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OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis
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OMSI Science Pub - Earthquakes and Tsunamis

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"Serial Crimes of Subduction: Giant Earthquakes and Tsunamis in Oregon's Past and Future" …

"Serial Crimes of Subduction: Giant Earthquakes and Tsunamis in Oregon's Past and Future"

This Science Pub took place at the Mission Theater in Portland, Oregon, on Tuesday, October 20, 2009. It was presented by Brian Atwater, a U.S. Geological Survey geologist based at the University of Washington, and by Yumei Wang, a geotechnical engineer at the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI).

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Transcript

  • 1. Photo of Brian Atwater describing tools and clues at Science Pub Photo by D. Scott Frey
  • 2. Serial Crimes of Subduction: Giant Earthquake & Tsunamis in Oregon’s Past & Future OMSI Science Pub Brian Atwater & Yumei Wang U.S.G.S. & OR Dept of Geology (DOGAMI) October 20, 2009
  • 3. Origin of Earthquakes
  • 4. Why is Pacific NW Unprepared? “Risk of Earthquakes in Oregon Very Low“ Geologist John Eliot Allen, 1983 Oregonian ”Recent” Seismic Info Decades of Inadequate Oregon Building Codes
  • 5. ~ Seismic Building Code Maps 1976 1994 %g Zone (10% PE in 50 yrs) (Algermissen & Perkins)
  • 6. Oregon Earthquake Study (1998) Estimated Damage & Loss Soil Response Earthquake Shaking Geography Layer
  • 7. Champion: “Q9 The Earthquake Kid” Oregon Senator Peter Courtney Findings: Weak Buildings & Tsunami
  • 8. FOCUS: Weak Community Buildings Emergency Facilities & Public Schools VA Hospital. 1971 San Fernando CA, M6.6
  • 9. Earthquake Damage to Schools 2008 China 19k students dead 2005 Pakistan 8,000 schools 17k students dead 2003 Algeria 130 schools 1988 Armenia >1,000 students dead 1964 Alaska magnitude 9.2 quake School pulled apart by landslide
  • 10. Xing Fu Primary School (2008)
  • 11. Yingxiu Middle School (2008)
  • 12. Seismic Engineering & Construction
  • 13. Weak buildings can collapse Post-1994 seismic building codes- adequate. Pre-1994 seismic buildings codes- inadequate. Some older buildings are dangerous 2001 Oregon laws require seismic safety in schools & emergency facilities Require strengthening of existing collapse-prone buildings
  • 14. DOGAMI’s REPORT (2007) 170 School Districts & 1,101 Schools 2,185 School Buildings 273 Very High Risk 745 High Risk 501 Moderate Risk 666 Low Risk 1,198 were built before 1950 Risk Scores for Schools & Emergency Service Buildings (2007 DOGAMI report) www.oregongeology.org/sub/projects/rvs/default.htm
  • 15. Unreinforced Masonry (URMs) 94 URMs surveyed (1933 URMs outlawed in CA)
  • 16. 70 Schools collapsed. 120 damaged. 1933 Long Beach, CA Magnitude 6.3
  • 17. Buildings with Weak 1st-Stories
  • 18. “Tilt up” buildings Structural drawings reveal seismic design loads not incorporated
  • 19. Buildings in Tsunami Zone Schools in Tsunami zone Inundation in yellow areas
  • 20. Timeline 2007 DOGAMI Report: schools & emergency facilities 2009 New Grant Program 2032 Schools Fixed 2002 Ballot 2022 Emergency Measures Facilities Fixed 2001 Safety Laws
  • 21. 2009 Seismic Rehabilitation Grant Program aka “Courtney Grants” Public Grade, Middle & High Schools Community Colleges & Public Universities Fire & Police Stations, & Hospitals 2009-11 Legislature: $30 million state bonds $15 M Public Schools & $15 M Fire, Police, & Hospitals ($1.2 B authorized by voters) VIDEO: www.oregongeology.org/sub/earthquakes/
  • 22. Purpose of “Courtney” Grants Eliminate collapse-prone schools Improve community preparedness Schools & Emergency Facilities may augment state grant funds for additional upgrades 2009 Grant Program www.oregon.gov/OMD/OEM/ Quake Safe Schools (Risk Scores) www.ode.state.or.us/go/quakesafeschools/
  • 23. Applications due Nov. 15, 2009!
  • 24. 2005 Seismic Risk Management Program Oregon University Buildings Ondine Residence Hall (1966) Weak floor prone to collapse Portland State University
  • 25. Cross Bracing Installation in Progress
  • 26. Concrete Forms for Shear Wall
  • 27. Steel Plate Wall Floor-to-Floor Connections
  • 28. Rebar Coupler Problem Discovered & Improved
  • 29. Earthquake & Tsunami Preparedness When you feel shaking, “Duck, cover & hold” & “Move inland & uphill” to protect from near-field tsunami But…some coastal communities require tsunami vertical refuges for Cascadia tsunamis
  • 30. 1964 Alaska Tsunami, Cannon Beach Bridge ~300 m House ~400 m Impact of 1964 Alaska Tsunami e nt Bridge alignm Cannon Beach Elementary School House footprint Photo: Hillsboro Argus, March 30, 1964
  • 31. Tsunami Vertical Refuges Japan USA ? Indonesia
  • 32. Conceptual Design Cannon Beach City Hall Tsunami Evacuation Building (Ecola Architects) by Jay Raskin, Yumei Wang, Marcella M. Boyer, Javier Moncada, Kent Yu, & Harry Yeh
  • 33. Build Tsunami Refuges in PNW Hypothetical Locations in Seaside, OR Modified from D.Cox
  • 34. “Portland Hotspot” (red) = Oregon’s fuel supply hub
  • 35. “Portland Hotspot” Willamette River
  • 36. “Portland Hotspot” Surface Geology & Geology Map Madin & others, 2009
  • 37. Liquefaction & Lateral Spreading During Shaking Before After Sand supports loads Fluid pressure rises Sand is compacted through grain-to-grain Grains float apart Sand volcanoes on contacts Sand loses strength surface & can flow downhill Water, sand ejected
  • 38. Liquefaction sand boils Nisqually Wildlife Refuge (2001) Courtesy: Nisqually Earthquake Clearinghouse
  • 39. Liquefaction & Lateral Spreads 8/07 Japan quake
  • 40. “Portland Hotspot” Tank Farms
  • 41. “Portland Hotspot” Marine Oil Terminals Vulnerable Piers
  • 42. Fuel Pipelines
  • 43. Electrical Transmission Eros ion Lan dsli de
  • 44. DAMAGE: 1999 Taiwan Quake Slide: Leon Kempner, BPA, 11/05
  • 45. DAMAGE: 1964 Alaska Quake timber piles ground displacement
  • 46. Liquefaction, sliding, uplifting, anchorage, fires 1995 Kobe Bhuj, India 1999 Turkey
  • 47. Liquefaction: Tanks bouyant
  • 48. Fix Schools & Emergency Facilities Build Tsunami Refuges Reliable Fuel Supply Disaster Preparedness Requires Risk Management for Frequent (storms…) & www.oregongeology.com (DOGAMI)
  • 49. Questions?

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