Growing Healthy Trees<br />Rick Fletcher<br />OSU Extension Service<br />
Learning Objectives for Today<br />Become familiar with locally grown native trees in local landscapes.<br />Understand ba...
Conifers <br />Cone bearing<br />Generally evergreen<br />Leaves linear in shape<br />Long lived & slow growing<br />Talle...
What kinds of native trees grow locally?<br />Douglas-fir<br />Grand fir<br />False cedars- incense, western red<br />West...
Douglas-fir(Pseudotsuga menziesii)<br />Not a true fir- false hemlock<br />Very common in home landscapes.<br />Shallow ro...
Douglas-fir<br />Oregon’s signature tree.<br />Wood prized worldwide for structural building products.<br />
Grand fir(Abies grandis)<br />Shade tolerant true fir on moist sites, at lower elevations in Valley.<br />Late successiona...
Western Redcedar(Thuja plicata)<br />Shade tolerant, moisture loving tree.<br />Willamette Valley is at the south end of i...
Incense-cedar(Calocedrus decurrens)<br />Sun loving, aromatic conifer.<br />Prefers, well drained sites.<br />Willamette V...
Ponderosa pine(Pinus ponderosa)<br />
Introduced Species- There are Many!<br />Nordmann Fir- A Promising Christmas Tree Species<br />
Broadleaf Species<br />Also called hardwoods.<br />Angiosperms- true flowering plants.<br />Most are deciduous.<br />
The Riparian Hardwood Forest<br />
What kinds of native broadleaf trees grow locally?<br />Oregon white oak<br />Bigleaf maple<br />Oregon ash<br />Pacific m...
Key Principle: Genetic Adaptation<br />Local adaptation is very common in conifer species.<br />Seed zones- were 36, now o...
Key Principle: Site Requirements<br />Shade tolerance<br />Wetness of soils/Flooding<br />Drought/Heat<br />Frost/Cold<br ...
Conifer Species Tolerances<br /> <br /> <br />Tolerance** to:<br /> <br />Growth*<br />Low Light<br />Browsing Animals<br ...
Hardwood Species Tolerances<br /> <br /> <br />Tolerance** to:<br /> <br />Growth*<br />Low Light<br />Browsing Animals<br...
Shade Tolerance- What to Plant?<br />
Tolerance to Wetness/Flooding*<br />
Pine Replaces Douglas-fir on Wet Site<br />
Key Principle- Competition<br />Young trees need relief from weeds.<br />Most trees do poorly in shade, even ones that are...
Spacing Guidelines for Conifers<br />
Tree Stress<br />Stresses disrupt the normal growth and maintenance abilities of the tree.<br />
Shedding<br />Normal tree process.<br />Leaves, branches, bark after they lose utility.<br />Sick parts of the tree, or pa...
Subdivision Stress<br />
Causes of Tree Stress<br />Weather events interacting with physical damage, herbicide damage, old age or other factors.<br />
Tree Stress<br />Trees have long term memories.<br />Symptoms can show up long after damage occurs.<br />Stress can be gat...
How do conifers grow?<br />Dormancy<br />Shoots versus roots<br />
Willamette Valley Weather<br />DATEEVENTSTRESS<br /> <br />OCT 1962	COLUMBUS DAY STORM	HIGH WINDS<br /> <br />DEC 1964	25 ...
More Weather<br />DATEEVENTSTRESS<br /> <br /> <br />MAY 1992	29° F ON MAY 22	FREEZING<br /> <br />JAN 1993	HEAVY SNOW	BRE...
Tolerance to Heat/Drought<br />Tolerant- ponderosa pine, oak, madrone<br />Moderate- Douglas-fir, incense-cedar, ash, mapl...
Cold Damage<br />Best- ponderosa pine, hemlock, white pine, grand fir, oak, maple<br />OK-Douglas-fir, redcedar, incense-c...
Wind<br />
How trees grow and defend themselves.<br />Protective chemicals<br />Shedding.<br />Compartmentalization<br />Alex Shigo A...
Can I have a drink?<br />
Resin flow<br />Host response to invasion.<br />Black stain root disease in Doug fir.<br />
Natural Predators<br />
Protective chemicals<br />Pitching out Mt. Pine beetles.<br />An example of host response to attack.<br />
Fire in the Forest- Good or Bad?<br />
Fire- An Important Cleansing Tool<br />
No Tree Lives Forever!<br />
Decay and Trees<br />Alex Shigo Associates<br />
Compartmentalization:<br />COLOR CODES<br />Red-Tree response (chemical protective reactions).<br />Green-Position of pion...
What is Normal?<br /><ul><li>Fall leaf drop in conifers is normal (20% per year).
Transplant shock.
Pollen buds are not dead buds.</li></li></ul><li>What is Normal?<br />Deciduous conifers<br /><ul><li>Fall branchlet drop ...
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Growing healthy conifers introduction 2011

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Growing healthy conifers introduction 2011

  1. 1. Growing Healthy Trees<br />Rick Fletcher<br />OSU Extension Service<br />
  2. 2. Learning Objectives for Today<br />Become familiar with locally grown native trees in local landscapes.<br />Understand basic environmental needs of common native tree species.<br />Learn symptoms of problems faced by trees in local landscapes.<br />
  3. 3. Conifers <br />Cone bearing<br />Generally evergreen<br />Leaves linear in shape<br />Long lived & slow growing<br />Tallest of all plants<br />Woody stem utilized worldwide<br />
  4. 4. What kinds of native trees grow locally?<br />Douglas-fir<br />Grand fir<br />False cedars- incense, western red<br />Western hemlock<br />Ponderosa pine<br />
  5. 5. Douglas-fir(Pseudotsuga menziesii)<br />Not a true fir- false hemlock<br />Very common in home landscapes.<br />Shallow rooted.<br />
  6. 6. Douglas-fir<br />Oregon’s signature tree.<br />Wood prized worldwide for structural building products.<br />
  7. 7. Grand fir(Abies grandis)<br />Shade tolerant true fir on moist sites, at lower elevations in Valley.<br />Late successional species, but not long living (about 100 years).<br />Tolerant of moist sites, but not of drought.<br />
  8. 8. Western Redcedar(Thuja plicata)<br />Shade tolerant, moisture loving tree.<br />Willamette Valley is at the south end of its natural range- more common to north.<br />Commonly found along streams or other riparian areas.<br />
  9. 9. Incense-cedar(Calocedrus decurrens)<br />Sun loving, aromatic conifer.<br />Prefers, well drained sites.<br />Willamette Valley is at north end of its range. More prominent in Southern Oregon and California.<br />
  10. 10. Ponderosa pine(Pinus ponderosa)<br />
  11. 11. Introduced Species- There are Many!<br />Nordmann Fir- A Promising Christmas Tree Species<br />
  12. 12. Broadleaf Species<br />Also called hardwoods.<br />Angiosperms- true flowering plants.<br />Most are deciduous.<br />
  13. 13. The Riparian Hardwood Forest<br />
  14. 14. What kinds of native broadleaf trees grow locally?<br />Oregon white oak<br />Bigleaf maple<br />Oregon ash<br />Pacific madrone<br />
  15. 15. Key Principle: Genetic Adaptation<br />Local adaptation is very common in conifer species.<br />Seed zones- were 36, now only 16 in Western Oregon.<br />Protocol for moving stock between seed zones.<br />
  16. 16. Key Principle: Site Requirements<br />Shade tolerance<br />Wetness of soils/Flooding<br />Drought/Heat<br />Frost/Cold<br />Animal damage<br />
  17. 17. Conifer Species Tolerances<br /> <br /> <br />Tolerance** to:<br /> <br />Growth*<br />Low Light<br />Browsing Animals<br />Wet Soil<br /> <br />Drought<br /> <br />Frost<br /> <br />Conifers<br />SPECIES<br />Douglas-fir<br />3-4<br />2<br />2<br />2<br />3<br />4<br />Ponderosa pine<br />2-3<br />1<br />4<br />5<br />5<br />5<br />Grand fir<br />3-4<br />4<br />4<br />3<br />2<br />3<br />Noble fir<br />2-3<br />3<br />4<br />2<br />2<br />2<br />W Redcedar<br />2-3<br />5<br />1<br />4<br />1<br />2<br />W. Hemlock<br />2-3<br />5<br />3<br />3<br />1<br />1<br />Incense-cedar<br />1-2<br />2<br />3<br />2<br />5<br />3<br />
  18. 18. Hardwood Species Tolerances<br /> <br /> <br />Tolerance** to:<br /> <br />Growth*<br />Low Light<br />Browsing Animals<br />Wet Soil<br /> <br />Drought<br /> <br />Frost<br /> <br />O. White Oak<br />½ - 1<br />1<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />5<br />SPECIES<br />Bigleaf Maple<br />2-3<br />4<br />1<br />4<br />3<br />5<br />Red Alder<br />3-4<br />1<br />2<br />4<br />1<br />2<br />White Alder<br />2-3<br />1<br />2<br />5<br />1<br />2<br />Cottonwood/Poplar<br />6-12<br />1<br />1<br />5<br />1<br />5<br />Oregon Ash<br />1-3<br />3<br />2<br />5<br />2<br />5<br />Chinkapin<br />1-3<br />3<br />5<br />3<br />4<br />5<br />Madrone<br />1-2<br />2<br />5<br />2<br />5<br />3<br />
  19. 19. Shade Tolerance- What to Plant?<br />
  20. 20. Tolerance to Wetness/Flooding*<br />
  21. 21.
  22. 22. Pine Replaces Douglas-fir on Wet Site<br />
  23. 23. Key Principle- Competition<br />Young trees need relief from weeds.<br />Most trees do poorly in shade, even ones that are listed as shade tolerant.<br />Moisture competition is severe in late summer.<br />
  24. 24. Spacing Guidelines for Conifers<br />
  25. 25. Tree Stress<br />Stresses disrupt the normal growth and maintenance abilities of the tree.<br />
  26. 26. Shedding<br />Normal tree process.<br />Leaves, branches, bark after they lose utility.<br />Sick parts of the tree, or parts attacked by insects and disease that must be shed and/or walled off.<br />
  27. 27. Subdivision Stress<br />
  28. 28. Causes of Tree Stress<br />Weather events interacting with physical damage, herbicide damage, old age or other factors.<br />
  29. 29. Tree Stress<br />Trees have long term memories.<br />Symptoms can show up long after damage occurs.<br />Stress can be gateway to other problems.<br />
  30. 30. How do conifers grow?<br />Dormancy<br />Shoots versus roots<br />
  31. 31. Willamette Valley Weather<br />DATEEVENTSTRESS<br /> <br />OCT 1962 COLUMBUS DAY STORM HIGH WINDS<br /> <br />DEC 1964 25 INCHES OF RAIN FLODDING<br /> <br />DEC 1968 SNOW – 18” PRECIP BREAKAGE<br /> <br />DEC 1972 BELOW ZERO WEATHER FREEZING<br /> <br />AUG 1977 108° F ON AUGUST 17 HEAT<br /> <br />NOV 1985 EARLY HARD FREEZE FREEZING<br /> <br />FEB 1989 STRONG, COLD WINDS DESICCATION<br />OCT 1990 NO RAIN DROUGHT<br /> <br />OCT 1991 ALL TIME HIGHS & LOWS ACCLIMATION<br /> <br />
  32. 32. More Weather<br />DATEEVENTSTRESS<br /> <br /> <br />MAY 1992 29° F ON MAY 22 FREEZING<br /> <br />JAN 1993 HEAVY SNOW BREAKAGE<br /> <br />FEB 1996 12” OF RAIN IN 3 DAYS FLOODING<br /> <br />2001 RECORD LOW RAINFALL DROUGHT<br /> <br />OCT 2002 15° F - ALL TIME LOW FREEZING<br />JAN 2004 SNOW, ICE AND WIND BREAKAGE<br />JAN 2006 RAIN, RAIN, RAIN FLOODING<br />JULY 2007 101 ° ALL TIME HIGH HEAT DAMAGE<br />Dec 2007 42 STRAIGHT RAINY DAYS SATURATED SOIL<br />
  33. 33. Tolerance to Heat/Drought<br />Tolerant- ponderosa pine, oak, madrone<br />Moderate- Douglas-fir, incense-cedar, ash, maple<br />Intolerant- Grand fir, noble fir, western white pine, hemlock, redcedar, alder<br />
  34. 34. Cold Damage<br />Best- ponderosa pine, hemlock, white pine, grand fir, oak, maple<br />OK-Douglas-fir, redcedar, incense-cedar, madrone<br />Damaged- alder, noble fir<br />
  35. 35.
  36. 36. Wind<br />
  37. 37. How trees grow and defend themselves.<br />Protective chemicals<br />Shedding.<br />Compartmentalization<br />Alex Shigo Associates<br />
  38. 38. Can I have a drink?<br />
  39. 39. Resin flow<br />Host response to invasion.<br />Black stain root disease in Doug fir.<br />
  40. 40. Natural Predators<br />
  41. 41. Protective chemicals<br />Pitching out Mt. Pine beetles.<br />An example of host response to attack.<br />
  42. 42. Fire in the Forest- Good or Bad?<br />
  43. 43. Fire- An Important Cleansing Tool<br />
  44. 44. No Tree Lives Forever!<br />
  45. 45. Decay and Trees<br />Alex Shigo Associates<br />
  46. 46. Compartmentalization:<br />COLOR CODES<br />Red-Tree response (chemical protective reactions).<br />Green-Position of pioneer microorganisms (can be bacteria, decay fungi, or nondecay fungi). Wood in this area is usually discolored; its cell contents are altered.<br />Brown-Position of decayed wood; cell walls are digested.<br />Alex Shigo Associates<br />
  47. 47. What is Normal?<br /><ul><li>Fall leaf drop in conifers is normal (20% per year).
  48. 48. Transplant shock.
  49. 49. Pollen buds are not dead buds.</li></li></ul><li>What is Normal?<br />Deciduous conifers<br /><ul><li>Fall branchlet drop on species like western redcedar.</li></li></ul><li>Key Principles for Tree Health<br />Utilize natural defense mechanisms to minimize loss from insects, disease and other damage.<br />Avoid annual treatments and disturbing natural predator and parasite populations.<br />

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