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LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals
LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals
LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals
LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals
LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals
LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals
LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals
LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals
LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals
LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals
LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals
LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals
LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals
LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals
LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals
LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals
LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals
LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals
LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals
LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals
LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals
LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals
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LEDs Basics: LED Fundamentals

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In this presentation on LED Basics we will look at a few topics in semiconductor lighting such as light generation from a semiconductor material, LED chip technology, structure of an LED, creating …

In this presentation on LED Basics we will look at a few topics in semiconductor lighting such as light generation from a semiconductor material, LED chip technology, structure of an LED, creating white light in an LED package and finally some definitions of CCT and CRI.

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  • 1. LED BasicsLED 101September 1st, 2010
  • 2. III/V-Technologies for Optoelectronics 6,2 4,0 AlN InGaAlP dgap Energ [eV] 3,5 GaN m] gy Wavelength [nm 400 3,0 SiC AlP 2,5 500 Band GaP 2,0 600 InN 700 1,5 15 InGaN GaAs InP 1,0 2,5 25 3,0 30 3,5 35 4,0 40 4,5 45 5,0 50 5,5 55 6,0 60 6,5 65 Lattice Parameter [A]LED 101 | 09/01/2010 | Page 2LED Basics | Date: 09/01/2010 | OS SJ AE | RS
  • 3. How Does a LED Emit Light? LED Chip Structure n-Crystal y p-Crystal p-contact - Anode P-doped n-doped Active epitaxy + layer l Substrate Depletion zone Cathode Electrons n-contact Holes H lLED 101 | 09/01/2010 | Page 3LED Basics | Date: 09/01/2010 | OS SJ AE | RS
  • 4. Efficiency of an LED contact shadowing h d i extraction total internal Radiative reflection recombination Non-radiative recombinatior absorption Internal Efficiency: 60-90% Extraction Efficiency: 50-75%LED 101 | 09/01/2010 | Page 4LED Basics | Date: 09/01/2010 | OS SJ AE | RS
  • 5. Thinfilm Class - Chip Technology Comparison Standard Power LED Thinfilm Technology gy (generic) surface emitter volume emitter top and bottom contacts top or bottom contacts ~ 49 % > 97 % top emission p Side emission  OSRAM O t ’ Thi fil t h l Opto’s Thin-film technology was th fi t on th market the first the k tLED 101 | 09/01/2010 | Page 5LED Basics | Date: 09/01/2010 | OS SJ AE | RS
  • 6. ThinGAN® Scalable Technology Platform Light Output with Scaleable 5 Chip Size 5 4 Relative Ligh Output 3 2 ht 2 3 1 1 Constant Amp/ mm² R 4 Emitting Area Optimize cost and “Usable Lumens” p with proper LED SelectionLED 101 | 09/01/2010 | Page 6LED Basics | Date: 09/01/2010 | OS SJ AE | RS
  • 7. Production of a LED and Efficiencies Conduction Band Photons Chip Processing Packaging Valence Band Light extraction“Bandgap Engineering” Thermal Light extraction management Epitaxy Electrical losses -conversion Internal quantum efficacy Substrate Wall plug = int . electr . extr . package .LED 101 | 09/01/2010 | Page 7LED Basics | Date: 09/01/2010 | OS SJ AE | RS
  • 8. Structure of the LED LED-Chip Wire Bond Epoxy Lead frame Lead Bond Frame Chip Wire Reflector Cavity Mold 0.25 mm Printed Circuit Board (PCB) 1.0 ~ 4.0 mmLED 101 | 09/01/2010 | Page 8LED Basics | Date: 09/01/2010 | OS SJ AE | RS
  • 9. Structure of the High Power LED GOLDEN DRAGON PLUSLED 101 | 09/01/2010 | Page 9LED Basics | Date: 09/01/2010 | OS SJ AE | RS
  • 10. Overview of Packages – T O i fP k Targeted for Applications t d f A li ti Advanced Power OSTAR® OSTAR®High-Power LED Packages TOPLED® Golden Diamond Compact SMT DRAGON® DRAGON® Plus Power TOPLED® Power with lens OSLON SSL® 3.65 x 4.0 x 4.68 x 5.75 x 11.0 x 6.0 1.195 mm 1.1 mm TOPLED® 3.4 x 3.3 x x 4.2 mm 1.9 mm 11.0 x 6.0 x MultiLED® 3.1 mm 3.5 x 2.8 x 3.1 x 3.1 xTOPLED® 3.6 mm 2.2 mm 3.5 x 2.8 x 1.9 mm 3.4 3.3 34x33x 1.9 mm Dimensions: length x width x height3.5 x 2.8 x 1.9 mm SIDELED® PointLED® Mini TOPLED® Micro Chipled SIDELED® 1.0 SmartLED® 4.0 x 4.0 x 3.4 x 2.5 x FIREFLY ® SmartLED® 3.6 mm 0.725 mm 2.2 x 1.4 x 1.3 1 3 mm 1.6 0.8 16x08x 3.0 x 1.2 x 0.6 mm 1.7 x 0.8 x 1.8 x 1.2 x 1.7 x 0.8 xMiniature LED Packages 1.0 mm 0.5 mm 0.35 mm 0.6 mm LED 101 | 09/01/2010 | Page 10 LED Basics | Date: 09/01/2010 | OS SJ AE | RS
  • 11. LED Parameters Optical Quantities p Electrical Quantities  Luminous Intensity IV mcd  Forward Voltage VF Volts (min/typ/max)  Luminous Flux V lm  Forward Current IF Amperes (max/typ)  Luminance LV cd/m² (nits)  Reverse Current IR  Beam angle φ  Dominant Wavelength dom nm  Color Coordinates Cx, Cy Thermal Quantities Misc  Junction Temperature ˚C  Lifetime h  Temperature Coefficients lm/K, V/K  CRI  Thermal Resistance K/W  CCT K  Luminous Efficacy lm/WLED 101 | 09/01/2010 | Page 11LED Basics | Date: 09/01/2010 | OS SJ AE | RS
  • 12. Spectral Power Distribution of Single-Color LED S t lP Di t ib ti f Si l C l LEDs A single-color LED emits light in a narrow spectral band, resulting in a saturated color. 1,0 GaN blue (465) ( ) relative intensity of the LED radiation n 0,9 09 InGaN blue (470) 0,8 verde (505) true green (525) 0,7 pure green (560) 0,6 06 green (570) e yellow (587) ll 0,5 orange (605) amber (617) 0,4 super-red (632) 0,3 hyper-red (645) e 0,2 0,1 0,0 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 wavelength [nm]LED 101 | 09/01/2010 | Page 12LED Basics | Date: 09/01/2010 | OS SJ AE | RS
  • 13. LED M i l and C l Materials d Colors White W = White (GaN) (x=0.32/y=0.31) W = White (InGaN) (x=0.32/y=0.31) Green Yellow Y = Yellow (InGaAlP) 587nm V= Verde-Green (InGaN) 505nm T= True Green (InGaN) 525nm Orange O = Orange (InGaAlP) 605nm P=Pure Green (InGaAlP) 560nm G= Green (InGaAlP) 570nm Amber (Orange Red) A = Org. Red (InGaAlP) 617nm Blue B = Blue (InGaN) 470nm Red S = Super-Red (InGaAlP) 630nm B = Blue (GaN) 466nm H = Hyper-Red (GaAlAs) 645nm D = Deep Blue (InGaN) 455nmLED 101 | 09/01/2010 | Page 13LED Basics | Date: 09/01/2010 | OS SJ AE | RS
  • 14. How Does LED Generate White Light? White LED Approaches Tri-Color Colorimetry RGB- Red/ Green/ Blue – primary colors Chips + + 400 500 600 700nm White Whit – mixture of 3 primary colors i t f i l Blue + Yellow Chip Chip 400 500 600 700nm Blue 1 Phosphor Chip + 400 500 600 700nm UV- 3 Phosphors Chip + + White = Red + Green + Blue 400 Emission Wavelength 500 600 700nmLED 101 | 09/01/2010 | Page 14LED Basics | Date: 09/01/2010 | OS SJ AE | RS
  • 15. White light from LEDs Blue InGaN chip + Phosphor = White LED Blue Chip Yellow Phosphor InGaN LED Single-Chip White, LW W5AM ctral Power (%) ( YAG Phosphor Relative Spec White LED R Wavelength (nm) Wavelength (nm)LED 101 | 09/01/2010 | Page 15LED Basics | Date: 09/01/2010 | OS SJ AE | RS
  • 16. Volume / Chiplevel Conversion (CLC) Yellow Blue Volume conversion Converter particles dispersed in casting / molding material Chiplevel Conversion (CLC) Phosphor layer on surface emitting chip Yellow BlueLED 101 | 09/01/2010 | Page 16LED Basics | Date: 09/01/2010 | OS SJ AE | RS
  • 17. Phosphor Technology Customer-selected LED color t e es a e poss b e themes are possible New color regions capable with Color on Demand LED technology Epoxy with Phosphor Blue LED ChipLED 101 | 09/01/2010 | Page 17LED Basics | Date: 09/01/2010 | OS SJ AE | RS
  • 18. Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) C l t dC l T t Color Temperature Chart Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) 7000K Defines a color as the temperature [K] that a "black body" source must reach in order to Standard white LED produce that same color. 6,500 K 6000K 5000K Noon sunlight Cold Fluorescent 4,200 K 4000K Std. Metal Halide 4,000 4 000 K Halogen 3000K 3,000 K Std. Incandescent 2,850 K 2000KLED 101 | 09/01/2010 | Page 18LED Basics | Date: 09/01/2010 | OS SJ AE | RS
  • 19. Spectrum of Whit LED in Various Color Bins S t f White i V i C l Bi 1 7139K 5L-7139K 0.9 6819K 6L-6819K 6L 6819K 5423K 7L-5423K 0.8 4831K 8L-4831K 0.7 07 3945K J4-3945KRelative Radiant Power 0.6 3374K M4-3374K 2833K Q4-2833K 0.5 R 0.4 0.3 0.2 02 0.1 0 380 400 00 420 20 440 0 460 60 480 80 500 00 520 20 540 0 560 60 580 80 600 620 640 6 0 660 680 700 00 720 20 740 0 760 60 780 80 Wavelength (nm) LED 101 | 09/01/2010 | Page 19 LED Basics | Date: 09/01/2010 | OS SJ AE | RS
  • 20. Color Rendering Index (CRI)  Color Rendering Index (CRI) – is a quantitative measure of the ability of a light source to reproduce the colors of various objects faithfully in comparison with an ideal or natural reference light source with the same CCT Reference Li ht Source: R f Light S  For CCT<5000K, Planckian radiator of that CCT;  For CCT>5000K, mathematically derived daylight t th d i d d li ht at the nearest CCT t Color Samples: 8 Standard Color Samples  8 standard color samples for calculating CRI values l l ti l  6 special color samples for evaluating saturated color rendering, skin tone and green foliage Special Color Samples #9 to #14LED 101 | 09/01/2010 | Page 20LED Basics | Date: 09/01/2010 | OS SJ AE | RS
  • 21. Disclaimer  All information contained in this document has been checked with the greatest care. OSRAM Opto Semiconductors GmbH can however, not be made liable for any damage that occurs in connection with the use of these contents contents.  OSRAM Opto Semiconductor GmbH makes no representations and warranties as to a possible interference with third parties intellectual property rights in view of products originating from one of OSRAM Opto Semiconductor GmbHs partners, or in view of products being a combination of an OSRAM Opto Semiconductor GmbHs product and a product of one of OSRAM Opto Semiconductor GmbHs partners. Furthermore, OSRAM Opto Semiconductors GmbH cannot be made liable for any damage that occurs in connection with the use of a product of one of OSRAM Opto Semiconductor GmbHs partners, or with the use of a combination of an OSRAM Opto Semiconductor GmbHs product and a product of one of OSRAM Opto Semiconductor GmbHs partners.LED 101 | 09/01/2010 | Page 21LED Basics | Date: 09/01/2010 | OS SJ AE | RS
  • 22. Thank you for your attention.

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