1. Overview of Usability and User Centred Design
2 Benefits of Usability to business of an organisation
3. Knowing your users and creating personas
4. Introduction to Navigation, Information Architecture and Task Flow
5. UCD methodology
6. Home Page design
7. Web 2.0
Overview of Usability
How to define Usability
History of Usability
Hiring the right people
Challenges of UCD
What is Design
Design is NOT about decoration. Its about communication and Problem Solving
“Design is not just what it looks like and feels like. Design is how it works.” – Steve Jobs
“Like all forms of design, visual design is about problem solving, not about personal
preference or unsupported opinion” – Bob Baxley
Usability = Use + Ability
• S ti f ti
Reading the Words
beam chap list
later wage smog
pot jolt duck
start trout big
Reading the Words
FBI PHD TWA IBM
In psychology, memory is an organism's ability to store, retain, and
subsequently retrieve information.
There are two kinds of memories
1. Short Term Memory
• Short-term memory allows one to recall something from several seconds
to as long as a minute without rehearsal.
• George Miller in his paper ‘The magical number 7 +/- 2’ suggested that
the store of Short term memory was 7 +/- 2 items.
• Memory capacity can be increased through a process called chunking.
2. Long Term Memory
Long term memory can store much larger quantities of information for
potentially unlimited duration (sometimes a whole life span).
• Short-term memory is supported by transient patterns of neuronal
communication, dependent on regions of the frontal lobe and the
parietal lobe. Long-term memories, on the other hand, are maintained
by more stable and permanent changes in neural connections widely
spread throughout the brain
Usability is the “effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with which a specified
set of users can achieve a specified set of tasks in a particular environment.” –
International Standards Organization
It ti l St d d O i ti
A Usable product
• Is easy to learn.
• Is hard to forget.
• Minimizes burden
• Reduces Workload.
• Anticipates and forgives mistakes.
• Does what the user wants and when the user wants it.
• Always provides feedback.
• Satisfying and probably fun to use.
Importance of Usability
If website is difficult to use..................................... people leave
If the homepage fails to clearly state what a
company offers and what users can do on the
ff d ht d th
site......................................................................... people leave
If users get lost on a website................................. they leave
If a website's information is hard to read or
doesn't answer users' key questions..................... they leave
The first law of e-commerce is that if users cannot find the product, they cannot buy
For intranets, usability is a matter of employee productivity. Time users waste being
lost on your intranet or pondering difficult instructions is money you waste by paying
them to be at work without getting work done.
Current best practices call for spending about 10% of a design project's budget on
Benefits of Usability
• Find what they need.
• Learn what else is there.
• Use the tool to its fullest.
• Do it all without help
Leave f li th i time is well spent.
feeling their ti i ll t
Developers / Designers can
• Focus on maintenance, improvement and the next project.
• Reduce time / budget lost to
• Helpdesk mails
• Revision to changes.
Hiring the Right people
Usability professionals help design products based on what people
• Are like physically intellectually and cognitively
• Can and Can’t do.
• Do well and Don’t do well.
• Expect and Don’t expect.
• Like and Don’t like.
Usability Professional and Graphic Designer
Usability Professional Graphic Designer
• Usability professional gathers data and requirements of the target audience.
• Designer conceptualizes and creates the initial prototype.
• Usability Professional refines the design in accordance to user behavior and conducts
Usability t di
U bilit studies on that design.
th t d i
Usability Professional job titles
Human Factors Specialist
User Interface Designer
Human F t
H Factors Engineer
User Experience Designer
Usability Problem – Process Problem
The problem is
• Focusing exclusively on functions, data and technology.
• But not focusing on user experience.
• Management and other teams do not understand the importance of User
• Time to market is low and hence timelines do not allow User Centered
Designers work on th i gut and personal preference often f
k their t d l f ft forgetting th t
they are not the users of the product.
• Agile Software Development Process vs. User Centered Design
How do you ensure Usability
• Include Usability early in the design / development process
• Include users in the design process through testing.
• Set measurable usability goals early.
• Allow usability and user needs to drive design.
Making Usability Routine
Routine Usability requires an Organization to change
• You need strong and visionary management
• You need infrastructure
• You need a staff of Usability Professionals.
• You need to make it routine.
If you bring user in to use your product and they have problems,
it's not because they're dumb, but we were dumb with the design.