aspects of this revolution. Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 9 / 28
  • 17. Outline 1 Free Software basic facts 2 Free Software challenges and opportunities 3 Free Software Licensing Complexity 4 Free Software Technical Complexity 5 Coccinelle 6 IRILL Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 10 / 28
  • 18. FOSS as Lawyer’s nightmare Proprietary software There are as many licences as products, but the lawyer’s life is easy: the basic answer to the question May I copy/modify/adapt/distribute/etc. software X? is almost always a very simple NO. Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 11 / 28
  • 19. FOSS as Lawyer’s nightmare Proprietary software There are as many licences as products, but the lawyer’s life is easy: the basic answer to the question May I copy/modify/adapt/distribute/etc. software X? is almost always a very simple NO. Free software Lawyer’s life is more complex: there are only a few dozens licenses for millions of FOSS components, but the basic answer to the question May I do X with software Y? is almost always It depends.... Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 11 / 28
  • 20. Licence compatibility issues Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 12 / 28
  • 21. Bringing Tools In You can do much more with FOSS than proprietary software, but not everything: famous lawsuits concerning Busybox have shown that FOSS licence obligations are real. The gpl-violations.org project actively pursues violators. Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 13 / 28
  • 22. Bringing Tools In You can do much more with FOSS than proprietary software, but not everything: famous lawsuits concerning Busybox have shown that FOSS licence obligations are real. The gpl-violations.org project actively pursues violators. This created a business opportunity for companies that sell tools to spot legal bugs (sic!) in your software: Blackduck (30% annual growth recently!) Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 13 / 28
  • 23. Bringing Tools In You can do much more with FOSS than proprietary software, but not everything: famous lawsuits concerning Busybox have shown that FOSS licence obligations are real. The gpl-violations.org project actively pursues violators. This created a business opportunity for companies that sell tools to spot legal bugs (sic!) in your software: Blackduck (30% annual growth recently!) Palamida Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 13 / 28
  • 24. Bringing Tools In You can do much more with FOSS than proprietary software, but not everything: famous lawsuits concerning Busybox have shown that FOSS licence obligations are real. The gpl-violations.org project actively pursues violators. This created a business opportunity for companies that sell tools to spot legal bugs (sic!) in your software: Blackduck (30% annual growth recently!) Palamida There are also FOSS players: Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 13 / 28
  • 25. Bringing Tools In You can do much more with FOSS than proprietary software, but not everything: famous lawsuits concerning Busybox have shown that FOSS licence obligations are real. The gpl-violations.org project actively pursues violators. This created a business opportunity for companies that sell tools to spot legal bugs (sic!) in your software: Blackduck (30% annual growth recently!) Palamida There are also FOSS players: FOSSology (HP, free software) Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 13 / 28
  • 26. Bringing Tools In You can do much more with FOSS than proprietary software, but not everything: famous lawsuits concerning Busybox have shown that FOSS licence obligations are real. The gpl-violations.org project actively pursues violators. This created a business opportunity for companies that sell tools to spot legal bugs (sic!) in your software: Blackduck (30% annual growth recently!) Palamida There are also FOSS players: FOSSology (HP, free software) Ninka (Daniel German, free software) Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 13 / 28
  • 27. Bringing Tools In You can do much more with FOSS than proprietary software, but not everything: famous lawsuits concerning Busybox have shown that FOSS licence obligations are real. The gpl-violations.org project actively pursues violators. This created a business opportunity for companies that sell tools to spot legal bugs (sic!) in your software: Blackduck (30% annual growth recently!) Palamida There are also FOSS players: FOSSology (HP, free software) Ninka (Daniel German, free software) But... This is just the tip of the iceberg... and the least useful and/or interesting one! Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 13 / 28
  • 28. Outline 1 Free Software basic facts 2 Free Software challenges and opportunities 3 Free Software Licensing Complexity 4 Free Software Technical Complexity 5 Coccinelle 6 IRILL Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 14 / 28
  • 29. Bringing Tools In, reloaded Tools are needed to trace software origin, evolution, copies and forks; this allows to have a complete view of a full bill of materials (Antelink, Blackduck) Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 15 / 28
  • 30. Bringing Tools In, reloaded Tools are needed to trace software origin, evolution, copies and forks; this allows to have a complete view of a full bill of materials (Antelink, Blackduck) identify code flows, and vulnerability duplications (Antelink, ...) Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 15 / 28
  • 31. Bringing Tools In, reloaded Tools are needed to trace software origin, evolution, copies and forks; this allows to have a complete view of a full bill of materials (Antelink, Blackduck) identify code flows, and vulnerability duplications (Antelink, ...) profile community contributions (Bitergia) Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 15 / 28
  • 32. Bringing Tools In, reloaded Tools are needed to trace software origin, evolution, copies and forks; this allows to have a complete view of a full bill of materials (Antelink, Blackduck) identify code flows, and vulnerability duplications (Antelink, ...) profile community contributions (Bitergia) ... you name it Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 15 / 28
  • 33. Bringing Tools In, reloaded Tools are needed to trace software origin, evolution, copies and forks; this allows to have a complete view of a full bill of materials (Antelink, Blackduck) identify code flows, and vulnerability duplications (Antelink, ...) profile community contributions (Bitergia) ... you name it This is starting to show the way of the future... Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 15 / 28
  • 34. Who contributes? how much? to what? ... Answer Bitergia’s dashboards www.bitergia.org Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 16 / 28
  • 35. Who contributes? how much? to what? ... Answer Bitergia’s dashboards www.bitergia.org Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 16 / 28
  • 36. Where does this code come from? Answer Antepedia Reporter’s dashboards www.antelink.com Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 17 / 28
  • 37. Where does this code come from? Answer Antepedia Reporter’s dashboards www.antelink.com Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 17 / 28
  • 38. Complex software in industry, ten years from now Free Software is making software artefacts transparent: no artificial barriers among architectural layers. . . Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 18 / 28
  • 39. Complex software in industry, ten years from now Free Software is making software artefacts transparent: no artificial barriers among architectural layers. . . theoretical possibility to follow the flow of computation from the more abstract layers down to the moving bits in the hardware Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 18 / 28
  • 40. Complex software in industry, ten years from now Free Software is making software artefacts transparent: no artificial barriers among architectural layers. . . theoretical possibility to follow the flow of computation from the more abstract layers down to the moving bits in the hardware umprecedented levels of quality assurance and certification can be expected Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 18 / 28
  • 41. Complex software in industry, ten years from now Free Software is making software artefacts transparent: no artificial barriers among architectural layers. . . theoretical possibility to follow the flow of computation from the more abstract layers down to the moving bits in the hardware umprecedented levels of quality assurance and certification can be expected this is not easy: we need new theory and new tools Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 18 / 28
  • 42. Complex software in industry, ten years from now Free Software is making software artefacts transparent: no artificial barriers among architectural layers. . . theoretical possibility to follow the flow of computation from the more abstract layers down to the moving bits in the hardware umprecedented levels of quality assurance and certification can be expected this is not easy: we need new theory and new tools it will take time, effort and good cooperation between industrial partners, higher education and research actors Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 18 / 28
  • 43. Complex software in industry, ten years from now Free Software is making software artefacts transparent: no artificial barriers among architectural layers. . . theoretical possibility to follow the flow of computation from the more abstract layers down to the moving bits in the hardware umprecedented levels of quality assurance and certification can be expected this is not easy: we need new theory and new tools it will take time, effort and good cooperation between industrial partners, higher education and research actors Industry need to invest in Free Software fundamental research: the sooner, the better. Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 18 / 28
  • 44. Complex software in industry, ten years from now Free Software is making software artefacts transparent: no artificial barriers among architectural layers. . . theoretical possibility to follow the flow of computation from the more abstract layers down to the moving bits in the hardware umprecedented levels of quality assurance and certification can be expected this is not easy: we need new theory and new tools it will take time, effort and good cooperation between industrial partners, higher education and research actors Industry need to invest in Free Software fundamental research: the sooner, the better. This is the kind of research we promote at IRILL: let’s see a concrete example of what can be done. Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 18 / 28
  • 45. Outline 1 Free Software basic facts 2 Free Software challenges and opportunities 3 Free Software Licensing Complexity 4 Free Software Technical Complexity 5 Coccinelle 6 IRILL Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 19 / 28
  • 46. Coccinelle: flexible abstractions to master collateral evolutions Thanks to Gilles Muller and Julia Lawall for the following slides. See http://coccinelle.lip6.fr/ for more information. Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 20 / 28
  • 47. Coccinelle: flexible abstractions to master collateral evolutions Thanks to Gilles Muller and Julia Lawall for the following slides. See http://coccinelle.lip6.fr/ for more information. The collateral evolution problem: Library functions change. Client code must be adapted. – Change a function name, add an argument, etc. Linux context: – Many libraries: usb, net, etc. – Very many clients, including outside the Linux source tree. Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 20 / 28
  • 48. An example Evolution: A new function: kzalloc =⇒ Collateral evolution: Merge kmalloc and memset into kzalloc fh = kmalloc(sizeof(struct zoran fh), GFP_KERNEL); if (!fh) { dprintk(1, KERN_ERR "%s: zoran open(): allocation of zoran fh failedn", ZR_DEVNAME(zr)); return -ENOMEM; } memset(fh, 0, sizeof(struct zoran fh)); Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 21 / 28
  • 49. An example Evolution: A new function: kzalloc =⇒ Collateral evolution: Merge kmalloc and memset into kzalloc fh = kzalloc(sizeof(struct zoran fh), GFP_KERNEL); if (!fh) { dprintk(1, KERN_ERR "%s: zoran open(): allocation of zoran fh failedn", ZR_DEVNAME(zr)); return -ENOMEM; } memset(fh, 0, sizeof(struct zoran fh)); Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 22 / 28
  • 50. A simple semantic patch Abstract away the details of a patch @@ expression x; expression E1,E2; @@ - x = kmalloc(E1,E2); + x = kzalloc(E1,E2); ... - memset(x, 0, E1); A single snippet ... updates 355/564 files! Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 23 / 28
  • 51. Practical results Collateral evolutions Semantic patches for over 60 collateral evolutions. Applied to over 5800 Linux files from various versions, with a success rate of 100% on 93% of the files. Bug finding Generic bug types: – Null dereference, initialization of unused variables, etc. Bugs in the use of Linux APIs: – Incoherent error checking, memory leaks, etc. Over 450 patches created using Coccinelle accepted into Linux Starting to be used by other Linux developers Probable bugs found in gcc, postgresql, vim, amsn, pidgin, mplayer Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 24 / 28
  • 52. Outline 1 Free Software basic facts 2 Free Software challenges and opportunities 3 Free Software Licensing Complexity 4 Free Software Technical Complexity 5 Coccinelle 6 IRILL Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 25 / 28
  • 53. IRILL in the big picture IRILL (Innovation et Recherche en Informatique sur le Logiciel Libre): a center to host researchers, teachers, engineers, and free software developers to work together on the new scientific, technological and educational challenges of Free Software See more info on http://www.irill.org. Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 26 / 28
  • 54. IRILL in the big picture IRILL (Innovation et Recherche en Informatique sur le Logiciel Libre): a center to host researchers, teachers, engineers, and free software developers to work together on the new scientific, technological and educational challenges of Free Software See more info on http://www.irill.org. IRILL has an industry partnership program: join today! Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 26 / 28
  • 55. Conclusions Free Software is here to stay, and is disrupting the traditional organization of the software industry. Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 27 / 28
  • 56. Conclusions Free Software is here to stay, and is disrupting the traditional organization of the software industry. Developing, maintaining, marketing, integrating, and qualifying software built with or in the FOSS world is the source of new challenges that are new opportunities for disruptive innovation. Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 27 / 28
  • 57. Conclusions Free Software is here to stay, and is disrupting the traditional organization of the software industry. Developing, maintaining, marketing, integrating, and qualifying software built with or in the FOSS world is the source of new challenges that are new opportunities for disruptive innovation. The time has come to stop asking whether FOSS is relevant... and start getting ready to use it properly. Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 27 / 28
  • 58. Questions? Roberto Di Cosmo (Paris Diderot / Irill / INRIA) Free Software Challenges November 2013 / OW2 28 / 28