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Compost 101 Linn Benton Master Gardeners January 26, 2011 Lecture notes part 2
Vermicomposting Composting  non-meat and  non-dairy food waste  using worms
 
Types of bedding
Soak the bedding Worms like  75% moisture Let excess drain away before adding to bin
Bury food waste in bedding
 
Vicki’s worm bins are filled with horse manure mixed with stable bedding.   The bins are made from plywood bottom and top ...
Castings Harvest Methods Divide and Dump put part of the castings in the garden Add new bedding move finished castings to ...
 
Get an electronic copy of  these instructions Email [email_address]
Soil incorporation
Raised beds built with layered organic matter and amendments
Compost uses Mulch Soil Amendment Potting Soil Seed Starting Mix Compost Tea
Mulch = Side Dressing
Use compost as a soil amendment each year. Initially, spade 3 inches of compost into the top 8 inches of soil. Each year a...
http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/potmix.html
Compost Tea Make tea bag Steep in water Foliar application Or drench wet soil Don’t drink!
These compost bins provide greenhouse heat and provide warm air that is piped to the germination beds on right Way cool!
Seed starting mix and tea Basic Mix with Compost 2 parts Compost  2-4 parts Sphagnum Peat Moss  1 part Perlite  1 part Ver...
The four components of soil:
Organic matter <ul><li>Small constituent by weight, but  huge influence on soil properties </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of pa...
What is Soil Organic Matter? SOIL ORGANIC MATTER The Living:  BIOMASS <5% The Dead: DECOMPOSING MATERIAL 45% The Really De...
Decomposition = transformations of SOM  (remember, matter is neither created nor destroyed) Symbol for control: often by t...
Functions of Organic Matter <ul><li>1.  Stabilizes  soil structure, making soil easily managed  does not change soil textu...
<ul><li>Aggregates held together by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungal hyphae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacterial “glues” </li...
Effect of OM on aggregate stability
Effect of OM on aggregate stability
Available Water Capacity  Inherent   depends on texture Measure of water available to plants
Impact of soil organic matter content on soil water content
Cover Crops = Green Manures = OM
For best growth sow fall covercrop before cold weather Sept 15 Oct 15 Oct 1
Healthy soils maintain a diverse and active community of soil organisms that: <ul><li>Suppress plant disease, & insect and...
A cup of soil contains ... Bacteria   Fungi   Protozoa Nematodes Arthropods Earthworms   200 billion 100,000 meters 20 mil...
From NRCS Soil Biology Primer
Photo by Suzanne Paisley <ul><li>shred plant material </li></ul><ul><li>feed on bacteria and fungi associated with organic...
General roles of microbes <ul><li>Aggregate stability </li></ul><ul><li>Disease suppression </li></ul><ul><li>Cause diseas...
C:N = 5 C:N = 30 5:1 5:1 6 X
Root uptake of nutrients <ul><li>Mass flow </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Interception </li></ul>
N capture and N fixation fungi bacteria
Management Impacts SQ Soil Organisms Soil Structure Organic Matter Water  Infiltration Vegetation Healthy Soil
Soil structure under landscape fabric
Teresa Matteson Benton SWCD 541-753-7208 [email_address]
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Compost mg notes for class 2011 jan 26 part 2

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  • Vermicomposting is an excellent way to recycle food waste. The finished product is worm castings, which is a very nutrient rich, salty compost.
  • Save your kitchen scrapes in a container with a tight fitting lid. Some people chop their food waste or freeze it to speed up the decomposition.
  • This bin shows bedding of leaves, shredded paper, cardboard (should be shredded) and newspaper. Some people think that worms do not like the bleached office paper. News print works very well (hold moisture)
  • A worm bin will need bedding, which can be shredded paper, cardboard, manure with bedding or leaves. If you use paper or cardboard, soak them in water, and drain off the excess before adding them to the bin. Worms prefer about 75% moisture.
  • Rotate the spot where you bury food each time. This will keep the worms moving throughout the pile.
  • Covering the worm bin surface with layers of newspaper will keep down flies (fruit and others) and help regulate the heat (cooler in summer and warmer in the winter).
  • You can decompose food waste in the ground. For a small garden space, rotate three areas each year: composting becomes planting, planting becomes pathway, pathway becomes compost area.
  • For thousands of years, farmers and gardeners have appreciated the value of collecting and recycling organic waste to increase soil organic matter, improve plant growth and increase crop yield.
  • Mulch
  • Use compost in your potting mix.
  • Compost can add antifungal properties to seed starting mixes.
  • http://www.agromin.com/products/soil_amendments/index.htmhot from http://www.agromin.com/products/soil_amendments/index.htm Detritus and Humus Factory (adapted from The Earth Science Book ) Purpose:  Illustrate how decaying and decomposing matter is good for the soil Activity from:The Story of soil (http://www.promotega.org/ksu30002/soil.htm#Top) http://www1.istockphoto.com/file_thumbview_approve/70328/2/istockphoto_70328_leaves_dried.jpg (twigs and leaves) Roots: www.strictlycleananddecent.com/roots.jpg Humus: http://cse.pdx.edu/forest/soil_hand.png
  • To build healthy soil, you add OM, then organisms have food source, break down OM and reproduce and excrete glues and nets, which improve soil structure, holding soil particles together so WATER can infiltrate and air is available for nutrient cycling, so plants can get nutrients, and drop leaves and grow roots to contribute to OM!!!
  • Transcript of "Compost mg notes for class 2011 jan 26 part 2"

    1. 1. Compost 101 Linn Benton Master Gardeners January 26, 2011 Lecture notes part 2
    2. 2. Vermicomposting Composting non-meat and non-dairy food waste using worms
    3. 4. Types of bedding
    4. 5. Soak the bedding Worms like 75% moisture Let excess drain away before adding to bin
    5. 6. Bury food waste in bedding
    6. 8. Vicki’s worm bins are filled with horse manure mixed with stable bedding. The bins are made from plywood bottom and top on 1”x12” wooden frames.
    7. 9. Castings Harvest Methods Divide and Dump put part of the castings in the garden Add new bedding move finished castings to one side of bin add new bedding add food waste to new area – worms will move there Screen and start new bin screen castings – transfer to garden overs return to new bin
    8. 11. Get an electronic copy of these instructions Email [email_address]
    9. 12. Soil incorporation
    10. 13. Raised beds built with layered organic matter and amendments
    11. 14. Compost uses Mulch Soil Amendment Potting Soil Seed Starting Mix Compost Tea
    12. 15. Mulch = Side Dressing
    13. 16. Use compost as a soil amendment each year. Initially, spade 3 inches of compost into the top 8 inches of soil. Each year after the first, work in 1 – 3 inches of compost.
    14. 17. http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/potmix.html
    15. 18. Compost Tea Make tea bag Steep in water Foliar application Or drench wet soil Don’t drink!
    16. 19. These compost bins provide greenhouse heat and provide warm air that is piped to the germination beds on right Way cool!
    17. 20. Seed starting mix and tea Basic Mix with Compost 2 parts Compost 2-4 parts Sphagnum Peat Moss 1 part Perlite 1 part Vermiculite Basic Mix with the Addition of Nutrients Add ½ cup each per every 8 gallons of mix: ½ cup Bone Meal(Phosphorous) ½ cup Dolomitic Limestone (Raises soil pH and provides calcium and magnesium) ½ cup Blood Meal or Soybean Meal or Dried Kelp Powder (Nitrogen) Found on About.com
    18. 21. The four components of soil:
    19. 22. Organic matter <ul><li>Small constituent by weight, but huge influence on soil properties </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of partially decomposed plant & animal residues + organic compounds synthesized by soil microbes </li></ul><ul><li>A TRANSITORY component of soils </li></ul>O ni
    20. 23. What is Soil Organic Matter? SOIL ORGANIC MATTER The Living: BIOMASS <5% The Dead: DECOMPOSING MATERIAL 45% The Really Dead: HUMUS 50% organic = carbon-based
    21. 24. Decomposition = transformations of SOM (remember, matter is neither created nor destroyed) Symbol for control: often by temperature, moisture... Detritus (fresh) Humus (way dead) Microbes (biomass) Plants (biomass) CO 2 , energy
    22. 25. Functions of Organic Matter <ul><li>1. Stabilizes soil structure, making soil easily managed does not change soil texture. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Increases the amount of water a soil can hold (and availability of the water) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Major source of plant nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>4. Main food/energy for soil organisms </li></ul>
    23. 26. <ul><li>Aggregates held together by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungal hyphae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacterial “glues” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic matter </li></ul></ul>sand silt hyphae clay bacteria organic matter
    24. 27. Effect of OM on aggregate stability
    25. 28. Effect of OM on aggregate stability
    26. 29. Available Water Capacity Inherent depends on texture Measure of water available to plants
    27. 30. Impact of soil organic matter content on soil water content
    28. 31. Cover Crops = Green Manures = OM
    29. 32. For best growth sow fall covercrop before cold weather Sept 15 Oct 15 Oct 1
    30. 33. Healthy soils maintain a diverse and active community of soil organisms that: <ul><li>Suppress plant disease, & insect and weed pests </li></ul><ul><li>Form beneficial symbiotic associations with plant roots </li></ul><ul><li>Recycle essential plant nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Improve soil structure for better water and nutrient retention </li></ul>Ultimately, increase growing capacity and protect the environment!
    31. 34. A cup of soil contains ... Bacteria Fungi Protozoa Nematodes Arthropods Earthworms 200 billion 100,000 meters 20 million 100,000 50,000 <1 The immobile ones all primarily found in the rhizosphere , the zone of soil closest to plant roots
    32. 35. From NRCS Soil Biology Primer
    33. 36. Photo by Suzanne Paisley <ul><li>shred plant material </li></ul><ul><li>feed on bacteria and fungi associated with organic matter </li></ul>Macrofauna
    34. 37. General roles of microbes <ul><li>Aggregate stability </li></ul><ul><li>Disease suppression </li></ul><ul><li>Cause diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient cycling </li></ul><ul><li>N capture and fixation </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposition of organic matter </li></ul>
    35. 38. C:N = 5 C:N = 30 5:1 5:1 6 X
    36. 39. Root uptake of nutrients <ul><li>Mass flow </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Interception </li></ul>
    37. 40. N capture and N fixation fungi bacteria
    38. 41. Management Impacts SQ Soil Organisms Soil Structure Organic Matter Water Infiltration Vegetation Healthy Soil
    39. 42. Soil structure under landscape fabric
    40. 43. Teresa Matteson Benton SWCD 541-753-7208 [email_address]
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