Evolution of a Robust Tribal-University
Research Partnership to Investigate Tribal
Exposures and Build Scientific Capacity...
2
Focus of the OSU Superfund
Research Program
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Confederated Tribes of the
Umatilla Indian Reservation
3
CTUIR Field Station equipment:
Two greenhouses
Botany and chemist...
History of Collaboration
4
2003 - 2009 2015 - 20182010 2011 2012 2013 2014
High-
volume
ambient air
sampler
installed on
t...
The beginning of a partnership
2003 – EPA grant
2006 – Memorandum of Understanding
Template for the Data Sharing Agreement...
Mission of the University-
Tribal Partnership
6
Create a collaborative project and partnership aimed at better understandi...
7
CTUIR-University Partnership:
Activities
(1) Traditional Smoking Practices
PAH exposure from traditional smoking practic...
8
What makes a University-Tribal
Partnership Sustainable?
Community-based participatory Research
• Empowering communities ...
2007 - 2010
Traditional Tribal Subsistence
Exposure Scenario and Risk
Assessment Guidance Manual
9
Cultural
Capacity
Scien...
10
2010 - 2011
Specific Tribal Requests
(2) PAH concentrations in ambient air on the
Reservation
(3) Tribal member engagem...
11
Specific Tribal Requests
(1) Traditional Smoking Practices
PAH exposure from traditional
smoking practices
2011 - 2012
...
Shed Tipi
Apple Alder Apple Alder
Chinook Salmon
Commercial Salmon #1
Chinook Salmon
Non-smoked salmon
Analysis of 33 PAH ...
13
Traditional Salmon Smoking Event
Personal air sampling
The first of its kind conducted with tribal members.
PAH in urin...
14
2011 - 2012
“The initial trigger for this work occurred because regulatory
agencies need to understand tribal exposures...
15
2011 – 2012
Building a sustainable partnership – using the
Material and Data Sharing Agreement as a model
for other pro...
16
2012 – 2013
Focus Groups
Three 90-minute focus group sessions with a total of 27
participants were held to elicit opini...
Themes describing barriers to
healthy communities
17
Perceptions of Health
• Participants expressed a holistic
view of health that included
environmental, physical, mental,
sp...
19
2013 – 2014
Cultural
Capacity
Scientific
Capacity
Dietary Study
50g smoked salmon
Pre-breakfast urine sample
Urine samp...
20
2014 – 2018 – Future work
Material and Data
sharing agreements
Improve understanding of PAHs among
the Swinomish and Sa...
• Community-based participatory research
• Scientific and cultural capacity building between
CTUIR and OSU researchers
– E...
22
Acknowledgements
Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation
• Michelle Burke
• Jack Butler
• CTUIR particip...
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Evolution of a Robust Tribal-University Research Partnership to Investigate Tribal Exposures and Build Scientific Capacity

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Presented by Diana Rohlman at the Contemporary Northwest Tribal Health Conference
March 28-29, 2014 in Portland, OR
For more information and resources on Tribal - University research, please visit our web site: http://superfund.oregonstate.edu/outreach

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  • The SRP focus is on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are products of combustion (car exhaust, wildfires, smoking/grilling food). The Community Engagement Core is one of 6 cores, which all bring expertise. The CEC can connect the expertise of these cores to community partners, such as CTUIR
  • One of the limitations we have had to overcome is our distance, which does make it difficult to sit down at a table and talk face to face. However, one reason our partnership has thrived and been sustainable is because the CTUIR has scientific capacity and resources, which is unique amongst Tribal nations. Because of this, both entities are bringing scientific expertise to the table.
  • Brief overview of the partnership, which is going on over 10 years. Of note – this is not a research-only partnership. There have been events throughout the year to focus on building scientific and cultural capacity. Also note the collaborative publications.
  • On paper, the partnership began with a collaborative EPA Star grant. In reality, it began with a conversation, and shared research interests and expertise. The MOU transitioned into a Material and Data Sharing Agreement designed to protect Tribal rights.As the partnership evolved, specific CTUIR concerns were identified, and expertise from both entities combined to address these concerns.
  • Stress that expertise and experience (scientific, cultural) was equally contributed. This is a partnership that is designed to combine skill sets, and to share the experiences of both partners. This model has resulted in several publications co-authored, as well understanding of University research strategies and Tribal culture/tradition.
  • Three activities were addressed in the first SRP grant cycle.
  • As the partnership progressed, a great deal of thought was given to how this could be a sustainable partnership.
  • To help sustainability, activities to address cultural capacity were conducted.
  • The first research project to address specific CTUIR environmental concerns. Used the principles of community-based participatory researchBrief description of the design – 2 air monitors, use filters to trap particulate matter, Tribal members and Air Quality technician collect filters, etc.
  • Second large research effort – PAH concentrations in smoking structures, in urine of Tribal members performing the smoking, and in the smoked salmon
  • Visualization of the experiment itself.Focus first on the comparison of the PAH levels in non-smoked vs commercial The increase in PAH levels in smoked salmon set the stage for upcoming studies, to determine the meaning behind these numbers, and to try to influence risk reduction strategies.
  • Briefly mentioned the difference in PAH concentration, most likely due to air flow differences between the smoking shed and the tipi.
  • Running alongside the research efforts, collaborative publications were done to continue informing researchers and risk reduction strategies about the unique situations of Tribal communities regarding consumption and use of traditional foods, etc.
  • Published the Material and Data Sharing agreement so that it could be used as a template for other Tribal-university partnerships. This template has been used by the CEC to form partnerships with other Tribal nations.
  • The point of these focus groups was to discover how environmental health is viewed by the CTUIR, from an individual and community perspective.
  • The size of the text indicates the importance of the topic. Main topics were air and water quality, polluted natural foods, and radiation from the nearby Hanford plant.
  • Diagram of proposed research. This research will help inform risk reduction strategies regarding consumption of traditionally smoked fish/meats.
  • Up-coming projects
  • Stress CBPR – future studies will make heavy use of this model
  • Questions:“I read about the wristbands – what exactly do they pick up?” Answer: They can pick up volatile and semi-volatile compounds. I think of it as chemicals that are dissolved in the air – they are freely available, so they are absorbed by the wristband. Other chemicals that can be identified – flame retardants, herbicides, and personal care products.”“What was in your wristband?” Answer: The whole study was done confidentially, so I don’t know! I do know flea medicine (for dogs and cats) was identified, as well as a lot of caffeine, which was absorbed from sweat. “Can this research be used in a retrospective manner? For example, can you use these results to look at diseases, etc. that have affected the past few generations to look for a cause? It doesn’t sound like you are doing this, but maybe you could mention it to your team?” (This was a personal question asked later during a break)Overall reception was very positive.
  • Evolution of a Robust Tribal-University Research Partnership to Investigate Tribal Exposures and Build Scientific Capacity

    1. 1. Evolution of a Robust Tribal-University Research Partnership to Investigate Tribal Exposures and Build Scientific Capacity Tribal-University Collaboration to Address Tribal Exposures to PAHs and Improve Community Health Contemporary Northwest Tribal Health Conference March 28-29, 2014 Portland, OR Diana Rohlman, OSU OSU: Barbara Harper, Anna Harding, Molly Kile, Kim Anderson, Staci Simonich CTUIR: Barbara Harper, Stuart Harris 1
    2. 2. 2 Focus of the OSU Superfund Research Program Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    3. 3. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation 3 CTUIR Field Station equipment: Two greenhouses Botany and chemistry labs ICP/AES; GC/MS; UV/Vis spec. Equipment installed Jan-Feb 2012
    4. 4. History of Collaboration 4 2003 - 2009 2015 - 20182010 2011 2012 2013 2014 High- volume ambient air sampler installed on the Umatilla Reservation 1 joint paper published Personal air monitoring training video’s 3 joint papers published PAH in traditionally smoked salmon study published Dietary study - PAH EPA- STAR-JI- R831046 (2003 – 2007) Air and urine samples collected Passive sampling devices (PSD) deployed PSD deployed in the Nixyáawii Governance Center NIEHS – P42ESO16465 (2009 – 2018) Memorandum of Understanding OSU and the CTUIR Department of Science and Engineering (DOSE) begin collaboration Engage Tribal Youth
    5. 5. The beginning of a partnership 2003 – EPA grant 2006 – Memorandum of Understanding Template for the Data Sharing Agreement currently being used (CTUIR, Swinomish, Samish) All data belong to the CTUIR Specific CTUIR concerns identified 5
    6. 6. Mission of the University- Tribal Partnership 6 Create a collaborative project and partnership aimed at better understanding health risks associated with PAH exposure on the Reservation and assist in capacity building with tribal partners and research scientists. CTUIR SRP Agencies Investigators Community members Investigators CEC Cultural Capacity Scientific Capacity Pubs Culturally appropriate risk reduction InputsCapacityOutputs Increased trust in University research Understanding of Tribal culture and tradition CBPR Cultural Capacity Scientific Capacity
    7. 7. 7 CTUIR-University Partnership: Activities (1) Traditional Smoking Practices PAH exposure from traditional smoking practices PAH exposures from traditionally smoked foods (2) PAH concentrations in ambient air on the Reservation (3) Tribal member engagement in research (CBPR) Novel Research Interests Community Health Concerns Research interests identified by CTUIR
    8. 8. 8 What makes a University-Tribal Partnership Sustainable? Community-based participatory Research • Empowering communities to make informed decisions regarding their health and their environment • Doing collaborative research that has been identified as important by CTUIR • Trust between CTUIR and OSU Scientists Attention to capacity building in scientists and Tribal members • Utilize the CTUIR Field Station • Increase scientist cultural capacity Respect for Tribal culture and traditions • Develop culturally respectful ways to reduce the health effects of chemical exposures • Recognition of a sovereign government with laws & policies
    9. 9. 2007 - 2010 Traditional Tribal Subsistence Exposure Scenario and Risk Assessment Guidance Manual 9 Cultural Capacity Scientific Capacity Symposium: Conducting Research in Tribal Communities
    10. 10. 10 2010 - 2011 Specific Tribal Requests (2) PAH concentrations in ambient air on the Reservation (3) Tribal member engagement in research (CBPR) Installed ambient PAH monitors Produced training videos – How to use personal air samplers Trained Tribal Air Quality Technician to collect PAH filters CTUIR community SRP Researcher SRP Community Engagement Core DOSE
    11. 11. 11 Specific Tribal Requests (1) Traditional Smoking Practices PAH exposure from traditional smoking practices 2011 - 2012 Traditional Salmon Smoking Event Collection and analysis of personal air and urine samples from Tribal members smoking food Tribal involvement: Catching and smoking Chinook salmon, wearing air monitors, provide urine samples OSU involvement: Analysis of PAH in air and fish, analysis of PAH in urine Cultural Capacity Scientific Capacity
    12. 12. Shed Tipi Apple Alder Apple Alder Chinook Salmon Commercial Salmon #1 Chinook Salmon Non-smoked salmon Analysis of 33 PAH in ambient air, personal air exposure, salmon Commercial Salmon #2 Commercial Salmon #3 ∑PAH levels between 140 – 430X higher in CTUIR smoked salmon ∑PAH levels in commercial vs CTUIR non-smoked salmon similar Traditional Salmon Smoking Event Anderson and Simonich Laboratories, CTUIR Tribal members, DOSE
    13. 13. 13 Traditional Salmon Smoking Event Personal air sampling The first of its kind conducted with tribal members. PAH in urine Collected urine from 2 Tribal members to analyze PAH levels in urine PAH concentration was higher in the tipi versus the shed Forsberg, N., Stone, D., Harding, A., Harper, B., Harris, S., Matske, M., Cardenas, A., Waters, K., Anderson, K. (2012) Effect of Native American fish smoking methods on dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and possible risks to human health. Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 60(27), 6899-6906.
    14. 14. 14 2011 - 2012 “The initial trigger for this work occurred because regulatory agencies need to understand tribal exposures in order to evaluate risks and set risk-based remedial goals at contaminated sites if tribal lands, health or resources are affected either on- or off-reservation.” Cultural Capacity Scientific Capacity Develop culturally respectful ways to reduce the health effects of chemical exposures.Harper, B.L., Harding, A.K., Harris, S., Berger, P. (2012) Subsistence Exposure Scenarios for Tribal Applications. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 18, 810-831.
    15. 15. 15 2011 – 2012 Building a sustainable partnership – using the Material and Data Sharing Agreement as a model for other projects Distributed to: • Regional EPA Tribal Liaisons • Regional Indian Health Service providers • NIEHS Resource Center (Accessible to SRPs and EHSCs) Harding, A.K., Harper, B., Stone, D., O’Neill, C., Berger, P., Harris, S., Donatuto, J. (2012). Conducting research with tribal communities: Sovereignty, ethics, and data-sharing issues. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(1), 6-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1103904.
    16. 16. 16 2012 – 2013 Focus Groups Three 90-minute focus group sessions with a total of 27 participants were held to elicit opinions on meanings of health and how the environment interacts with health Cultural Capacity Scientific Capacity Selection of questions asked during the focus group: 1. What does being a healthy individual mean to you? 2. What does a healthy community look like? 3. In what ways is your health and the health of your family connected to the environment? 4. What sources of pollution or types of chemicals concern you the most? 5. Would you eat plants or game or fish obtained [near sources of pollution]?
    17. 17. Themes describing barriers to healthy communities 17
    18. 18. Perceptions of Health • Participants expressed a holistic view of health that included environmental, physical, mental, spiritual, and intergenerational social components. • A healthy natural environment was identified as an essential component of a healthy individual and a healthy community. • Many believe the identified environmental hazards contribute to diseases in their community. 18 Schure M, Kile ML, Harding AK, Harper B, Harris S, Uesugi S, Goins T. (2013) Perceptions of the Environment and Health Among Members of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. Environmental Justice, 6(3), 115-120.
    19. 19. 19 2013 – 2014 Cultural Capacity Scientific Capacity Dietary Study 50g smoked salmon Pre-breakfast urine sample Urine sample – 3 hours PAH analysis, PBPK analysis for metabolism 10 Tribal members Specific Tribal Requests PAH exposures from traditionally smoked foods Urine sample – 6 hours Urine sample – 12 hours Urine sample – 24 hours Survey – exposures to other sources of PAH Restricted Foods
    20. 20. 20 2014 – 2018 – Future work Material and Data sharing agreements Improve understanding of PAHs among the Swinomish and Samish Indian communities Use PSD to measure ambient PAH exposure Multi-media Environmental Health Activity Engage Tribal Youth Use air samplers indoors Measure air quality in CTUIR homes using wood burning stoves
    21. 21. • Community-based participatory research • Scientific and cultural capacity building between CTUIR and OSU researchers – Emphasis on trust between CTUIR and University • Developed data sharing agreements for Tribal- University partnerships that protect Tribal rights • Develop culturally appropriate risk reduction strategies with CTUIR • Disseminated knowledge through journals, newsletters and community meetings to provide Tribal Perspectives on research practices 21 Summary: Building a robust, sustainable partnership
    22. 22. 22 Acknowledgements Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation • Michelle Burke • Jack Butler • CTUIR participants in salmon smoking study and focus group sessions • Tribal Advisory committee members OSU Superfund Researchers, Staff • Andres Cardenas (Community Engagement Core) • Norman Forsberg, PhD (Anderson Lab) • Yuling Jia (Simonich Lab) • Oleksii Motorykin (Simonich Lab) • Jill Schrlau (Simonich Lab) • Dave Stone, PhD (Research & Translation Core) • Dan Sudakin, MD (Director, Research & Translation Core) • Lane Tidwell (Anderson Lab) • Sandra Uesugi, MS (Former Program Coordinator, Community Engagement Core) Pacific Northwest National Laboratories • Katrina Waters, PhD

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