RESPONSE OPTIONS:
BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE INDICATOR DEVICES FOR
GAUGING ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS (BRIDGES),
EXAMPLES: DEEPWATER...
Sampling Design: Responding in Different Ways
and Why
Bioavailability: target organisms and passive sampling
2devices

Tot...
Why Bioavailable ?
3

Environmental exposure and
fate


Understanding
environmental
factors on
diseases…


Must develop ...
Environmental
Chemistry

Toxicology

Environmental
Concentrations

Toxico-kinetics
For example:
Uptake, metabolism,
elimin...
PSD Membrane

BRIDGES

Cell Membrane

Biological Response Indicator Devices for
Gauging Environmental Stressors
Responding design options
PSD: Relevant to a range of contaminants
6

Numerous Chemistry
Opportunities


Extract clean

...
PSD: Relevant to a range of
contaminants in water, air, sediment,
etc….

7

Numerous Chemistry
Opportunities


Pesticides...
8

PSD: Relevant to Rapid
Response
Easy to deploy

Easy to transport

Oregon State University
BRIDGES: Reduce exposure uncertainty by analyzing biological
responses
BRIDGES extracts with bioassay model (Zebrafish, Am...
Bio-analytical Tools
BRIDGING Environmental Exposure with Biological
Responses
Integrated with Bioassays
(in vivo and in v...
Sources of PAHs in the
Environment






Biogenic (minor)
Petrogenic
 Generated by geological processes
 NATURAL- see...
Oil Spills Context and
Comparisons
It doesn‟t take much seep oil to deliver a lot of
PAHs




1 kilogram of oil contains...
RESPONSE: May 1 Planning
Started
Complicated Ops, multi-sources, sites, access
14,000 wells in GoM, 79 incidents of loss o...
Ready Response…
The FSES Program at OSU is a research program committed to providing
the highest quality analytical labora...
Quality Assurance Program Plan
Defensible, Unbiased data

Oregon State University
Respond: establish regional and individual
contacts


Florida


Pensacola, Gulf Islands National
Seashore




Alabama
...
Gulf Port, MS

17

Grand Isle, LA

Gulf Shores, AL

Gulf Breeze, FL
Response Goals: many fold…
Many ideally suited to passive
samplers


PRE-spill conditions



Oil trajectory uncertain

...
10

20

ne

Ju

ne

0

2010

Ju
ly
Au
gu
Se
st
pt
em
be
M
r
ar
ch
20
11

(2
)

(1
)

y
-1
-2
Ma u n e u n e
J
J

Ju

20
20...
Temporal, Spatial PAHs Gulf of Mexico
Bioavailable Air Concentrations of a selected PAH
(ng/m3)
PAHs in ng/m³ air

Louisia...
Temporal, Spatial Surfactants Gulf of Mexico
Dispersants contain surfactants (detergent like)
21




O

Surfactants capt...
Analyzing the „fingerprint‟ in a
chemical profile

Oregon State University
Analyzing the chemical ‘fingerprint’
(petrogenic -v- pyrogenic)
23

PAH Forensic Profile

GoM before, during, after

1
Nor...
Principle Component Analysis
1-9 = May 2010 through June 2011 water PAHs
24

Allan, Smith & Anderson, ES&T 2012

Oregon St...
25.00
C27Ts/C27m

20.00

Ratio Value

Hopanes: Used to Determine
Sources
Molecular Fossils, Biomarkers

Alabama Hopane Rat...
Other Applications




Passive sampling devices capable of capturing a wide
range of chemicals suitable for characterizi...
PSD: Bioavailable PAHs Before and After
Remediation
High Spatial Resolution Possible with PSDs
McCormick and Baxter Superf...
28

Monitoring design options
PSD Integrated Seamlessly with Bioassays
in vivo and in vitro embryonic zebrafish
model, Ame...
Site-specific Biological
Responses
80

30 hpf mortality

M30

60
BRIDGES

40
20
0

MLR, likelihood ratio,
p<0.05;

3

4

5...
Estimating exposure (risk) using PSDs as biological
surrogates in human health risk models
30


Apply PSD data in a Publi...
Comparison of PSD as a surrogate and fish
tissue
Sethajintanin et al. 2004, Villeneuve, et al, ES&T, 2005

31

concentrati...
Paired PSDs deployed with crayfish cages,
PAHs… to date, outstanding fit with measured and modeled

PAHs in PSDs vs. Crayf...
Response design options
Comparison of PSDs and fish tissue
33



Although not enough side-by-side studies




Currently...
Other types of passive sampling
devices
Responder‟s Exposure….
Wristband Preliminary Data:
PAHs from Roofers for 8 and 40
...
Community Outreach and Engagement
Strategies
Goal: Provide pertinent PAH health information to be delivered using novel me...
Anticipated IMPACT

RESPOND
Easy
deployed
timeintegrated
sampling
devices

RECOVER
Y
1,200
bioavailable
contaminant
s moni...
Acknowledgements
37

Funding:
P42 ES016465 (PI Williams, Project Leader
Anderson, Analytical Core leader Anderson)
P30 ES0...
Acknowledgements
38

http://fses.or
egonstate.e
du
GULF
Outreach

http://oregonst
ate.edu/superf
und/oilspill

Kevin Hobbi...
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Response options: Biological Response Indicator Devices for Gauging Environmental Stressors (BRIDGES), examples: deepwater horizon oil spill & Superfund sites

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Kim A. Anderson, PhD
Professor, Environmental & Molecular Toxicology
Director, Food Safety & Environmental Stewardship Program
Oregon State University

Response, Recovery, and Resilience to Oil Spills and Environmental Disasters: Engaging Experts and Communities A Symposium and Workshop for Community Stakeholders, Researchers and Policy Makers January 29, 2013 Energy, Coast and Environment Building, Woods Auditorium, LSU Campus, Baton Rouge, LA 70803
More information on symposium: http://superfund.oregonstate.edu/LSUSymposium1.13#91

More info on research: http://superfund.oregonstate.edu/project4

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  • The presence of toxic chemicals in the environment is not necessarily indicative of a risk to human and environmental health; the chemicals must be bioavailable in order for there to be an exposure, which is a necessary precursor to a toxic outcome. The bioavailable fraction of a chemical is the portion of the total bulk concentration that is capable of being taken up by organisms and is sometimes referred to as the external dose (1). Bioavailability is therefore a more biologically relevant measure of contamination and potential exposure than total concentration.
  • comparisons of PAH concentrations in PSDs and fish tissue from the Portland Harbor Superfund site demonstrate that using PSD concentrations in a public health assessment would provide a reasonable and conservative estimate of exposure that would be protective of human health without significantly overestimating risk. Table 3.1 presents fish tissue data from the Lower Willamette Group (21), some of which was used in the Portland Harbor Public Health Assessment (16) as well as PSD data from this study. The fish and shellfish were collected from Portland Harbor during a period that overlapped with the PSD study; however these two studies are unrelated to one another. Furthermore, it is important to highlight that PAHs were not included in the Portland Harbor Public Health assessment because of insufficient data (16); therefore, the data presented in Table 3.1 is based on a limited sample set. The side-by-side comparison demonstrates that PSDs from this study captured the magnitude, range and variability of PAH concentrations that have been reported in a variety of fish and shellfish tissues from the harbor and provide an estimate of exposure that is realistic and protective.
  • Response options: Biological Response Indicator Devices for Gauging Environmental Stressors (BRIDGES), examples: deepwater horizon oil spill & Superfund sites

    1. 1. RESPONSE OPTIONS: BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE INDICATOR DEVICES FOR GAUGING ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS (BRIDGES), EXAMPLES: DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL & SUPERFUND SITES RESPONSE, RECOVERY, AND RESILIENCE TO OIL SPILLS AND ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS: ENGAGING EXPERTS AND COMMUNITIES A SYMPOSIUM AND WORKSHOP FOR COMMUNITY STAKEHOLDERS, RESEARCHERS AND POLICY MAKERS JANUARY 29, 2013 ENERGY, COAST AND ENVIRONMENT BUILDING, WOODS AUDITORIUM, LSU CAMPUS, BATON ROUGE, LA 70803 Kim A. Anderson, PhD Professor, Environmental & Molecular Toxicology Director, Food Safety & Environmental Stewardship Program Oregon State University
    2. 2. Sampling Design: Responding in Different Ways and Why Bioavailability: target organisms and passive sampling 2devices Total concentration  Potential for exposure • • • RISK • Freely dissolved*  Bioavailable fraction Can be taken up by organisms Adams, et al 1985, DiToro et al 1991 The PAHs most available to equilibrate are those that are freely dissolved, since these are capable of transferring from one phase to another and passing through biological membranes.” (Wang and Fisher, 1999) It is generally believed that the process of uptake of these neutral hydrophobic compounds is PASSIVE and controlled DIFFUSION pressures (fugacity) because of the differential between the environment matrix and tissue concentrations. UPTAKE from water is generally accomplished by ventilation over the gill structure, although diffusion through the integument may also contribute to tissue concentrations (Landrum and Stubblefield, 1991, Douben 2003) “For PAHs with log Kow ≤ 5.5 the main route of uptake is through ventilated water”, …those >5.5 ingestion of food or sediment increases in importance although not well understood…( Landrum 1989, Landrum and Robbins, 1990, Meador et al 1995, Douben 2003). Oregon State University
    3. 3. Why Bioavailable ? 3 Environmental exposure and fate  Understanding environmental factors on diseases…  Must develop new bioanalytical tools to measure exposure  L.S. Birnbaum, EHP, 2010 Thinking outside the sampling jar     Intelligent sampling Environmental exposure Bioavailability BRIDGING environmental exposure with biological responses Oregon State University
    4. 4. Environmental Chemistry Toxicology Environmental Concentrations Toxico-kinetics For example: Uptake, metabolism, elimination For example: source, route, quantity Bioavailability Environmental Fate For example: transport, distribution, degradation Exposure BRIDGE S Toxico-dynamics For example: effects across levels of biological organization Effect B e y o n d Chemical Analysis
    5. 5. PSD Membrane BRIDGES Cell Membrane Biological Response Indicator Devices for Gauging Environmental Stressors
    6. 6. Responding design options PSD: Relevant to a range of contaminants 6 Numerous Chemistry Opportunities  Extract clean  PCBs, Pesticides, PBDEs, …  1,200+ analyte screen  LC or GC compatible  PAHs (b e y o n d 16 EPA)  Numerous Environments 302 mw, dibenzopyrene isomers PAHs   Layshock et al JEM, 2010 Oxygenated PAHs (ketones, quinones)  Layshock and Anderson, ET&C, 2010 Oregon State University
    7. 7. PSD: Relevant to a range of contaminants in water, air, sediment, etc…. 7 Numerous Chemistry Opportunities  Pesticides, …  1,200+ analyte screen  In-situ Calibration LC or GC compatible t=0 PRC- Performance Reference Compounds –Isotopically Labeled Compound Sequestered Environmental Contaminants Oregon State University
    8. 8. 8 PSD: Relevant to Rapid Response Easy to deploy Easy to transport Oregon State University
    9. 9. BRIDGES: Reduce exposure uncertainty by analyzing biological responses BRIDGES extracts with bioassay model (Zebrafish, Ames, etc) system BRIDGES well suited for effects-directed analysis BRIDGES designed for relevant mixtures 10 ft PSD cage weight field deployment V extraction quantify dialysis  solvent exchange  PCB PAH PAH-metabolites 1 embryo per fertilized eggs 96 well plate test @ day 1 •mortality •morphology •movement prep mix prep mix male female prep mix float buoy Toxicological Responses field extract top buoy field extract Environmental Exposure test @ day 5 •mortality •morphology •hatch rate •swimming 9 Hillwalker, Allan, Tanguay, & Anderson Chemo. 2010 Oregon State University
    10. 10. Bio-analytical Tools BRIDGING Environmental Exposure with Biological Responses Integrated with Bioassays (in vivo and in vitro)  Zebrafish Embryonic Model Evaluating whole mixture, real exposures  Suitable to mixture assessment  PAHs, PCBs, Pesticides  1,200+ analytes screen  Oxygenated PAHs  Layshock et al ETC, 2010 Oregon State University
    11. 11. Sources of PAHs in the Environment    Biogenic (minor) Petrogenic  Generated by geological processes  NATURAL- seeps, coal outcrops  ANTHROPOGENIC –fossil fuel release Pyrogenic  Generated by high temperature combustion of organic matter  NATURAL –forest fires  ANTHROPOGENIC- wood stoves, car exhaust, coal tar 2010 June Sampling Campaign, FL, tar-ball (photo KA Anderson) Oregon State University
    12. 12. Oil Spills Context and Comparisons It doesn‟t take much seep oil to deliver a lot of PAHs   1 kilogram of oil contains as much PAH as a metric ton of coal Crude oil PAHs vary by crude oil type, 0.2 to 7% PAHs  DW Horizon spill PAH* 5,000– 7,000 m Ton  World Trade Towers PAH 100 – 1,000 m Ton Oregon State University
    13. 13. RESPONSE: May 1 Planning Started Complicated Ops, multi-sources, sites, access 14,000 wells in GoM, 79 incidents of loss of well control 13 Oregon State University
    14. 14. Ready Response… The FSES Program at OSU is a research program committed to providing the highest quality analytical laboratory research support for:  ESTABLISH background     Pre-spill Many sites oil present Quality Control  Trip blanks  Field blanks  Laboratory QC Quality Assurance Established protocols  Documentation  Staff trained 
    15. 15. Quality Assurance Program Plan Defensible, Unbiased data Oregon State University
    16. 16. Respond: establish regional and individual contacts  Florida  Pensacola, Gulf Islands National Seashore   Alabama  Mobile, Ben Secour National Wildlife Refuge   Permit required, yes, State of FL Permit required, yes, State of AL Mississippi  Gulf Port, Public Pier    currently closed due to construction Gulf Port Harbor Master, Louisiana  Grand Isle State Park  Permit required, yes, State of LA Image: http://www.nytimes.com 16 Oregon State University
    17. 17. Gulf Port, MS 17 Grand Isle, LA Gulf Shores, AL Gulf Breeze, FL
    18. 18. Response Goals: many fold… Many ideally suited to passive samplers  PRE-spill conditions  Oil trajectory uncertain  Broad geographic areas “at risk”  Time-scale  Defensible, Unbiased data  New technology and capabilities – goals  Bioavailable passive samplers used for BRIDGES (biological response indicator devices for gauging environmental stressors )  Passive Sampler for aquatic exposures and NEW PSD air sampler  Suitable for chemical mixtures  Both chemical and bio-assays  Quality Control, PRC Grand Isle, LA, Research June 2010 Sampling Campaign (photo: KA Anderson)
    19. 19. 10 20 ne Ju ne 0 2010 Ju ly Au gu Se st pt em be M r ar ch 20 11 (2 ) (1 ) y -1 -2 Ma u n e u n e J J Ju 20 20 t. h ly st ril Ju ugu Sep Marc Ap A Sampling Event M M aay y Grand Isle, LA Gulf Shores, AL 150 20 100 10 50 Sampling Event Sampling Event 10 y Ma y -1 -2 Ma u n e u n e J J 20 0 Ju 2010 ch M ar Gulf Breeze, FL 2011 ly ust ept. rch pril g A S Ma Au M ay il 30 Ap r 1 20 1 m be r us t Au g pt e Se (2 ) (1 ) Ju ly ne Ju ne 20 10 0 30 Ju M ay PAH - Bioavailable cocnentration in water Bioavailable cocnentration in water (ng/L) PAH - (ng/L) 2011 M ay Gulfport, MS Gulf Breeze, FL Ap Ap rirli l * il 200 30 Ap r JJu ul l yy Auu A ggu uss SSe tt epp tee t m m bbe M M err aar rcc hh 220 011 11 M M aay y 220 011 00 JJu unn ee ( (11 )) JJu unn ee ( (22 )) 0 0 30 30 M ay concentration in water (ng/L) ƩPAH - BioavailablePAH -- Bioavailable cocnentration in water (ng/L) Ʃ33PAH – Bioavailable concentration inwater (ng/L) water (ng/L) PAH Bioavailable cocnentration in water (ng/L) PAH -- Bioavailable cocnentration in water Bioavailable cocnentration in PAH (ng/L) Temporal, Spatial PAHs Gulf of Mexico Bioavailable Water Concentrations of PAHs (ng/L) 19 Gulf Shores, AL 20 10 Sampling Event 10 Ma y Sampling Event Sampling Event Allan, Smith & Anderson, ES&T 2012
    20. 20. Temporal, Spatial PAHs Gulf of Mexico Bioavailable Air Concentrations of a selected PAH (ng/m3) PAHs in ng/m³ air Louisiana 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 phenanthrene 1-methylphenanthrene 2-methylphenanthrene 3,6-dimethylphenanthrene 2010 day: 2010 day: 2010 day: 2010 day: 2010 day: 2010 day: 2010 day: 2011 day: 2011 day: 2011 day: 2011 day: 131-134 159-162 162-188 188-271 217-252 252-287 287 to 40-74 74-115 115-119 119-158 2011 day: 40 Mississippi PAHs in ng/m³ air 8 7 6 5 4 phenanthrene 3 1-methylphenanthrene 2 2-methylphenanthrene 1 3,6-dimethylphenanthrene 0 2010 day: 131-134 159-162 162-188 188-271 217-252 252-287 to 2011 day: 40 2010 day: 2010 day: 2010 day: 2010 day: 2010 2010 day: 287 day: 2011 day: 40-74day: 74-115 2011 2011 day: 115-119 119-158 2011 day:
    21. 21. Temporal, Spatial Surfactants Gulf of Mexico Dispersants contain surfactants (detergent like) 21   O Surfactants captured by passive sampling devices - O O -O S O ~1.8 million gallons used in DWH (Macondo well explosion) 30000  Effective response to many issues surrounding an oil spill or environmental spill/disaster 25000 20000 C16H25O3S C17H27O3S C18H29O3S C19H31O3S 25000 20000 15000 First field dispersant used April 20-26 C16H25O3S C17H27O3S C18H29O3S C19H31O3S 10000 5000 0 30000 30000 C16H25O3S 25000 C17H27O3S C18H29O3S 20000 C19H31O3S 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 5000 0 C16H25O3S C17H27O3S C18H29O3S C19H31O3S 15000 10000  C16H25O3S 15000 10000 0 Often reference control will be (initially) unknown (e.g. Corexit 9527 and 9500) O 30000 5000  C16H25O3S S 0 Oregon State University
    22. 22. Analyzing the „fingerprint‟ in a chemical profile Oregon State University
    23. 23. Analyzing the chemical ‘fingerprint’ (petrogenic -v- pyrogenic) 23 PAH Forensic Profile GoM before, during, after 1 Normalized % 0.75 0.5 0.25 0 C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 Pyrogenic C0 C1 C2 C3 Petrogenic C4 relative abundance (% of total naphthalene compounds) 100 100 Grand Isle, LA 80 60 40 40 20 C0 NAP C1 NAP C3 NAP 80 60 Gulf Shores, AL 20 0 100 0 May 2010 Gulfport, MS June (1) May 2011 100 Sampling Event 80 40 20 May 2011 60 40 September 80 60 May 2010 Gulf Breezes, FL Sampling Event 20 0 0 May 2010 June (1) Sampling Event May 2011 May 2010 September Sampling Event May 2011
    24. 24. Principle Component Analysis 1-9 = May 2010 through June 2011 water PAHs 24 Allan, Smith & Anderson, ES&T 2012 Oregon State University
    25. 25. 25.00 C27Ts/C27m 20.00 Ratio Value Hopanes: Used to Determine Sources Molecular Fossils, Biomarkers Alabama Hopane Ratios 30.00 25norC29αβ/C30αβ 15.00 C27ββR/C30ββR 25norC29αβ/C30ββ 10.00 C29αβ/25norC29αβ 5.00 C29αβ/C30αβ C30αβ/C30βα 0.00 C30βα/C30ββ C30βα/C30αβ C29αβ/C30βα 25 Sample Name  Organic compounds in petroleum whose chemical structure can be unequivocally linked to a naturally occurring sources Complex, naturally occurring, compounds that are resistant to weathering & biodegradation Florida Hopane Ratios 35.00 30.00 Ratio Value  25.00 C27Ts/C27m 20.00 25norC29αβ/C30αβ C27ββR/C30ββR 15.00 25norC29αβ/C30ββ 10.00 C29αβ/25norC29αβ 5.00 C29αβ/C30αβ C30αβ/C30βα 0.00 C30βα/C30ββ C30βα/C30αβ C29αβ/C30βα Sample Name Mississippi Hopane Ratios 14.00 12.00 Ratio Value 10.00 C27Ts/C27m 25norC29αβ/C30αβ 8.00 C27ββR/C30ββR 6.00 25norC29αβ/C30ββ 4.00 C29αβ/25norC29αβ 2.00 C29αβ/C30αβ C30αβ/C30βα 0.00 C30βα/C30ββ C30βα/C30αβ C29αβ/C30βα Sample Name 16.00 14.00    Hopanes captured by passive sampling devices (PSD) PSD conserve forensic profiles Hopane ratio profile changes C27Ts/C27m 12.00 25norC29αβ/C30αβ C27ββR/C30ββR 10.00 8.00 6.00 25norC29αβ/C30ββ C29αβ/25norC29αβ C29αβ/C30αβ C30αβ/C30βα C30βα/C30ββ 4.00 2.00 C30βα/C30αβ C29αβ/C30βα 0.00 Oregon State University
    26. 26. Other Applications   Passive sampling devices capable of capturing a wide range of chemicals suitable for characterizing environmental exposure, and profiling chemicals for source identification Temporary increase in bioavailable PAHs     Associated with more petrogenic PAH assemblage and characteristic change in chemical profile Pre-oiling levels at all sites by March, 2011 Elevated concentrations in AL in April and May, 2011 APPLICABLE to other environmental disasters, Superfund sites, remediation assessment ex a m p l e s …
    27. 27. PSD: Bioavailable PAHs Before and After Remediation High Spatial Resolution Possible with PSDs McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site, OR; before max ~800, post <50 ng/L 27 Oregon State University
    28. 28. 28 Monitoring design options PSD Integrated Seamlessly with Bioassays in vivo and in vitro embryonic zebrafish model, Ames test Realistic Mixtures PH Superfund RM =3.5W Relevant Mixtures PH Superfund RM = 7W His+ revertants/plate Assessment of field deployed LFT's mutagenicity in the Ames assay using test strain TA-98 with + metabolic activation (S9 ) (mean +/- SE; n = 3) LFT - RPH09-023 2 g of 2AA DMSO (50 L) 75 50 25 0 + CTRL - CTRL 5 25 50 Dose of LFT extract (uL/plate) Allan, SE, Smith, BW, Tanguay, RL, and Anderson KA, Environ Tox & Chem, in press 2012 Oregon State University
    29. 29. Site-specific Biological Responses 80 30 hpf mortality M30 60 BRIDGES 40 20 0 MLR, likelihood ratio, p<0.05; 3 4 5 6 126 hpf mortality M126 40 20 0 1 2 3 4 80 5 6 stubby body S tu b b y 60 40 X 20 0 80 1 2 3 4 5 6 bent tail T a il 60 40 X 20 0 1 2 3 4 80 5 6 yolk sac edema YSE 60 40 X 20 0 n = 941 2 60 % Incidence 6 of 18 biological responses were significantly different in exposed embryos compared to controls 1 80 1 80 2 3 4 N o to c h o r d 1 2 6 h p f 5 6 wavy notochord 60 40 X 20 0 Hillwalker, Allan, Tanguay, & Anderson Chemo. 2010 1 Control Embryos 2 RM 1 3 RM 3.5 4 RM 7E 5 RM 7W 6 RM 17 Downriver Superfund Upriver
    30. 30. Estimating exposure (risk) using PSDs as biological surrogates in human health risk models 30  Apply PSD data in a Public Health Framework     PSDs may be used as a biological surrogate Added spatial and temporal variations in potential human health estimate of exposures Method Calculating Exposure  PSDs were substituted for fish tissue Exposure from resident organisms  Tissue contaminant data  Difficult to obtain fish/shellfish  Destructive sampling  Inherent biological/physiological variability  Limited spatial/temporal information  Not responsive quickly enough for assessment to immediate changes Allan, Sower & Anderson, Chemo. 2011
    31. 31. Comparison of PSD as a surrogate and fish tissue Sethajintanin et al. 2004, Villeneuve, et al, ES&T, 2005 31 concentrations in fish 400 800 DDTs 600 400 200 DDTs in fish (ng/g) bioavailabe DDTs (pg/L) bioavailable concentrations by PSD DDTs 300 200 100 0 0 R M 8 -1 3 R M 3 -6 . R M 1 5 -1 8 R M 8 -1 1 R M 1 4 -1 6 600 120 PCBs 100 80 60 40 PCBs in fish (ng/g) bioavailable PCBs (pg/L) R M 3 -7 PCBs 500 400 300 200 100 20 0 0 R M 3 .5 - 7 RM 3 - 6 R M 8 - 13 R M 15 - 18 R M 8 - 11 R M 14 - 16 80 5 dieldrin 60 40 20 0 dieldrin in fish (ng/g) bioavailable dieldrin (pg/L) X D a ta dieldrin 4 3 2 1 0 R M 3 -7 R M 8 -1 3 R M 1 5 -1 8 R M 3 -6 R M 8 -1 1 R M 1 4 -1 6
    32. 32. Paired PSDs deployed with crayfish cages, PAHs… to date, outstanding fit with measured and modeled PAHs in PSDs vs. Crayfish Naphthalene Anthracene 120 120 100 100 50 200 40 20 20 0 0 150 30 100 50 40 20 10 20 0 [A N T] C F (ng/g) 60 40 [A N T] W -P S D (ng/L) 80 60 [N A P] C F (ng/g) 80 [N A P] W -P S D (ng/L) 250 40 Model Fitting Diagnostics 0 -2 0 -2 0 Benz[a]anthracene Benzo[k]fluoranthene 80 20 400 5 7w 3. en t ra l -N or th 7e -S -C 8 0 ou th 0 7e 5 7w 3. en t ra l -N or th 7e 8 ou th -S -C 7e 7e 13 .5 17 5 13 0 0 5 7e 10 20 .5 20 40 10 17 20 15 18 40 [BKF]W-PSD (ng/L) 100 60 [BAA]CF (ng/g) 200 60 18 [BAA]W-PSD (ng/L) 300 Figure 4. Comparisons between PAH levels measured in paired passive sampling devices ( ) and crayfish ( ) from within and outside of the Portland Harbor Superfund site. Data are the mean and standard deviations of replicate samples. [BKF]CF (ng/g) 80 Measured in Crayfish -2 0 -1 0 Naphthalene Anthracene Benz[a]anthracene Predicted in Crayfish Benzo[k]fluoranthene
    33. 33. Response design options Comparison of PSDs and fish tissue 33  Although not enough side-by-side studies   Currently side-by-side in progress (n=75 crayfish : PSD) at our laboratory PSDs as biological surrogates may provide a reasonable and conservative estimate of exposure  Another data set contributing to protection of human health  Does not appear to significantly overestimate risk  Quickly assess environmental disasters before resident organisms respond  Magnitude, range and variability assets of the technique ≈ Allan, Sower & Anderson, Chemo. 2011
    34. 34. Other types of passive sampling devices Responder‟s Exposure…. Wristband Preliminary Data: PAHs from Roofers for 8 and 40 hrs  Einome: 40 hrs 5000 ng/mL 3000 TBS NIOHS- Feb 5  Double WBs WBs Interdisciplinary  Lapels 4000 Funding: Environmental Integrated Organic Monitor of Exposure (Einome) Co-PIs Laurel Kincl (CPHHS) & K.A.Anderson, 2000  1000 0 Participant 1 Participant 2 Sum PAHs 5000 WB 1 - day 4500 WB 2 - day 4000 WB 3 - day 3500 WB 1 - week 3000 WB 2 - week WB 3 - week 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 PAH Sum Participant 3 co-I‟s Tanguay, Sudakin, Kile
    35. 35. Community Outreach and Engagement Strategies Goal: Provide pertinent PAH health information to be delivered using novel methods via the web.  Develop and deliver educational materials at gulf sampling locations (e.g. printed brochure)  Develop local partnerships to identify educational needs  NIEHS SRP at Louisiana State University  State and local organizations, including nongovernmental organizations located in Gulf states  Develop novel outreach methods for public education  Please see web sites and videos Oregon State University
    36. 36. Anticipated IMPACT RESPOND Easy deployed timeintegrated sampling devices RECOVER Y 1,200 bioavailable contaminant s monitoring RESILENCE Characterize and updated information 36 Next Health Assessment: Surrogate fish/shell fish
    37. 37. Acknowledgements 37 Funding: P42 ES016465 (PI Williams, Project Leader Anderson, Analytical Core leader Anderson) P30 ES000210 (PI Beckman) R21 ES020120 (PI Anderson) UN FAO GEF, (Co-PIs: Jepson, Anderson, Jenkins) Collaborators: Oregon State University Professor Robert Tanguay, SRP Co-I Professor Anna Harding, Co-I Professor Dashwood, Linus Pauling Institute, CCP Core, David Yu, PhD. (Ames) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Katrina Waters, PhD Collaborators: Swinomish Indian Tribal Community Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Oregon Dept of Environmental Quality Kevin Parrot and Sott Manzano Grand Isle State Park, LA, T. Augustine MS Gulf Port Harbor Master, DJ Ziggler Mobile AL Ben Secour National Refugre, J. Issacs Pensacola FL Gulf Islands National Seashore, R. Hoggard
    38. 38. Acknowledgements 38 http://fses.or egonstate.e du GULF Outreach http://oregonst ate.edu/superf und/oilspill Kevin Hobbie Ted Haigh Melissa McCartney Glenn Wilson Jennifer Przybyla Sarah Allan, PhD Norm Forsberg Steven O‟Connell Lane Tidwell Phil Janney Ricky Scott Nick Hamilton Jorge Padilla Kristin Pierre Nathan Rooney Kyle Tidwell Brian Smith, PhD Not pictured: Jeremy Riggle, PhD Julie Layshock, PhD. Hillwalker, W., PhD Greg Sower, PhD Angie Perez, PhD Lucas Quarles, MS Solysa Visalli Margarett Corvi, MS O. Krissanakriang, PhD D. Sethajintanin, PhD Oregon State University
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