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  • 1. Integrated Pest Management Jan McNeilan Gail GredlerOSU Master Gardener™ Program
  • 2. Integrated Pest Management• A strategy to prevent and suppress pests with minimum impact on human health, the environment and non-target organisms.• Decision-making process that uses regular monitoring to decide if and when treatments are needed to control a pest, then uses a variety of tactics to keep pest numbers low.
  • 3. Principles of Integrated Pest Management• Monitor the plants• Identify the pest organism• Establish an acceptable injury level• Manage using all available strategies
  • 4. Monitor plants• Look for damage on a regular basis – Different times of the day – Tools: hand lens, traps, beat sheets – Collect samples of damage• Keep a record of your observations
  • 5. Identify the pest organism• Is it a pest problem or a problem caused by a non-living factor (drought, frost, chemical damage, etc.)?• Is the pest an insect, disease, weed, etc.?
  • 6. Know the pestOnce the pest isidentified, learnabout its life cycleand its naturalenemies. Root weevil larvaRoot weevil pupa Root weevil adult
  • 7. Learn the pest’s life cycle
  • 8. Establish an acceptable injury levelCommercial example:Action threshold for strawberry root weevil in mint = .92 weevil larvae/square foot
  • 9. Acceptable Injury LevelFor gardeners, this will differ between individuals.
  • 10. Manage using all available strategies• Cultural• Physical• Biological• Chemical – Use the easiest, least expensive, least disruptive and least toxic ones first
  • 11. Cultural Methods of Insect Control Sound gardening practices
  • 12. Resistant varieties
  • 13. Crop rotation
  • 14. Companion planting: establishment of two or more plant species in close proximity so that some benefit is derived• Trap cropping• Biochemical pest suppression• Spatial interactions• Beneficial habitats• Security through diversity
  • 15. Intercropping with insectary plants
  • 16. Encourage ecological diversity in the garden
  • 17. Weeding and mulching
  • 18. Sanitation
  • 19. Physical Methods of Insect ControlBarriers:RowCoversCabbage maggot Flea beetle
  • 20. Barriers: Sticky barrier
  • 21. Barriers: Sticky barrierRoot weevils Ants tending aphids
  • 22. Barriers: Copper barrier Brown Garden Snail
  • 23. Barriers: Plant cages and collars
  • 24. Handpicking
  • 25. Watering AphidsSpider mites
  • 26. Pruning Tent caterpillars
  • 27. TrappingYellow sticky trap Trapping for fungus gnats
  • 28. Trapping Apple maggot trapCodling mothpheromone trap
  • 29. Trapping Slugs and Snails
  • 30. Trapping Insects Indoors
  • 31. VacuumingBoxelderBug Flea
  • 32. Garden symphylanTilling
  • 33. Biological Methods of Insect ControlBeneficial Organisms – Pollinators – Predators – Parasitoids – Microbials • Bt • Beneficial nematodes
  • 34. PollinatorsEuropean Honey Bee
  • 35. Bumblebee
  • 36. Bumblebee
  • 37. OrchardMason Bee
  • 38. Syrphid flylarva
  • 39. Predators
  • 40. Yellow Jacket
  • 41. Bald-faced Hornet
  • 42. Prayingmantis
  • 43. Green lacewing adult
  • 44. Green lacewing eggsGreenlacewinglarva diningon acaterpillar
  • 45. Snakefly
  • 46. Two-spottedstinkbug
  • 47. Minute pirate bug
  • 48. Minute Pirate Bug Nymph
  • 49. Big-eyed Bug
  • 50. Assassin bug
  • 51. Damsel Bug and Nymph
  • 52. Ambush Bug
  • 53. Lady beetle larva
  • 54. Yum! Caterpillar for lunch!
  • 55. Spider Mite Destroyer
  • 56. Ground beetle
  • 57. Rove Beetle
  • 58. Soldier beetle
  • 59. Predaceousspider mite
  • 60. YellowViolet-green Warblersswallow
  • 61. Domestic Ducks
  • 62. All bat species inOregon areinsectivores
  • 63. Common Garter Snake Toad © David Rosen Pacific Chorus Frog © David Rosen
  • 64. Spiders
  • 65. Garden Centipede
  • 66. Millipede
  • 67. Parasitoids
  • 68. Braconid Wasp
  • 69. Parasitoid wasp laying eggs in aphid
  • 70. Aphidmummies
  • 71. Tachinid fly
  • 72. Tachinid fly and elm leaf beetle larvae
  • 73. Encarsiaformosaparasitizingwhite fly
  • 74. Trichogramma laying eggs in caterpillar eggsTrichogrammaadults emergingfrom caterpillareggs
  • 75. Many insects in the soil are beneficial
  • 76. Springtail Oribatid mites
  • 77. Purchasing and Releasing Beneficials
  • 78. Enhancing habitat for beneficials• Provide diversity of plants• Provide insectary plants with small flowers• Provide adequate water
  • 79. FennelBuckwheat Fiddleneck (Phacelia)
  • 80. Beneficial microorganismsBacillus thuringiensis or Bt
  • 81. B.t. kurstaki andcaterpillars
  • 82. B.t. israelensis and mosquitosDunk
  • 83. B.t. israelensisand fungusgnats
  • 84. B.t. san diego andelm leaf beetle
  • 85. Beneficial nematodes
  • 86. Infected root weevil pupaInfected rootweevil adult
  • 87. Horsehair Worm
  • 88. •Very low mammalian toxicity• Soil must remain moist• Soil must be greater than 55 degrees F.
  • 89. Chemical Methods of Insect Control: Botanicals • Derived from botanical sources • Biodegrade rapidly • Widely varying levels of toxicity
  • 90. Botanical insecticide: Neem• From seeds of the neem tree• Broad spectrum against many pests• Must be ingested to be toxic• Low mammalian toxicity• May require repeat applications
  • 91. Horticultural Oil• Derived from petroleum, vegetable or fish oil• Smothers insects and mites• Works best on soft-bodied insects• Low mammalian toxicity• Avoid hottest part of day• Avoid drought-stressed plants• Use commercial products rather than homemade
  • 92. Insecticidal Soap• Contact insecticide smothers and desiccates insect• Use against soft-bodied insects like aphids, thrips, whitefly, and mites• Low mammalian toxicity• Requires excellent coverage, repeat applications• Biodegrades rapidly• Effective only until it dries
  • 93. You cannot recommendhomemade solutions!
  • 94. Sulfur• Use dust mask with dust product• Broad spectrum miticide and fungicide• Low mammalian toxicity• Do not use within two weeks of an oil spray• Some plants sensitive to sulfur
  • 95. Pheromones• Used for mating disruption• Useful for codling moth management in orchards• Limited usefulness in backyards
  • 96. Synthetic Insecticides• Fewer available all the time• Widely varying toxicity• Always read and follow label directions• Dispose of properly
  • 97. Other options: Kaolin clay• Naturally occurring mineral• Film acts as a barrier between pest and fruit• Irritates and repels insect feeding and egg- laying
  • 98. Other options: Repellants
  • 99. Disease Management
  • 100. Right plant, right placeChoose plants well adapted to site
  • 101. Rotate annuals
  • 102. Select resistant varieties ‘Liberty’: Scab resistant‘Gravenstein’: Notscab resistant
  • 103. Use disease-free plants and disease- seeds
  • 104. Irrigate properly
  • 105. Plant properly
  • 106. Fertilize as needed
  • 107. Don’t crowd plants
  • 108. Control insects and weeds• Insects can vector diseases such as plant viruses• Weeds can harbor diseases that can be detrimental to desirable plants
  • 109. Sanitation Remove diseased plants and plant parts
  • 110. Dispose of crop refuse/compost
  • 111. Sanitation Prune out diseased wood
  • 112. Use mulches
  • 113. Make and use compost
  • 114. Use fungicides when necessary• Copper• Lime sulfur• Sulfur• Horticultural oil• Potassium bicarbonate• Neem oil
  • 115. Weed ManagementIn Oregon, weeds grow like….well, weeds.
  • 116. Mulching
  • 117. Mulches• Barkdust• Wood chips• Gravel or rock• Cocoa or filbert shells• Sawdust• Newspaper or horticultural paper• Woven fabrics• Plastic
  • 118. Hand weeding
  • 119. Machine weeding
  • 120. Spacing
  • 121. Solarization
  • 122. Cover cropping
  • 123. Barriers
  • 124. Herbicides• Conventional herbicides• Herbicidal soap• Vinegar• Corn gluten meal
  • 125. Biological control Tansy flea beetle Cinnabar moth larvae feeding on tansy ragwort
  • 126. Avoid invasive plantsButterfly bush English ivy Wild Clematis
  • 127. Principles of Integrated Pest Management - Review• Monitor the plants• Identify the pest organism• Establish an acceptable injury level• Manage using all available strategies
  • 128. Choose a Treatment Strategy• Use easiest, least disruptive, least expensive, least toxic first• Read the label, read the label, read the label• If you decide to use any kind of an pesticide, spot treat only and wear protective clothing when applying
  • 129. Our IPM Mission• Oregon State University Extension Service encourages sustainable gardening practices. Problems are identified and monitored before acting. Gardeners are encouraged to consider cultural controls; then physical, biological, and chemical controls (which include insecticidal soaps, horticultural oils, botanical insecticides, organic and synthetic pesticides). Least toxic approach is always considered first.
  • 130. Integrated Pest Management Jan McNeilan Gail GredlerOSU Master Gardener Program
  • 131. Soldierfly
  • 132. Pseudoscorpion
  • 133. Dragonfly
  • 134. Ichneumon Wasp
  • 135. Carpenter Ant
  • 136. Banded Alder Borer
  • 137. European Earwig
  • 138. Cooley Spruce Gall
  • 139. Oak Leaf Gall
  • 140. Wild Rose Gall